A method of manufacturing a disk with holes
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended for use on valve nozzle systems of fuel injection, spray nozzles, inhalers, printing devices, ink record, in the methods of freeze drying, spray or injection of fluids, such as beverages. Disk with holes has a multilayer structure with full axial passage for the fluid, which is formed from the inlet hole (36), the outlet (38) and at least one located between the channel (42). Layers (35, 37, 40) disk (23) generated by the method of polyclonal electroplating. The method makes it possible to manufacture the discs forming the jet in accordance with the desired geometry, such as S-, Y-, cone-shaped and with an unusual form of the jet cross section, such as a cross, a rectangle, triangle, circle. 11 C.p. f-ly, 33 ill. The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a disk with holes for the passage of fluid from at least one inlet and at least one outlet, each inlet hole made in the top layer or the functional layer of the disk, and each outlet hole is unki in the form of discs with holes, the so-called "rims S-type". The inlet and outlet openings in the disk executed shifted relative to each other, resulting in the flow of fluid passing through the drive force occurs "S-shaped stage. Known disks with holes formed by two flat, United by bonds plates made of silicon. On silicon plates formed zones of reduced thickness between the holes of the first plate and one aperture of the second plate is formed a slit-like holes perpendicular to flow parallel to the end surfaces of the plates. Using known technology masks by etching on silicon plates, which have many structures disks with holes, perform the inlet and outlet. Having the form of a truncated cone paths for holes in the disk are derived logically from the anisotropic etching techniques.The valve system consists of a flexible silicon valve plate and the nozzle plate, also made of silicon, is already known from EP-OS 0314285. Both silicon plates are connected to each other and may deviate relative to each other. In silicon valve plates provided in the closed condition of the valve system to the flat surface of the silicon valve plate sealing the outlet opening in the nozzle plate, while at the bowing of the nozzle plate through the element of manipulation occurs S-shaped passage for the fluid, and the valve opens.From US 4907748 already known fuel valve nozzle, which is located downstream of the thread end is composed of two silicon plates of the nozzle. As described above disks with holes of the inlet and outlet openings in the two silicon plates are displaced relative to each other so that the flow of fluid (in this case fuel) occurs with an S-shaped curve.All the above-named disks with holes, made of silicon, have the disadvantage of insufficient under certain circumstances, resistance to fracture, due to the brittleness of silicon. As a rule, long loads, such as in the valve of the injector, perceiving vibrations of the engine, there is a danger of breakage of the silicon plates. Install silicon plates on the metal structural elements, such as valve nozzles, is an expensive operation as it would have to be found of particular decisions on the implementation of the clamps without tension, and thus it is difficult to ensure sealing of the valve. the ke. In addition, the edges of the holes of the silicon disks with frequent passage of fluid wear out quickly.Further, from DE-PS 483615 already known injector for internal combustion engines with fuel injection system, formed by two metal plates nozzles, which are shifted relative to each inlet and outlet to facilitate the rupture of the flowing fuel. However, using this injector is impossible to form a jet of sprayed fuel in accordance with the desired geometry. Both metal plates injectors manufactured or processed using conventional technology (relief moulding, stamping, rolling, drilling, milling, grinding and so on).The objective of the invention is to develop a way cheaper production of disks with holes, which would receive raspisivaem jet desired geometry.The problem is solved by the proposed method of manufacturing a disk with holes for the complete passage of the fluid with at least one inlet and at least one outlet, each inlet hole made in the top layer of the Ilek river. According to the invention it is produced using layer-by-layer galvanic deposition of metal, respectively, the functional layers of the disk by overlapping each other by polyclonal electroplating.In one preferred embodiment of the invention in the process of the first process operation on the non-conductivity of the substrate is applied at least one auxiliary layer, then the layer of photoresist, followed by a purposeful structuring of the photoresist to obtain the negative photoresist layer structure of the future drive, and then spend microgalvanic processing, which emerged in the negative structure of the photoresist excavation galvanised filled with metal, then in accordance with the desired number of functional layers of the disk produced a repetition of the above process operations, and concludes with a disk cut from the substrate, the photoresist is removed by dissolution.In another embodiment, a preferred embodiment of the invention on a conductive substrate is applied a layer of photoresist, and then spend the purposeful structuring of the photoresist to obtain the negative photoresist structuretone photoresist excavation galvanised filled with metal, then, in accordance with the desired number of functional layers of the disk produced a repetition of the above process operations, and concludes with a disk cut from the substrate, and the photoresist is removed by dissolution.It should be noted that the auxiliary layers are the starting and executed by electroplating.While the application of the photoresist is performed by laminating the solid resist, or applying a liquid resist the centrifugal method, or applying polyimide liquid by centrifugal method.The structuring of the photoresist is advisable to carry out by UV exposure through a mask and subsequent manifestations by the method of deep ultraviolet lithography.The structuring of the photoresist, it is also desirable to carry out the deposition of oxide or nitride, which in photolithographically structured form serves as a mask for dry etching of the photoresist.The structuring of the photoresist preferably also be produced by laser ablation.The method according to the invention also provides that several functional layers are made in the form of a single layer discl extends beyond the borders of the photoresist in the horizontal and vertical directions.With lateral overgrowth, it is desirable to interrupt, when the inlet or outlet of the previous layer disk completely overlap in projection the growing material of the functional layer.A method of manufacturing a disc with holes according to the invention has the advantage that the disks with holes can produce replicable method simultaneously with high accuracy, very cheap and in very large quantities, while made of metal disks have a certain safety margin and can be mounted, for example, by welding to a metal structural elements, for example, valve injectors. Process operations according to the invention provide ample opportunities in the form of structural embodiment, since the contours of the openings in the disk are freely selectable. In