Bipolar waiting multivibrator

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a pulse technique, the technique of automatic control and regulation and can be used for selection pulses on the sign. The invention allows to generate pulses of a given amplitude and duration, the sign of which coincides with the sign of the triggering pulse. Waiting multivibrator formed by two electronic keys transistors (T) (VT1, VT2) of an opposite conductivity type, connected in parallel to the feedback loop on T(VT3,VT4), powered source, with the output of the midpoint. The starting pulse is supplied to the common input and, depending on the sign, opens one or the other key, forming a positive or negative rectangular pulse with respect to the middle point of the source. Pulse amplitude is equal to positive or negative voltage source relative to its mid-point, the pulse duration is determined premazepam capacitor in the feedback circuit. Technical result: pending multivibrator in the process of formation of the impulse is protected from interference and disruption when a new trigger pulse before the end of the formation. 4 Il.

Known standby multivibrators[1], [2], [3], [4], for the formation of rectangular pulses of a given amplitude and duration under the influence of trigger pulses of arbitrary shape. They have one stable state of equilibrium. The starting pulse outputs standby multivibrator from this state, but after a period of time determined by the parameters of circuit elements, without outside influence, the result of internal processes, he again returns to its original stable state.

The closest option is waiting multivibrator transistors of different conductivity type (Isakov, Y. A. and other Industrial electronics. Kiev, visa school, 1975, Fig.4.35). Its scheme is shown in Fig. 1.

The multivibrator formed by two electronic keys, built on the transistors VT1 and VT2 and their collector resistors RK1and RK2. The transistors are of opposite conductivity type. Between the collector VT1 and VT2 base acts in a negative feedback through the resistor RB2and between the collector VT2 and VT1 base acts other feedback through the capacitor C. In the initial state both transistorise scheme recharged by the way (-Eto) - phase emitter-base VT1 - C - VT2 - R - (-Eto) to a voltage Uwith= EtoR2/(R1+ R2determined by the divisor R1R2. Positive triggering pulse locks the transistor VT1, its collector voltage becomes equal to (-ETOand, in turn, locks the transistor VT2. In this state, the capacitor C is energized with the opposite polarity and begins to recharge through resistor RK1and RK2. As soon as the voltage between the base and emitter will pass through zero, the multivibrator returns to its original state, both transistors are opened and the capacitor is charged to the polarity shown in Fig. 1.

In some cases requires rectangular pulses, the polarity of which coincides with the polarity of the trigger pulses. Any of the well-known standby multivibrators, including unsubscribed, has no ability to generate pulses of different polarity. Parish trigger pulse of one polarity causes the output pulse of the same polarity, while the appearance of a trigger pulse of the other polarity only confirms the initial state, since the transistor VT1 is already saturated. the e pulses, the polarity of which coincides with the polarity of the trigger pulses.

The objective of the invention is achieved by the fact that in bipolar standby multivibrator formed by two electronic keys transistors of the opposite type conductivity and a feedback circuit, connected in parallel and fed from a source having an output mid-point of the feedback circuit includes two series-connected amplifier transistors of an opposite conductivity type, the emitters of which are connected together and through a resistor with an average point source, the collector load are represented by two series-connected resistors each, their common point connected each with the base of the transistor that key, the transistor which has the opposite conductivity type, between the collectors of the transistors of the amplifiers feedback switched capacitor, the base of transistor amplifiers are combined to form the input standby multivibrator midpoint of the source input via the base resistor is connected to the connection point of the collectors of the transistors of the keys representing the output bipolar standby multivibrator with respect to the middle point of the source of the operator of the prototype; in Fig. 2 diagram of the bipolar standby multivibrator of Fig.3 is a graph of voltage bipolar standby multivibrator, where

UC- the starting pulse;

Uwith- the voltage on the capacitor C;

UK3the voltage at the collector of transistor VT3;

UK4the voltage at the collector of transistor VT4;

Uothe voltage at the point O with respect to a common point source Of Fig.4 is the equivalent circuit of the charge and overcharge of the capacitor C is: 1) the charge circuit of the capacitor C; 2) scheme overcharging of the capacitor C as a result of a positive trigger pulse; 3) the scheme overcharging of the capacitor C as a result of a negative trigger pulse.

