Method of increasing the longitudinal rigidity of the underground structures of prefabricated elements

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the construction and reconstruction of underground and underwater structures, such as tunnels, crossing the quicksand and water obstacles. The invention is directed to active opposition to the development of emergency deformation of the tunnel lining of prefabricated elements on the intersection of quicksand rocks and water crossings, as well as reduce the impact of operational vibration loads on thixotropic dilution of quicksand. The method includes the device stops to tension the guy-ropes, mounting tension, the tension of the guy-ropes of the lining on the intersection of quicksand rocks and water obstacles from the tunnel delete items track facilities and produce continuous waterproofing of joints, after which the inside of the tunnel structures outside of the envelope approximation buildings stack guy-ropes, which are then placed in a rigidly fixed to the lining in the radial direction of the channels. Stops for tensioning guy-ropes is carried out in a concrete casing on the shape of the inner contour of the tunnel with rigid structural connection with elements of the lining in the places of exit of the tunnel in a stable on the Yuri cage in the lining of the suit expansion joints, weakening of the longitudinal connection along its perimeter. Expansion joints and stamping grooves in the radial direction is filled with a waterproof material. Then draw in the longitudinal direction of the eccentricity of the ring lining. The distribution efforts of tension and change are determined by the results of the engineering monitoring. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to underground and underwater transport structures, such as tunnels, crossing the quicksand and water hazards, and can be used in their construction, operation and reconstruction, if necessary, increase the longitudinal bending stiffness.

There is a method of construction of the system of individual prestressed concrete elements, inside which are the channels for tension reinforcement, connected by an anchor at the ends of these elements, in view of this tension lies in their design and manufacture as an integral part (1).

The method is intended for the perception of significant tensile stresses in concrete elements from the load, and does not control the Flexural rigidity, and also fixed the and the obviousness of its application in principle for the reconstruction of the tunnel from the lining, received buckling.

Closest to the proposed invention is a method of strengthening the vertical shaft to exit at the bottom of the reservoir with flexible stretch marks (2).

The disadvantages of this method are the inability to create a prestressed state in a separate fragment of the overall design and layout inside the building stretch marks and stops, the lack of devices to regulate the efforts of a tension to manage construction in the operational period, etc.

Cladding underground structures is lining perceiving the pressure capacity of the soil mass on the contour in the transverse direction (plane) and do not expect to longitudinal bending moment. Hydrostatic pressure lining is, as a rule, the team of cast-iron liners, in which neither device channels or contraction of the lining rings in the longitudinal direction is not applied.

However, the practice of operation of road tunnels in the sand showed in some cases that is not provided by the project longitudinal bending of the tunnel and systematic violation waterproof lining Cheret emergency nature (Moscow and Petersburg metro), in terms of the removal of quicksand breeds in large quantities inside the tunnel space (Fig. 1).

Observations also showed that the current repair of the known methods is the time-limited resource, and operation of tunnels without taking drastic measures that eliminate the causes of flooding, can cause severe catastrophic consequences.

One of the circumstances contributing to the deformation of the tunnel lining is uneven contour changing the properties of the host array from dynamic effects of rolling stock, expressed in the thixotropic shear thinning quicksand environment, the maximum in the lower contour of the tunnel (the tray). This interaction results in the lining with the host ground array appears the vector of unbalanced load, which causes deflection (positive curvature) of the tunnel "pipe" with the emergence of additional stresses in bolted joints tray parts. This bolted connection come into work and are loaded unequally: the maximum load is about 20% of the units located in the tray part of the tunnel as the most remote from the neutral axis of the longitudinal ishigo moment - the destruction of the bolted joints of the lining elements.

Object of the invention is active opposition to the development of emergency deformations of the tunnel from the lining on the site of restraint quicksand rocks and water crossings, as well as reduce the impact of operational vibration loads on thixotropic dilution of quicksand.