particular, in comparison with made of silicon disks, which are strictly produced due to the crystalline axes of the contours (truncated pyramids), this flexible shaping is an indisputable advantage.The preferred way when this is combined techniques such as deep UV lithography, dry etching or ablation using microgels the new structures (structure "sandwich"), then, finally, form a disk with holes. This process is suitable for a one, two, three or more layers for a single disk overlay them on each other.Method of metal deposition, in particular, in comparison with the manufacture of silicon drive also has the advantage consisting in a large variety of materials. When using the method of microgalvanic according to the invention can be used in a variety of metals with different magnetic properties and hardness.Using the method according to the invention can produce the preferred discs with holes in the form of discs S-type, through which you can get a jet of exotic, unusual shapes. These disks allow you to get to single jet and multi-jet sprays countless variations of shapes of cross-sections of the jet as, for example, rectangles, triangles, crosses, ellipses. Such unusual form of jets allows for a precise optimum matching with a given geometry, for example, with different cross sections of the exhaust gas when using discs in the valve injectors of internal combustion engines.Using microgalvanic obrabotke advantage is created in the process of technological operations galvanic treatment two functional planes, and applies the so-called "lateral overgrowth electroplating. Without additional application starting plated layer and a new layer of photoresist growth of metal purposefully continues beyond the patterns of the photoresist prior to the plane. Using "lateral expansion" is a clear saving of costs and time.The invention is illustrated further by the description of examples with reference to the drawings, showing:
in Fig. 1 is shown partially valve nozzle having a disk with holes, made according to the invention;
in Fig. 2 - disk with holes, bottom view;
in Fig. 3 - disk with the holes in the section along the line III-III in Fig. 2;
in Fig. 4 - zone flowing environment of three-layer disk with holes;
in Fig. 5 - area of the flowing medium three-layer disk with the first continuation channel;
in Fig. 6 - area of the flowing medium three-layer disk with the second continuation channel;
in Fig. 7 - zone flowing environment five-layer drive with sequels channel;
in Fig. 8 - zone flowing medium four-layer disk with sequels channel;
in Fig. 9 is a schematic top view of the disk with lateral continuation of steamy, bottom view;
in Fig. 12 - disk with the holes in the section along the line XII-XII in Fig. 11;
in Fig. 13 is a disk with holes, bottom view;
in Fig. 14 - another disk with holes in the top view with nemegosenda holes;
in Fig. 15 - disk with the holes in the section along the line XV-XV in Fig. 14;
in Fig. 16-20 - technological operations for manufacturing a disk with holes using polyclonal electroplating;
in Fig. 21 is a disk with holes after lateral expansion;
in Fig. 22 - the image in the slit disk with different diameters of the individual layers;
in Fig. 23 is a top view of the Central area of the disk with holes presented in the context of Fig. 22;
in Fig. 24 - the next disc when viewed from above;
in Fig. 25-27 - three Central zone of discs with the corresponding rectangular inlet;
in Fig. 28 is a disk with holes in the top view with asymmetric distribution zones holes;
in Fig. 29 and 30 are two of the Central zone of the disk with an asymmetric distribution zones holes;
in Fig. 31 - Central area of the disk with a solid round holes;
in Fig. 32 - the Central area of the disk with sixteen sickle inlet holes;
and in Fig. 33 - the Central zone of the disk is 1 in the example of execution shown a partial view of a valve in the form of a valve injector for fuel injection systems of internal combustion engines with compression of the working mixture and forced ignition, in which the nozzle can be supplied manufactured according to the invention a disk with holes. Valve nozzle has a tubular support 1 valve seat, which is concentric relative to the longitudinal axis 2 of the valve is made elongated hole 3. In the elongated hole 3 is placed, for example, tubular needle 5 valve, its located at the river end 6 connected, for example, with a spherical closing the valve body 7, the perimeter of which is provided, for example, five flats 8.Control valve injector is known, for example, by means of an electromagnet. For axial movement of the needle 5 of the valve and thereby to open against the force of the return spring (not shown) or to close the valve of the injector is an electromagnetic circuit with a magnetic coil 10, an armature 11 and a core 12. The anchor 11 is connected with the opposite end of the needle 5 of the valve, for example, welds, performed by the laser, and focused on the core 12.For the direction of closing the valve body 7 during the axial movement serves the hole 15 in the body 16 of the valve seat. At the bottom on the flow of the end supports 1 valve seat in the longitudinal hole 3 by welding protecrive the valve body 7, the body 16 of the valve seat concentric with and rigidly connected to the support plate 21, which is directly adjacent to the body 16 of the valve seat. While supporting disk 21 has a bowl shape, similar to the known disks with the spray holes, and the middle area of the supporting disc 21 provided with a stepped through hole 22 for mounting therein a disk 23 with holes according to the invention.The body 16 of the valve seat is connected to the support plate 21, for example, passing around, sealed, executed with a laser, the first weld seam 23. Through such a connection prevents the risk of undesired deformation of the supporting disc 21 in its Central zone with a through hole 22 and a built-in disk 23 with holes. The supporting disk 21 is connected further with the wall of the longitudinal orifice 3 of the support 1 valve seat, for example, end-to-end and a sealed second welded seam 30.The depth of the lower block valve seat consisting of a body 16 and the Cup-shaped backing plate 21 in the longitudinal hole 3 determines the stroke of the needle 5 of the valve, since the one end position of the needle 5 of the valve when unexcited magnetic coil 10 is determined by the fit of closing the valve body 7 to the flat the coil 10, for example, the fit of the armature 11 to the core 12. The path between these two end positions of the needle 5 is thus the valve stroke.Spherical closing the valve body 7 interacts with the surface 29 of the body 16 of the valve seat that tapers in the direction of flow of the stream in the form of a truncated cone and which is made in the axial direction between the guide hole 15 and the lower end side 17 of the body 16 of the valve seat.In Fig. 2 depicts manufactured according to the invention the disk 23 with holes in the bottom view, which was already shown in Fig. 1. The disk 23 is made in the form of a smooth, flat, circular and multi-layered disk, and why it can be called polyclonal disk with the spray holes. In the supporting disk 21 is mounted disk 23 with holes, which, for example, centered. The production method of the disk 23 with holes according to the invention, a structure is formed, consisting of many layers. This layering of the disk 23 with holes or the design of the disk 23 with holes from a variety of functional planes is clearly visible in Fig. 3, which is a front view in accordance with the section along the line III-III in Fig. 2. To the both of them.Is depicted in Fig. 2 and 3, the disk 23 with holes has a structure of three metal layers created by galvanic deposition. On the basis of deep lithography, electroplating workmanship are special signs when asking outline:
layers/functional layers with a constant thickness, which has no variance on the surface of the disk,
- due to the deep lithographic structuring vertical incisions in the layers, which form a corresponding cavity, through which passes the thread
- desirable undercuts and overlaps cuts due to the multilayer structure individually structured metal layers,
- cuts of any form of cross section, having separarely wall, as, for example, rectangle, polygon, rounded rectangle, rounded polygon, ellipse, circle, etc.Individual layers galvanically deposited one after another so that the next layer by galvanic coupling is firmly connected with located underneath layer.Thus, in the first exemplary embodiment three circular layer, for example, with the same outer diameter, form the disk 23 with adverstiy relative to the longitudinal axis 2 of the valve or relative to the Central axis of the disk 23, the inlet 36, is displaced with respect to each other on the 90o. The inlet 36 is placed compared to the diameter of the disk 23 is very close to the longitudinal axis 2 of the valve. Substantially greater distance from the longitudinal axis 2 of the valve and, thus, when the radial offset relative to the inlet openings 36 in the lower layer 37 is also provided with four rectangular outlet openings 38. Outlet openings 38 are, for example, a somewhat smaller width of the hole than the inlet 36. Two perpendicular to each other and intersecting at the longitudinal axis 2 of the valve axis 39 of the disk 23 is divided inlet 36 and outlet 38 is essentially in the middle so that both axes 39 represent the axis of symmetry having a symmetrical structure of the disk 23. Along the axes 39, on average, located between the top 35 and bottom 37 layers, the layer 40 extend in a radial channels 42 that connects the inlet 36 and outlet 38 of the hole. The channels 42 are essentially trapezoidal in shape, are of such size that they projected just block the inlet 36 and outlet 38 of the hole. All four channels 42 are arranged in this example, run separately from each other. In Fig. 2 and 3 in phantom lines oboznachaetto then the channels 42 through the outlet opening 38 of the lower layer 37 significantly extend outward in the radial direction (see Fig. 5 and 6).When the diameter of 4-5 mm disc 23 has, for example, a thickness of 0.5 mm, and the top 35 and bottom 37 of the layer, for example, each has a thickness of 0.1 mm, and the thickness of the middle layer 40 is 0.3 mm, These values are related to the dimensions of the disk 23 with holes, and all others mentioned in the description, the dimensions are only for better understanding and in no way limit the invention. Also the relative deviation of the size of the individual structures of the disk 23 with holes are provided on all the figures are not necessarily to scale.Due to the radial offset of the outlet 38 for the inlet holes 36 receive S-shaped the direction of flow, for example, fuel. On the basis of Fig. 4, which again highlighted area of the flow disk 23 in axial cross-section with an inlet opening 36, the channel 42 and the outlet 38, explains the fundamental conditions of flow. Arrows showing the direction of flow, clearly show an S-shaped form, so also in the case of disk 23 made according to the invention and having the offset between the inlet openings 36 and outlet holes 38, we are talking about the drive type S. Thus, through the disk 23, the flow passes from the inlet a through the corresponding horizontal channel 42 to the outside in the radial direction. In the end of the channel in the example of Fig. 4 is the outlet.Run disk 23 with apertures in the form of discs S-type in any case is not a condition for use of the method of manufacturing according to the invention; they merely represent the preferred embodiments of the. Using the method according to the invention can also be performed disks 23, in which the inlet 36 and outlet 38 are generally not shifted relative to each other or have minimal offset.Through radially passing through the channel 42, the environment receives the radial component of velocity. Quickly passing through the axial outlet, the flow is not fully loses its radial component of velocity. Moreover, it emerges from the disk 23 with unilateral disengagement at the wall outlet 38 facing the inlet opening 36, at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the valve or to the Central axis 2. The combination of multiple, for example, oriented asymmetrically to each other individual jets, which can be obtained through the appropriate location and orientation of multiple structural units from the inlet 36 and outlet 38 of holes and channels 42, allows you to create a completely new, individual S-shaped loop inside the disk 23 with a lot of sharp turns, the thread gets strong turbulence, contribute to sputtering. As a result of this especially clearly outlined the difference of velocities across the flow. It shows the change in velocity across the flow, and the velocity in the middle of the stream is much greater than near the walls. Resulting from the difference of the speeds increased shear stress of the liquid layers in a fluid environment contribute to the breakup of the liquid into small droplets near the outlet 38. Since the flow at the exit off unilaterally, because of a missing direction on a path he does not receive sedation. Especially the high speed fluid is on the side of the margin, while the velocity of the fluid decreases toward the outlet end 38 with the adjacent stream. Thus, turbulence conducive to spraying, and the shear stress of the liquid layers on the output does not disappear.In Fig. 5 and 6 are examples of how to perform disk 23 with holes, in which the channels 42 in the middle layer 40 are not only from the inlet hole 36 until the outlet 38, and through the outlet opening 38 out towards the outer limits of the disks 23. These extension channels 42 are referred to below as the continuation of 43 channels (cavities). As for what I mentioned above. The fluid flowing into the exhaust hole 38, slips further in the channel 42 and creates a continuation of the channel 43 swirl flow. The interaction between the turbulence and the resulting flow leads to a temporary instability in the interaction zone. Periodically the turbulence changes the magnitude and growing, comes in sliding past thread (respectively decreasing turbulence, the process is reversed). Thus, the output stream periodically deviates from the predetermined direction and thereby encourages the emergence of oscillations. The frequency and amplitude of the oscillating fluctuations in output stream depend upon this form of execution continuation channel 43, namely, the radial depth c and height h, which is obtained due to the thickness of the middle layer 40. In the form shown in Fig. 5 example, the execution takes place, for example, the equality c=h, while in the example of Fig. 6 for the value of continuation channel 43 has the equality c = 2xh. The