The impeller of the hydraulic unit
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended to convert the energy of hydraulic flow and wind into electricity. The wheel includes a hub and fixed thereto folding blades with cavities. The blades are made of elastic material in the form of petals Cup-shaped form in cross section. The outer part of the blades are made thick, and the interior is in the form of a diaphragm. The cavity in the blade formed by the channels, interconnected elastic manifold. The collector of one of the blades is connected to the collector blades occupying diametrically opposite position, through channels made in the hub. The channels are filled with liquid, the total volume of cavities corresponding to the amount of two blades, one of which is in the collapsed position. This embodiment of the wheel allows you to increase efficiency, reliability and durability. 4 Il., table 1. The invention relates to hydropower, and in particular to the working wheels that converts the hydraulic energy flows into electricity, and can also be used as a rotor of the windmill and pump.Known impeller used in dam Hydra is equipped with a rotary speed of the opening blades, the inner and outer axes of rotation are offset from each other by the same angle, while the outer blades are fitted to ensure overlap of the inner blades in the off position and their earlier entry into the work.The disadvantage of this impeller is its low reliability and low efficiency, because changing the position of the blades from the passive to the active state occurs due to their rotation axes and kinematically rigid connection with radially opposite the blade. In the process of interaction of the blades with a stream of the latest perceive alternating loads, which leads to the formation of torque by changing the position of the blades, while the frequency of state changes of the blades and their provisions, as a rule, is equal to 1 and less than a second; it is known that alternating loads in combination with aggressive environment - water lead to accelerated wear of the system axis of the sleeve and as a consequence subsequent jamming of the blades and the failure of two kinematically connected blades with the subsequent output of the unit inoperable.It is also known impeller , containing the hub and sakralen the mi, attached to their base with the formation of closed cavities provided between themselves and filled with gas.The disadvantage of this impeller is the low efficiency when used in units low-debit and submerged hydroelectric plants, because torque largely depends on the coefficient of resistance different sides of the blades and creating due to this, before the blades zones exhaustion.The technical result of the invention is to improve the reliability, durability and efficiency, as well as simplifying the design and reducing the metal.The technical result is achieved by the fact that the blades of the impeller is made of elastic material (e.g. polyurethane) in the form of petals Cup-shaped form in cross section, the outer part of which is thickened, and internal - in the form of a diaphragm, the cavity in the blade formed by the channels, interconnected elastic collector, and the collector of one of the blades is connected to the collector of the other, occupying diametrically opposite position, through channels made in the hub, and, in addition, the channels of the blades is filled with fluid the m position.Run the blade of elastic material (e.g. polyurethane) in the form of petals Cup-shaped form in cross section, the outer part of which is thickened, and internal - in the form of a diaphragm, allows you to:
- to receive the blade of a variable elasticity with predetermined elastic characteristics, and using the hydrodynamics of the flow, change the profile of the blade during its operation;
to change the center of mass of the rotating impeller, to reduce the torque and consequently increase efficiency;
to eliminate the mechanical elements of the rotation of the blades: axles, bushings, levers, which in turn greatly simplifies the design of the unit as a whole and increases the efficiency of the impeller;
- implementation of the impeller from an elastic material also reduces the intensity of the unit, its weight, and accordingly reduces the cost of the unit as a whole.The implementation of the cavities through channels allows us to give the design the blades of a variable stiffness depending on the magnitude of the impact of flow on the working surface of the blade, which is the aperture, and the connection between the elastic manifold allows to distribute the elastic deformation across powerhouse to provide a flow of liquid from the cavity of the blade, under the action of the maximum distributed load flow on the aperture blades, which leads to overflow from her hard - deployed blades through the channels in a collapsed, resulting in increased pressure in the cavity of the other blades, leading to a tense state of passive blades and as a result of its disclosure and subsequent preservation in the disclosed form, but under the action of the ever-increasing distributed load from the stream and forces opposing the spontaneous folding arising from the decomposition of the forces acting onto the blade, but the axis of which is parallel to the flow plane (scheme decomposition of forces shown in Fig. 1).Filling the channels with a total liquid volume of the cavities corresponding to the volume of the two cavities of the blades, one of which is in the collapsed position, allows the automatic redistribution of pressures in the cavity under the action of pressure loaded diaphragm blades depending on