Bipolar waiting multivibrator, the circuit of which is shown in Fig.2, consists of two electronic key ab and cd transistors VT1 and VT2 of the opposite type conductivity, powered source, with the output of the midpoint, is in parallel with the feedback circuit, the feedback circuit MN contains two series-connected transistor amplifier, the transistor VT3 and VT4 are of different conductivity type, the emitters are connected through a small resistor R is connected the conditions are represented by two series-connected resistors each, R3= R'3+ R3and R4= R'4+ R4common point of the resistors forming the collector load of each transistor R3and R4connected to the base of the transistor of the key, which has the opposite conductivity type, the base of transistor amplifiers are combined to form the input standby multivibrator with respect to the middle point source connected through a base resistor Rbwith the connection point of the collectors of the transistors of the keys', forming the bipolar output standby multivibrator with respect to the middle point source Acting

The base of bipolar standby multivibrator are the keys of ab and cd transistors VT1 and VT2 having a different conductivity type. Depending on the control voltage at their bases with respect to the emitters, they can be both in a closed state or an open state. The connection between their collectors at the points O' limits the number of possible States. In the absence of voltage at the bases of the scheme sustainable. All the transistors are locked and they don't leak collector currents. The current flows only through serially connected resistors RK1, RK2and due to the equality napryazhennie in the point O' is equal to the voltage of the midpoint Of the source.

The capacitor C is charged via a path (+E2) - R3- C - R4- (-E1in accordance with the equivalent circuit of the charge of the capacitor shown in Fig. 4.1 to the voltage UCm= 2E. This condition is the result of the action of the resistor R steady - any deviation from the equilibrium state at the input is immediately compensated by a voltage appears at the emitter. This eliminates the need for initial balancing schemes.

From this preliminary initial state diagram can be displayed by the triggering pulse. Due to the connection of the collectors of the transistors of the keys of ab and cd are two possible alternatives. Positive triggering pulse, acting on joint base transistors VT3 and VT4, opens the transistor VT3, and brings him into a state of saturation, while stronger closing the transistor VT4. The discovery of the transistor VT3 is accompanied by the appearance-based VT1 opening of voltage in the voltage drop from the collector current flowing through resistor R3. The collector voltage VT1 abruptly rises almost to a voltage source E, forming at the output of the initial part of the pulse, and the voltage at the collector VT3 abruptly drops to almost zero. Resistor R pojavljatsja trigger pulse the transistor VT3 is maintained in the open state collector voltage VT1, arriving at its base through a base resistor Rband the transistor VT1 is supported by the voltage on its base supplied with the collector load VT3. Charged to Uwith= 2E the capacitor C is under the opposite voltage and, in accordance with the equivalent circuit of Fig.4.2, must be recharged to a voltage determined by the second law of Kirchhoff, Uwith= -E.

The exchange process is the same time constant as the charge process. At the moment of transition of the voltage on the capacitor through zero opens the transistor VT2, stopping the process of overcharging, and the multivibrator returns to its original state and, after the charge of the capacitor in accordance with the equivalent circuit of Fig. 4.1, is once again ready to accept trigger pulse.

The second option is associated with the appearance of a negative trigger pulse at the input. The processes in this case take place in accordance with the scheme shown in Fig. 4.3, comes off the transistor VT4, opening the transistor VT2. When the capacitor C is recharged by the voltage Uwith= 2E to a voltage (-E), as in the first embodiment, but in the moment when the voltage on the capacitor is compared to a positive voltage source (+E), the P> These processes are illustrated by the waveforms of the voltages on the schematic elements (Fig. 3), UC- triggering pulses at the input of the multivibrator, Uwith- the voltage on the capacitor C, UK3the voltage at the collector of VT3, UK4the voltage at the collector of VT4, Uothe output voltage at the point O' in relation to the middle point source Acting

Sources of information:

1. Stepanenko, I. P. fundamentals of theory of transistors and transistor circuits. - Meters , Energy, 1977, - 672 S.

2. Kochanov I. L. Industrial electronics. M., High school, 1968. - S. 559

3. Isakov, Y. A. and other Industrial electronics. K., high school. 1975, - 328 S.

4. Morozov A., electronics, electrical, pulse technique. M., High school. 1987, - 448 S.

Bipolar waiting multivibrator formed by two electronic keys transistors of the opposite type conductivity and a feedback circuit, connected in parallel, fed from a source having the output midpoint, wherein the feedback circuit includes two series-connected amplifier transistors of an opposite conductivity type, the emitters of which are connected together and through a resistor - with an average that is their common point connected each with the base of the transistor that key the transistor which has the opposite conductivity type, between the collectors of the transistors of the amplifiers feedback switched capacitor, the base of transistor amplifiers are combined to form the input standby multivibrator midpoint of the source input via the base resistor is connected to the connection point of the collectors of the transistors of the keys representing the output bipolar standby multivibrator with respect to the middle point of the source.

 

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