geometry shown in Fig. 6 continuation of 43 channel leads to the fact that there is a double twist due to the exchange of momentum in the opposite direction.Due to the oscillating vibrations into separate output streams oscillatory patterns are created as in otdelny the jet cross section (for example, rectangle, cross, circle). Without such fluctuations jets these cross-sectional shape to receive would be impossible; otherwise there is a tendency to a circular cross-section shapes of the individual jets. Any patterns or shapes of cross-sections of individual jets or just spray the whole as the sum of all the individual jets, which due to exchange of impulses are in constant interaction with each other, it is possible to obtain, in particular, when the oscillating vibrations in a liquid medium have a high frequency. Moreover, by changing the direction of the spray is distributed more evenly over the cross section of the jet. Due to this, the spray becomes more homogeneous and even better mixed with the air flow of the exhaust gas for the formation of the mixture, reducing the amount of exhaust gases.Existing due to turbulence transverse pulses directed across the flow, lead, inter alia, to the fact that the density distribution of the droplets in the spray the spray has a better uniformity. Hence reducing the likelihood of coagulase droplets, namely the Association of small droplets with the formation of large drops. A consequence of the preferred cobrasnake turn in fluid creates a high-frequency turbulence, that you can determine the scale for fine adjustment, which allows the jet to break up directly after exiting the disc 23 to the corresponding smallest droplets. The more shear stress of the liquid layers, which is a consequence of the turbulence, the greater the result is a variation of flow vectors. The shear stress of the liquid layers provide the state when all the planes in the environment dominated by "chaotic state" so that there is the desired arrangement of jets or spray, which can cause different forms or patterns of the cross-section.In Fig. 7, 8 and 9 shows some examples of implementation, with some deviations relative to each other, which differ from the foregoing examples, primarily because they have more than three layers, and continued 43' channels not only in the radial direction in the form of elongation of the channel 42. In Fig. 7 shows a five-layer disc 23 with holes, in which, along with the three known layers 35, 37 and 40, made two other secondary layer 40'. These two extra layer 40' are located respectively between the middle layer 40 and the top 35 or bottom layer 37. To ensure the passage of the fluid through the disc 23 from ITUS asgaut connection provided in the layer 40 channel 42. Along with these areas 45 of the opening in the layer 40' is made, respectively, at least one extension 43' of the channel, which has, for example, the axial height of the layer 40'. When viewed in the radial direction, then continue 43' channels there are, for example, between the inlet 36 and the outlet 38. The fluid flow drives the turbulence of the flow in the sequels 43' channel. In addition to located with an axial offset relative to the channel 42 sequels 43' channel can also be provided radially adjacent to the channel 42 continuation channel 43.Fig. 8 depicts a variant of the disk 23 with holes with four layers, that is, only with an additional middle layer 40'. Depending on the location of the layer 40' above or below the layer 40 layer 40' must also have an area of 45 disclosure, and here in Fig. 8 - zone 45 opening made directly from outlet 38. In the layer 40' are additionally continue 43' channels, which are offset axially relative to the channel 42 of the camera, are experiencing the turbulence of the flow. For example, three sequels 43' channel layer 40' may be the same distance from each other or randomly. Schemati the channels can be performed not only in the axial direction of the disk 23, that is, in the depth, but also can be made according to the width of the channel 42, as well as its limits. Thus, continued 43, 43' of the channels can be formed on the channel 42 in all three directions, i.e. the length, width and depth.All the preceding examples may be delaying the trap of the boundary layer, as shown in Fig. 10. The disk 23 with the holes in this particular case, made four. Between the two top 35 and bottom 37 layers are, for example, the middle two layers 40 and 40'. Additional middle layer 40', which immediately follows the bottom layer 37 made in such a way that across the direction of flow in the canal zone 42 is, for example, rectangular, with sharp edges, elevation, namely, delaying the trap 50. Accommodation is also delaying traps 50 and in the middle layer 40 so that then check the trap 50 would go down into the channel 42. Based on the geometry of delaying the trap 50 should be performed with a radial offset relative to the inlet 36. The channel 42 is held between layers 35 and 37 as in the layer 40 and the layer 40'.The main flow of fluid glides through delaying the trap 50 of the boundary layer. On the back, loc is the first expansion of the cross section of the flow due to the presence of the inhibiting trap 50 is a pressure increase (conversion of kinetic energy into pressure energy - the scattering effect). This increase in pressure leads to intense turbulence in the boundary layer in the area behind delaying trap 50.Behind delaying trap 50 occurs constantly increasing vortex train with strong transverse momenta, which reaches the outlet 38. Vortex plume extends through the main stream in the form of "turbulent harness. Turbulence in the vortex plume may have a high frequency that can be determined by an accurate scale, and have a large amplitude. The agreement on the frequency and amplitude occurs through the height of the check traps 50 and the moving speed by the main thread, that is through the cross-sectional area of the channel above check trap 50.Vortex train can reduce loss of the flowing medium, as it is high turbulent impulse exchange across the main flow in the direction of the walls. This implies that the main thread for delaying the trap 50 is not detached from the walls of the channel 42 and result in better use of the available cross section of the flowing medium. Separation of the flow from the walls could lead to loss of pressure. Also check Lovushka again you can get a variety of spray patterns.In the preceding examples, each pair of inlet/outlet openings 36, 38 connected by a separate channel 42. In contrast, in Fig. 11 and 12 presents an example of implementation, which has only a single interconnected channel 42' in the disk 23 with holes. All four inlet openings 36 extend into the channel 42' having, for example, a square shape, and the four outlet openings 38 extend from the channel 42'. When using a rectangular or square exhaust holes 38 you can do the outer contour of the channel 42' in the middle layer octagonal, due to the proximity respectively to two angles, almost square, as shown in Fig. 11. In the direction inside the channel 42' is limited, for example, made of a material, square island 53 middle layer 40. This inner made of a material, the islet 53 is approximately the size in cross-section, which is the area between the inlet openings 36 in the upper layer 35. Layer 40 is thus of two sections, namely made of a material islet 53, completely