The solution of this problem is achieved in that in the method of increasing the longitudinal rigidity of the tunnel made of prefabricated elements comprising the device stops for tensioning screw cables, mounting tension, the tension of the guy-ropes of the lining on the intersection of quicksand rocks and water obstacles from the tunnel delete items track facilities and produce continuous waterproofing of joints, after which the inside of the tunnel structures outside of the envelope approximation buildings stack guy-ropes, which are then placed in a rigidly fixed to the lining in the radial direction of the channels, when it stops for tensioning guy-ropes is carried out in a concrete casing on the shape of the inner contour of the tunnel with rigid structural connection with elements of the lining in the places of constructions in stable rock, directly behind will predelut expansion joints by loosening the longitudinal links along its perimeter, expansion joints and stamping grooves in the radial direction is filled elastic waterproof material, after which produce contraction in the longitudinal direction of the eccentricity of the lining rings, and the management of stress-strain state of the lining provide variable force, and the distribution efforts of tension and change in time is determined by the results of engineering monitoring. Can be made in the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of the soil mass. At the emergency site can be accomplished by strengthening the compressed zone tubbing lining. On the site of the junction of the tension clamps to the structure in a stable species can produce strengthening of structural elements cross ties.

The solution is obtained by making constant along the length of the damaged part of the bending moment, preventing the increase of the longitudinal arch of the tunnel system located inside the building outside of the envelope approximation buildings contractible guy-ropes with a given eccentricity and transfer reactions from tension guy-ropes on the lining through hard clip on the ends of this section with adjustable size postannealing. In addition, eccentric compression will create prerequisites for schema changes thixotropic slurry the quicksand along the contour of the tunnel in terms of the increase in the share of vibrational effects on quicksand array in the castle.

In Fig. 1 shows the actual profile of the tunnel crossing quicksand (1F) and the design position of the tunnel (1H); Fig. 2nd place "A" in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 and 4, the hardening of the longitudinal stiffness of the tunnel according to the invention.

On the drawings: 1 - tunnel; 2 - lining of cast iron liners; 3 - quicksand; 4 - rail track; 5 - track concrete; 6 - panel joints lining; 7 - envelope approximation of the buildings for the tunnel; 8 - guy-ropes in the tray portion of the tunnel; 9 - channels for the placement of guy-ropes; 10 - resistant ferrule; 11 - resistant rock; 12 - tensioning chamber; 13 - expansion joint; 14 - swaging action on the lining from the pressure P when the tension of the guy-ropes; 15 - guy-ropes in the castle; 16 - region massif within the thrust cage, requiring eventual hardening.

The method is as follows (Fig. 2, 3).

Remove from the tunnel 1 with a fence made of prefabricated elements 2, for example of cast-iron liners, cross the quicksand 3 by known methods available water. When the second waterproofing of joints, for example, sealant cold vulcanization type U-30M.

Then outside of the envelope approximation buildings 7 stack thread guy-ropes 8, usually in the tray portion of the tunnel in the channels 9 (composite) with rigid fixation of the provisions of the latter in the transverse direction of the tunnel to the tubing lining, i.e. with a given eccentricity and fill them with grease.

Arrange resistant casing 10 in the places of exit of the tunnel in resistant rock 11. Directly outside of the cage build tension camera 12, for example, by a local broadening of the tunnel within a few rings lining. From the outer side of the thrust clips satisfied with expansion joints 13. After that make the laying of track concrete cross expansion joints in the plane of each joint. Perform tension-cables force P 14, a constant length, which later on results of engineering monitoring during operation to adjust (change). Carry out Assembly track communications.

The sequence of tensioning device camera and two persistent carriers may be different.

If necessary, control precipitation of the tunnel in the vertical plane as PR and tunnel for transmitting bending moment on the lining with the eccentricity of the other polarity with respect to the main guy-ropes 15.

For the transmission of compression on all the cross-section of the lining within a few rings on the outline of the tunnel (circular and others) outside of the envelope approximation buildings 7 arrange the stops in the form of a concrete casing 10 with a rigid connection to the tubing into one. Clips are placed on the ends of the reconstructed area at the outlets of the tunnel in resistant rock 11. The length of the carriers is determined from the condition of the calculated transmission of forces from the tension of the guy-ropes on the lining in the longitudinal direction.