the position relative to the flow axis.The combination of structural characteristics of the blades provides the variable nature of their interaction with changes in hydraulic resistance and hidrandina folded blade, has a predominantly inductive impedance, due to the scale of the blades and a bowl-shaped surface is contacted with the flow, eliminating friction resistance; the cumulative effect is a local lift force, giving a non-zero projection on the direction of the total flow, while the diametrically opposite blade held in a collapsed position, with the profile of the cylindrical surface and has a minimum flow inductive resistance in combination with the frictional resistance that the amount is significantly less than the forces acting on the opposite side relative to the axis of rotation. The difference between the resistance forces acting about the axis of rotation, causes a torque. These technical solutions allow to increase the efficiency of the power take-off of the flow, especially at low speeds, without forming flow elements.Thus, the comparative analysis with the prototype of the claimed invention allows to conclude that according to the last criterion of "novelty".In addition, comparison of the claimed invention with other technical solutions shows that it follows from them neobreonia in the field of energy conversion hydraulic air and gas flow into electrical leads to the conclusion about compliance with a criterion of "industrial applicability".The invention is illustrated by the following drawings, where:
in Fig. 1 - impeller;
in Fig. 2 - section a-a of Fig. 1;
in Fig. 3 - section b-B of Fig. 2;
in Fig. 4 - section b-b of Fig. 3.The impeller consists of a hub 1 is mounted to the stationary shaft 2; the hub is also still installed blade 3 made Cup-shaped form, the outer portion of which is thickened, and the internal in the form of a diaphragm, with through channels formed cavity 4, United elastic manifold 5, the hub made channel 6, a closed sealed cover 7, and the collector of one cavity connected to another collector blades occupying diametrically opposite position.The impeller operates as follows.In the initial position all the blades have an intermediate state, since the pressure of fluid in the cavities of averages is equal and the same, and the form of their semi. When the flow of liquid or gas heavy loads on the blade in the plane perpendicular to the flow are located to the flow of Cup-shaped form, because the thread does not wrap around it as the opposite and not turn her into a corner , but on the contrary, the us is ness, and the result is the torque, and the maximum fluid pressure in the position of rotation of the blade 90olead to the displacement of fluid from the cavity 4 in the cavity of the blade holding diametrically opposite position, the through channel 6 of the hub and consequently the disclosure of the blade at the moment of its entrance into the zone of active interaction with the stream.The rotational torque is transmitted to the shaft and then to the generator.The scheme of interaction of the blades with the flow and their relative position can be represented by a table that takes into account the position of the blades in accordance with Fig. 1 and the designation of quarters, marked with asterisks, while the closed position of the blade corresponds to the sign "-", and open "+", the arrows show the direction of movement of fluid from one cavity of the blade in the cavity of the other in accordance with the nature of the interaction with the flow and magnitude of perceived exertion.The minimized position of one blade and expanded the other leads to the change of center of mass, and the wheel under the action of the flow tends to be more stable position, which leads her to rotational movement and, of course, to the emergence of torque.Thus, the use of the proposed impeller allows to increase the efficiency of the power take-off from the stream, allowing the use of low-debit flows to generate electricity, this raises the possibility of using hydroelectric dam embodiment, all the year round, in addition, the use of the proposed impeller units eliminates the apparatus for forming and direction of flow. The use of the impeller may also wind turbines and systems pumping gas.References
1. Patent USSR N 1836586, F 03 B 13/00, 1993.2. Patent USSR N 1449698, F 03 B 7/00, 1989. The impeller is driven by the flow of liquid or gas containing the hub fixed on her folding blades with cavities, characterized in that the blades are made of elastic material (e.g. polyurethane) in the form of petals Cup-shaped form in cross section, the outer part of which is thickened, and internal - in the form of a diaphragm, the cavity in the blade formed by the channels, soedineniya diametrically opposite position, through channels made in the hub, in addition, the channels of the blades is filled with liquid, the total volume of cavities corresponding to the amount of two blades, one of which is in the collapsed position.
FIELD: hydropower engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in lower power hydroelectric power stations. Proposed hydraulic turbine contains housing with end face covers, intake and exhaust branch pipes. Housing accommodates two rotors and streamlined guide. Rotors are made of made tubes provided with longitudinal cut and installed so that part of tube plays part of plate and other part plays part of rotor housing. Hydraulic turbine is furnished with system including pump, distributing device and pipelines providing pressure of water in tandem spaces between plates and housing.
EFFECT: reduced labor input in manufacture of hydraulic turbine.