surrounded by a channel 42', and from the outer zone 54, completely surrounded by a channel 42'. Fig. 12 is a view of the disk 23 with holes IntelliJ volume is an increase in the number of so-called "dead" zones, he slips the main thread. In these "dead" zones occurs vibrational excitation of the main thread on the principle of "cavity" with extensions 43, 43' of the channels. Accordingly, the impact on shaping spray and spraying are the same as in the previous examples with the continuations of the channels 43, 43' ("cavities").The offset of the outlet 38 for the inlet holes 36 should not take place in the radial direction, as was the case in the previous examples, and may be provided in any desired directions. Two examples of execution for another type of bias is shown in Fig. 13 and 14, as the bottom view or top view, respectively, of one disk 23 with holes. When it becomes clear that the outlet 38 of the first offset in the circumferential direction relative to the inlet ports 36, i.e. rotated, for example 90oin comparison with examples of radial offset. The channel 42' in the middle layer 40 of the disk 23 in Fig. 13 has, for example, octagonal, but substantially square outer contour, and the angles of the walls of the channel 42' are always near the inlet 36 and outlet 38 holes. Made of material islet 53 middle layer 40 agreesto eight corners. Outer and inner bounding wall of the channel 42' is made, for example, rotated at 45orelative to each other. Thus, the outer area 54 and is made of material islet 53 do not have parallel walls.It is shown in Fig. 14 and 15 (section along the line XV-XV in Fig. 14) disc 23 is distinguished, in particular, their having newglobal form, the inlet 36 and outlet 38 holes. The inlet openings 36 in the upper layer 35 are, for example, an elliptical cross-sectional shape, while the outlet openings 38 in the lower disk 37 is made round. Inner made of a material, the islet 53 has, for example, square cross section, while the channel 42' in the middle layer 40 outwards limited to a circular outer area 54. For better manipulation of the disk 23 with holes when using different methods of manufacture envisaged, for example, two positioning fasteners 56 in the form of through holes near the outer limits.The inlet 36 and outlet 38 can be placed with any largest offset relative to each other. In the examples in Fig. 13 and 14 are mesolcina offset, you can agree or install the jet direction and the degree of turbulence.It is shown in Fig. 1-13 inlet 36 and outlet 38 and the channels 42, 42' have a square or rectangular cross-sectional shape. The method according to the invention allows, however, to have a whole other forms of cross-sectional geometry of the flowing medium of the disk 23 with holes (see Fig. 14). It is also possible deviations from the cross-section shapes, consisting of rounded rectangles or squares, circles, circular segments, ellipses, segments, ellipses, polygons, rounded polygons etc. of the Walls of the individual structures are in parallel to the longitudinal axis 2 of the valve. Interest can represent various forms of execution of the intake holes 36 and outlet 38, which are connected directly to each other by a channel 42, 42'. The corresponding changes of the cross-section represents, for example, transitions from square to rectangular and Vice versa, from a rectangle to a circle and Vice versa, from an ellipse to a circle, and Vice versa.In the example of Fig. 16 - 21 is more clearly illustrated a preferred variant of the method of manufacturing according to the invention, which is best suited for the manufacture of the disk 23 with atvery for illustration of the principle of manufacture. Just the relative deviation of the size layer thickness compared to the size of the holes or channels are, in particular, in the examples shown in Fig. 16-20, compared to the above described examples. Technological operations of manufacturing according to the invention allow, however, at any time, making all shown examples of how to perform.On the basis of high requirements to the dimensionality of the structure and accuracy of the nozzle is ways to microstructurally today increases. In General to fluid flow, for example, the fuel inside the nozzle or disk with holes required trajectory passage, which promotes already started to form inside the flow turbulence. Additionally, the width of the outlet must be within at least 10 microns to ensure the effective atomization of the fluid, for example, fuel. Using the present invention proposes a method of manufacturing metal discs with holes, which is based on the sequential use of photolithographic operations (deep ultraviolet lithography) and the subsequent microgalvanic obraboten so, he can be perfectly used for mass production of a very large number. Using the operation method on the same thin plate can be made of multiple disks 23 with holes.On the basis of this method is smooth and stable substrate 60, which may consist of, for example, of metal (copper), silicon, glass or ceramics. The usual thickness of the substrate 60 is 500 μm and 2 mm; it has virtually no effect on subsequent technological operations. After cleaning the substrate 60 using electroconductive material, such as glass or silicon, the first substrate 60 by electroplating is applied, at least one auxiliary layer 61. This involves, for example, galvanic starting layer 61' (e.g., Cu), which is required to ensure electrical conductivity, which is necessary for carrying out subsequently microgalvanic processing. Galvanic starting layer 61' may also serve as a "sacrificial" layer 61 in order later to allow for simple block structures disks with holes by etching. If the substrate 60 is composed of electrically conductive material, such as"/galvanic starting layer 61, 61' between the substrate 60 and galvanic starting layer 61' should be applied thin (for example, 80 nm) layer of chromium as a bonding layer 61 (not shown). Applying an auxiliary layer 61, 61', 61" (usually CrCu or CrCuCr when using polyimide as photoresist) is, for example, by spray or metal deposition without the use of an electric current.After this pretreatment of the substrate 60 on the entire surface of the auxiliary layer 61, 61', 61" is applied to the photoresist (fotolab) 63. For this purpose it serves, in particular, three different options:
the lamination of the solid photoresist at a temperature of, for example, about 100oC;
centrifugal surfacing liquid photoresist;