N. D. C. system, tied guy-ropes, determined by calculation and, if necessary, on the strength condition is a strengthening of the compressed zone (usually the top) tubbing lining, for example, concrete cage within the envelope approximation structures.

When the tension of the guy-ropes on the sections of the rings, forming a cage, you should reckon with the possibility of support reactions. The determination of their values, ensuring the strength and integrity of expansion joints are based on the results of solving the problem of interaction tied up guy-ropes lining with enclosing array. If necessary, make them local strengthening.

Stretch the camera 12 build DG site sides of the thrust clamps 10. If you cannot install the coaxial jacks with guy-ropes arrange guides. To localize the impact of the cable at the junction of the clip with tension camera in sustainable rocks 11 arrange expansion joints 13 by loosening the longitudinal relationship of the elements of the lining 2. They will eliminate the transmission of forces from the tension related with contractible sections of the tunnel.

Feature N. D. C. the tunnel lining in the quicksand linked to the presence of longitudinal deformations in the radial joints of the lining, which does not comply with the standard methods of sealing. The proposed method of reconstruction provides for the sealing of joints lining sealant with cold vulcanization type U-30M with preservation of the integrity and adhesion at a relative elongation of 160%.

Mandatory element using the cable method is the engineering monitoring. Based on the analysis of its results is the management of stress-strain state of the tunnel lining. Depending on the interaction of the tunnel with soil containing the array is made adjustments in the tension of the cable (increase or decrease).

Before joining in the work of the guy-ropes perform complex construction is belki.

The effectiveness of the proposed method for the stabilization of the longitudinal deformations of the tunnel is obvious by the results of the feasibility analysis. Technical parameters include the orientation of a way to use the existing structures of the lining with a limited amount of new construction works (laying of suspension ropes and their fixation device one stretch of the camera, the construction of two clips and two joints, organization engineering monitoring during construction and operation of the tunnel).

A comparison of the cost compared to other methods of reconstruction (construction of a new tunnel, the construction of internal solid carriers on the route of the tunnel within the intersection of the quicksand and other) shows the reduced cost of not less than three times.

Scope the method is not limited to these underground structures. It can be extended to other objects, which have to meet high requirements with respect to monitoring and control of longitudinal rigidity, for example in aircraft (during installation and operation, including space stations, consisting of different modules), use the cable method as for integral control N. D. C. controlled design.

Literature:

1. K. C. sakhnovskaya "reinforced Concrete structures". M, Gastrolyzer, 1960, S. 275 - 299, 593 - 642.

2. A. A. Voevodin "prestressed system of structural elements), stroiizdat, 1969, S. 103.

1. Method of increasing the longitudinal rigidity of the tunnel made of prefabricated elements comprising the device stops to tension the guy-ropes, mounting tension, the tension of the guy-ropes, characterized in that for active opposition to the development of emergency deformations of the tunnel from the lining on the intersection of quicksand rocks and water obstacles from the tunnel delete items track facilities and produce continuous waterproofing of joints, after which the inside of the tunnel structures outside of the envelope approximation buildings stack guy-ropes, which are then placed in a rigidly fixed to the lining in the radial direction of the channels, when it stops for tensioning guy-ropes is carried out in a concrete casing on the shape of the inner contour of the tunnel with rigid structural connection with elements of the lining in the places of exit of the tunnel in resistant rock, just outside of hard clips build tension camera, m is lnyh links along its perimeter, expansion joints and stamping grooves in the radial direction is filled elastic waterproof material, after that make the contraction in the longitudinal direction of the eccentricity of the lining rings, and the management of stress-strain state of the lining provide variable force, and the mode of distribution efforts tension and their changes over time are determined by the results of the engineering monitoring.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in order to prevent shear deformation under eccentric compression on the parts of the abutment thrust clips to the tunnel lining produce improved physico-mechanical properties of the soil mass.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at the emergency site perform the gain of the compressed zone of the tubbing lining.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at the area of junction of the tension clips to the tunnel in sustainable rocks produce amplification of the transverse elements of constructive relations lining.

 

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