centrifugal welding polyimide in liquid state.After drying, the photoresist 63 remains in all three versions in solid form. The thickness of the photoresist 63 should correspond to the thickness of the metal layer, which must be implemented in the subsequent electroplating process, namely the thickness of the bottom layer 37 of the disk 23 with holes. You should generally seek the values of the layer thickness equal 10-300 μm, depending on the desired thickness of CA to be transferred back into the photoresist 63. First, there is the possibility to expose the photoresist 63 directly through the mask 64 with ultraviolet exposure (deep UV lithography). Another possibility structuring of photoresist 63 provides that the photoresist 63 is deposited oxide (e.g., SiO2or nitride, which photolithographic structuring serves as a mask for dry etching of the photoresist 63. In addition, there is the possibility of laser ablation, and after applying the mask material of the photoresist 63 is removed with a laser-type explosion. The data of the above operation method clearly shown in Fig. 16.After developing, the exposed with ultraviolet rays of photoresist 63, or after the application of the other mentioned methods (dry etching, ablation) in the photoresist 63 occurs pre-defined by the mask 64, the structure of which is shown in Fig. 17. This structure in the photoresist 63 is a negative structure 66 to a later layer 37 of the disk with holes. Fig. 18 shows the structure after galvanic filling occurred in the photoresist 63 of the grooves 68, at least to the top edge of the photoresist 63. Thus, VL 70 due to galvanization tightly to the contour of the negative patterns 66 so what defined the contours reproduces it with exact observance of forms. For the manufacture of disk structures that span multiple functional layers, the height of the deposited during electroplating metal layer 70 should match the height of the photoresist 63. The photoresist 63 can be performed with greater height than the desired metal layer 70 deposited in the electroplating process. This can be also improved the distribution of the thickness of the electroplated layer. The choice of the deposited material depends on the respective requirements of the layer or functional layer, especially factors such as mechanical strength, chemical resistance, weldability and others, are important. Commonly used Ni, NiCo, NiFe or Cu, but may use other metals and alloys.At this point, you should provide a brief definition, as applied to the concept of "layer" and "functional layer". Under a layer should be created in the same process a single operation galvanization layer disk 23 with holes. One layer may, however, have several functional layers, as will be explained in more detail in the following sections on the example of "side DIN interconnected layer. The respective functional layers have different contours of the holes (intake ports, exhaust holes, channels) for the corresponding, directly followed by a functional layer. Presented on Fig. 1-15 disks 23 with apertures have at least three layers 35, 37, 40, 40', with each layer corresponds to one functional layer.To implement the structure of the disk 23 with holes should again repeat the operations starting with the deposition of the auxiliary layer 61, 61', in accordance with the desired number of layers. This is shown in Fig. 19, and the photoresist layer 63' is, for example, for the formation of the later middle layer 40 of the disk 23 with holes. The reference position having the designation bar, point to repeat the process. The individual layers of metal are deposited on each other and held by a metallic clutch. For layers one disk 23 with holes can also be used in a variety of metals 70.Then there is the cut off disk 23 with holes. For this purpose, the etching removes the "sacrificial" layer 61, so that the disk 23 with holes removed from the substrate 60. After this is applied in the electroplating process starting layers 61 which may occur for example, by treatment with sodium hydroxide or with an oxygen plasma or by means of solvents (e.g. acetone) of polyimides. These removal processes by dissolving the photoresist 63, 63' everywhere known under the term "tipperariana". In the alternative it is also possible mechanical removal of the carrier 60 with proper selection caused by galvanization of the starting layer 61', for example, using magnets. Fig. 20 shows as an example three-layer, separated from the carrier 60 of the disk 23 with holes, the height of the inlet openings 36 and outlet 38 is usually lower.In Fig. 21 presents the following example run disk 23 with holes "S", which is produced by the technology, which differs from the just described. This new technology may be identified by the term "lateral overgrowth. Way "lateral expansion" allows you to perform at least two functional layers of the disk 23 with holes, during a single operation using galvanic deposition, and, for example, in the case of a disk with holes having three functional layer, there is no need to conduct electroplating process for the third time. On malaut only one layer without intermediate restrictions.Making the bottom layer 37 is initially in a known manner, as is apparent from Fig. 16-18. Galvanically deposited metal 70 is growing then known form around the structure 63' of the second photoresist layer to the upper edge of the photoresist 63' (Fig. 19). However, after the galvanic deposition extends beyond the borders of photoresist 63'. Growth patterns 63' of the photoresist is performed in the horizontal and vertical directions by approximately the same amount. This expansion replaces applying the next galvanic starting layer 61' in the third plated layer, because the two functional layer 35, 40 of the disk 23 with the holes produced by the process of galvanization. Height growth is set, for example, so that the formed inlet 36 at the top of the growing layer 35' (which corresponds to the functional layers 35, 40) meet the requirements of discs S-type, that is, are offset relative to the outlet 38. The process of expansion is interrupted in this case the earliest when the outlet 38 fully overlap in projection the increasing material layer 35'. Thus, in this way acquire two layers fot predelete the size of the inlet holes 36 using the photoresist 63' as the next structured layer of varnish. There is structure 63, 63' of the photoresist in three planes. This third layer of photoresist 63' is used essentially as a "push" for lateral growth layer 35' for a particular run of inlet openings 36. Lateral overgrowth can also be used for the manufacture of disk 23 with holes that are missing or present only in minor form, the offset inlet 36 and outlet 38 holes. In perfect shape with lateral expansion it is possible to make the disk 23 with holes, which, referring to the above, will have only one layer, but, for example, three functional layer.As described above, you can get round, oval or polygonal inlet 36. Using "lateral expansion" clearly reduced, in particular, the time of manufacture of the disk 23 with holes. In addition, decreases the roughness of the surface plated layer. However, with increasing number of deposited layers increases the roughness of the plated surface. This eliminates the need for additional measures for the removal of asperities as, for example, by electropolishing. Another advantage of lateral expansion is studiosi electric conductivity of the photoresist 63'.In Fig. 22-33 presents the following examples perform disk 23 with holes, which should be explained only in summary form, because they can all be created using the method of manufacture, which has already been described in detail above, and have only some interesting design elements or forms of execution. Moreover, these next examples disks with holes must show that there's still a huge variety of forms for execution by way of galvanic deposition of metal.Fig. 22 and 23 depict the disk 23 with holes, which is at least partially fabricated by lateral expansion. The upper layer 35' has at least two functional layers, i.e. a layer in which the channel 42', and above it a layer having the inlet opening 36. The bottom layer 37 has, for example, substantially greater diameter than the upper layer 35'. While the inlet opening 36 has a circular cross-section, four outlet openings 38 posted by sickle in the form of a circular arc. Located in the lower layer of the upper layer 35' channel 42' is made the same way as the inlet opening 36, round, namely with a diameter that is slightly larger than outside the system in the direction radially outwards. As a result of this get a radially symmetric picture of a jet with a good spray.In Fig. 24 depicts a top view of the disk 23 with holes, through which it becomes possible to output a flat jet. Four inlet openings 36 in the upper layer 35 is made of a rectangular shape. Each inlet hole 36 just subject to one channel 42 and one discharge outlet 38. Outlet 38 is made, for example, square or rectangular shape. The channels 42, completely blocking the inlet 36 and outlet 38 of the hole in the projection have a hexagonal contour, which may vary in accordance with the magnitude of the inlet 36 and outlet 38 holes. Offset inlet 36 and outlet 38 of the holes is selected so that is a good treatment of flat jets in two directions.As with Fig. 24, Fig. 25-27 also depict the disks 23 with holes in the top view, with the help of which receive the flat jet. As a simplified drawings, these figures show only the Central zone of the disk 23 with holes. The channel 42' is made accordingly so that it connects one inlet opening 36 with all the outlet openings 38. Fluid enters through the Central pranam circuit, moreover, the direction of the longitudinal distribution of the rectangular outlet openings 38 can be parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the longitudinal distribution of the inlet 36. In any case of such movement picture turns flat jet. Due to the variance of the size of the inlet 36, the location, number and shape of the outlet 38, the shape of the jet can be adjusted in accordance with the requirements.Fig. 28 depicts the disk 23 with holes, which is similar to the disk 23, shown in Fig. 24, part geometry and size of the individual zones of the hole. For special purposes, as, for example, for an unusual built-layers valve injectors in internal combustion engines, it is desirable to have not only coming out of the disk 23 with holes flat spray, but the spray at a certain angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the valve/secondary axis 2 (Fig. 1 and 3). This opportunity provides the disk 23 with holes according to Fig. 28. The corresponding functional unit inlet 36, the channel 42 and the exhaust port 38 provide an opportunity for the formation of the spray cone in the direction of the S-shaped loop. In this example, execution predestroy merge, the overall picture of the jet can be very well adapted to the corresponding actual conditions. Using depicted in Fig. 28 disk 23 with holes you can produce targeted spraying in two directions, both private jets are directed not strictly opposite to each other.In Fig. 29 and 30 shows the Central zone of the spray disk 23 with holes, through which you can also get unusual designs of the jet. The disks 23 are respectively three functional units with one inlet hole 36, one channel 42 and one outlet opening 38. Depending on the desired pattern of the jet functional units are placed asymmetrically or eccentric around passing through the point of intersection of the two axes 39 average axis 2 disc 23 with holes. With this seemingly chaotic distribution can very well achieve individual directions of the jets. In the case of a disc with holes according to Fig. 29 channel 42 having the form of a circular sector circuit connects the circular inlet opening 36 with sickle bleed hole 38. Conversely, the area of the hole of the disc 23 in Fig. 30 performed with corners. Fluid medium includes, for example, through the square inlet is channel 42, downstream of the inlet holes 36 may for example take place in such a way that they will unite in the area of the outlet 38, the fluid medium to be out of the disk 23 only through the V-shaped discharge outlet 38. The number of inlet openings 36 in any case should not coincide with the number of outlets 38.The disk 23 with holes, which provide different numbers of inlet 36 and outlet 38 of the holes, as shown in Fig. 31-33. The example of execution according to Fig. 31 illustrates a device with a circular zones of holes. Fluid may enter through the Central circular inlet opening 36 of the upper layer 35 and leave the disk 23 through four also circular outlet openings 38 in the bottom layer 37 is made symmetrically around the inlet 36. One circular channel 42' is selected of such size that they completely overlap all outlet openings 38.In Fig. 32 shows the disk 23 with holes, which has four functional units with holes. Fluid enters through four related to each functional node, and thus in the amount of over sixteen sickle inlet holes 36 in the disk 23. The respective first diameter, that it completely covers sickle inlet 36. Each functional node formed only one discharge outlet 38, which is made in the form of a circle and in the projection covered sickle inlet holes 36. Four functional node is placed, for example, lying on the axes 39, symmetrically average axis 2.In Fig. 33 shows the disk 23 with holes, which has a totally asymmetric location of zones holes. Located in the center of the inlet opening 36 formed with a contour having a shape approximately of a semicircle, while having clearly smaller outlet openings 38 are located on the rounded side of the inlet openings 36 in the lower layer 37 in the form of a sickle. The number of outlets 38 may vary; in the above example, there are three outlet openings 38. A circular channel 42' is made of such size that they overlap every other hole.Once more, you should pay attention to the fact that in the method of manufacturing according to the invention are used not only detail the discs S-type with offset inlet and outlet openings and an S-shaped turn in the stream, but all forms of disks with holes.All described the disk 23 with the ut to find the application, for example, spray nozzles, inhalers, printing devices with ink recording or in the process of freeze drying, spray or injection of fluids, such as beverages, for spraying of medicines. To obtain a fine spray, for example, with large angles are also suitable disks 23 with holes according to the invention. 1. A method of manufacturing a disk with holes for the complete passage of the fluid with at least one inlet and at least one outlet, each inlet hole made in the top layer or the functional layer of the disk, and each outlet in the lower layer or the functional layer of the disc, characterized in that it is produced using layer-by-layer galvanic deposition of metal, respectively, the functional layers(35, 35', 37, 40, 40') disk (23) by imposing on each other by polyclonal electroplating.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the process of the first process operation on the non-conductivity of the substrate (60) is applied at least one auxiliary layer(61, 61', 61"), then the photoresist layer (63), followed by a purposeful structuring fotorealistiska processing, at which emerged in the negative structure (66) photoresist (63) of the recess (68) galvanised filled with metal (70), then in accordance with the desired number of functional layers(35, 35', 37, 40, 40') disk (23) is produced by repeating the above process operations, and finally the disk (23) are cut off from the substrate, the photoresist (63) is removed by dissolution.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that on a conductive substrate (60) put a layer of photoresist (63), then spend the purposeful structuring of photoresist (63) to obtain the negative photoresist patterns (66) of the future layer (37) of the disc (23), and then spend microgalvanic processing, which emerged in the negative structure (66) photoresist (63) of the recess (68) galvanised filled with metal (70), then in accordance with the desired number of functional layers(35, 35', 37, 40, 40') disk (23) is produced by repeating the above process operations, and finally the disk (23) is cut from the substrate, and a photoresist (63) is removed by dissolution.4. The method according to p. 2 or 3, characterized in that the auxiliary salts are starting and performed by electroplating.5. The method according to p. 2 or 3, characterized in that different topics the application of photoresist (63) is performed by applying a liquid resist the centrifugal method.7. The method according to p. 2 or 3, characterized in that the deposition of photoresist (63) is performed by applying a polyimide liquid by centrifugal method.8. The method according to p. 2 or 3, characterized in that the structuring of photoresist (63) carried out by UV exposure through a mask (64) and the subsequent manifestations by the method of deep ultraviolet lithography.9. The method according to p. 2 or 3, characterized in that the structuring of photoresist (63) carried out by deposition of oxide or nitride, which in photolithographically structured form serves as a mask for dry etching of photoresist (63).10. The method according to p. 2 or 3, characterized in that the structuring of the photoresistor (63) produced by ablation with a laser.11. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that several functional layers(35, 35', 40, 40') made in the form of a single layer disc (23) during a single operation galvanization, including lateral overgrowth, in which the metal (70) extends beyond the borders of photoresist (63') in the horizontal and when the inlet (36) or the outlet (38) of the holes of the previous layer (35, 37) disk (23) is completely overlap in the projection material growing a functional layer (35').
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: in end piece, flow conic slit-like channel of variable section is made screwed with rotation of longitudinal axis for angle 20-60°. Section at output is decreased in comparison to input in 1.5-3 times.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: sanitary equipment, particularly for domestic, medical and transport use.
SUBSTANCE: device includes lavatory pan with hinged seat, flushing tank, composite tube with operating handle to supply water from water source to pouring head, namely to shower head. Operating handle includes L-shaped connection pipe arranged in depression formed in seat and having short and long parts. L-shaped connection pipe rotates around long part axis during water pouring out process and may be longitudinally displaced. L-shaped connection pipe is freely arranged on lavatory pan and freely detached from it. Connection pipe is secured to pouring head. Short part of connection pipe is attached from below with water source by means of flexible hose. Short part axis is always parallel to pouring direction of pouring head. Operating handle includes two mutually perpendicular arms provided with seating areas for L-shaped connection pipe installation in different positions is socket of wall holder. Shower head made in accordance with the first embodiment comprises hollow body with outlet cavity, outlet net for water pouring and inlet L-shaped connection pipe. Connection pipe includes seating areas for shower head installation in wall holder socket formed in transition area between short and long parts of connection pipe. Shower head may perform mechanical rotation inside wall holder socket. Shower head made in accordance with the second embodiment comprises body with outlet cavity, outlet net for water pouring and handle. Arranged inside body are relief valve, shutoff member and operating lever connected to relief valve by the first lever arm and kinematically linked with control member of shower head handle by another, free, end. L-shaped connection pipe is used as shower head handle. Shower head handle has inner water hose. Connection pipe includes seating areas for shower head installation in wall holder socket formed in transition area between short and long parts of connection pipe. Shower head may perform mechanical rotation inside wall holder socket.
EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced number of supply pipeline branches, elimination of hinge and sealing connections usage, improved ability of device detachment.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: nozzles, particularly for cleaning reservoir bottom from residual viscous, high-viscous and hardening liquids and for removing deposits near connection pipes of fire-extinguishing systems adapted for extinguishing fire in reservoirs.
SUBSTANCE: device bottom is provided with radial eccentrically located distributors formed as plates having chamfers on the first plate sides. Plate length is less than device bottom radius. Plate height exceeds width of gap defined by device body and bottom.
EFFECT: increased efficiency along with maintaining design effective volume of the reservoir, reduced reservoir damage due to corrosive action.
FIELD: heat-and-power engineering, particularly for medium and deep water spraying in cooling towers, scrubbers, gas and steam condensing plants, gas-cleaning systems, for spraying high-viscous liquids or liquids with considerable content of impurities.
SUBSTANCE: nozzle comprises connection pipe and deflecting members formed so that cone angle of each next deflecting member is less than that of previous one. Nozzle has conical body. Deflecting members made as deflecting washers are arranged along vertical axis between at least two fixing posts. Deflecting washers have inner orifices decreasing in direction away from inlet connection pipe. Each deflecting washer is made as truncated cone. Outermost deflecting washer is of hemispheric shape and adapted for water spraying into area located under nozzle connected with pipeline by straight and adapter couplings. To increase hydraulic capacity and system flexibility cascade nozzles with lesser inlet connection pipe diameters are substituted for ones with greater diameters.
EFFECT: increased cooling efficiency, simplified structure, improved flexibility, minimizing of nozzle clogging.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: furnace comprises combustion chamber whose bottom section is provided with the igniter and branch pipe for supplying fuel, intermediate section is provided with the branch pipe for supplying waste, and top section is provided with the exhaust branch pipe connected with the duct for discharging flue gases. The casing is mounted around the chamber to define the air passage between the casing and outer side of the chamber. The passage is in communication with the bottom section of the combustion chamber and branch pipe for supplying fuel. The casing is provided with the air supply branch pipe. The branch pipe for supplying fuel receives at least one pair of vortex cyclonic chambers whose openings for air supply are made in opposite tangential directions.
EFFECT: enhanced environmental safety.
4 cl, 1 dwg