Reservoir storage of industrial waste with radioactive isotopes strontium-90 and cesium-137
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to containers-storage of liquid industrial waste containing radionuclides of strontium and cesium in natural soils, and can be used for building system-induced geochemical barriers that purify water from radionuclides. The technical result of the invention is the construction of a simple, reliable design of storage tanks of liquid industrial wastes with radionuclides strontium-90 and cesium-137 in natural friable soils in which the water purification from radioactive isotopes. The problem is solved using the storage for industrial waste contaminated with isotopes of strontium and cesium in the form of pit placed on the walls and bottom of the clay layer. A distinctive feature of the store is that the quality of the clay used layer montmorillonite clay, on which is placed a layer of ash powder ironstone and a layer of gravel gypsum limestone gravel, and water-storage contains charophytes, Potamogeton and cattail. The components of a two-insulating layers is taken in the ratio 1 : 1. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The image is in natural soils and can be used for building system-induced geochemical barriers, to purify water from radionuclides.There is a method to prevent pollution of the environment with toxic and radioactive metals, which originally defined the location and flow direction of migration of heavy or toxic metals to form stable complexes in the rock mass. Then on his way stack sequentially buffer layer of the sulphides and the barrier of fine granular clays. (U.S. Pat. RF N 2075125, IPC G 21 F 9/20, 10.03.97). As the prototype was taken reservoir storage of liquid industrial waste with radioactive isotopes strontium-90 and cesium-137 (Sobolev, I. A. and others "Disposal of radioactive waste at centralized points", Energoatomizdat, 1983. S. 75 - 77).The disadvantage of the prototype is the complexity and lack of reliability design of storage tanks.The objective of the invention is the construction of a simple, reliable design of storage tanks of liquid industrial wastes with radionuclides: strontium-90 and cesium-137 in natural friable soils in which the water purification from radioactive isotopes.The problem is solved using the storage for industrial waste contaminated hard">A distinctive feature of the store is that the quality of the clay used layer montmorillonite clay, on which is placed a layer of ash with goethite, i.e. powder ironstone, and a layer of gravel gypsum limestone gravel, and water-storage contains charophytes, Potamogeton and cattail. The components of a two-insulating layers is taken in the ratio 1:1.The drawing shows a cross section of storage for liquid industrial wastes with radionuclides of strontium and cesium.The store is made in the form of excavation in soft soil 1. Multi-layer insulation of the walls and bottom includes: 2 - layer montmorillonite clay, layer 3 is a mechanical mixture of ash powder ironstone in the ratio of 1:1, layer 4 is a mechanical mixture of gravel gypsum limestone gravel in the ratio of 1:1. Store posted by liquid waste 5 contaminated with radioactive isotopes of strontium and cesium. The side of the store surrounded by chopping the dirt embankment 6. Reservoir storage contains charophytes, Potamogeton and cattail 7.The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the store creates a complex system of technogenic geochemical barriers. System geo is coherence.On bottom of the pit and the walls are covered with a layer of montmorillonite clay 2, which performs the function of geochemical sorption barrier that holds ions of strontium and cesium and thereby clears the infiltration flow from radionuclides.Then poured a layer 3 ash powder brown hematite or red mud (a waste from alumina production) in a 1:1 ratio. The mixture is multifunctional: it creates an alkaline geochemical barrier, which coagulated containing strontium and cesium pulvinate complexes. It performs the task and geochemical sorption barrier, which delayed the cations of strontium-90 and cesium-137.A mixture of 3 fits a mechanical mixture of 4 out of gravel gypsum limestone gravel in the ratio of 1:1.Next, on the layer 4 filled with liquid waste 5 contaminated with isotopes of strontium-90 and cesium-137. In reservoir storage divorce charophytes, Potamogeton and cattail 7.Self-purification of aquatic environment in the vault begins in the water column, where the aquatic plant Potamogeton and cattail will be taken from the solution ion Cs+and charophytes - strontium ions and accumulate them on phytogenic geochemical barrier in plant tissues.UP>2+not captured phytogenic barrier, Myslivets of the solution of sulphate geochemical barrier and deposited on the bottom of the reservoir in the form of fine crystals of celestite (SrSO4). Ions SO42-for vysalivaniya Sr2+enter the solution in the dissolution of gypsum (CaSO42H2O), which is in the form of gravel is layer 4.Part of the ions Sr2+and Cs+with organic matter to form soluble Sr-pulvinate and Cs-pulvinate complexes, which coagulate and precipitate in the form of hydrogels on alkaline geochemical barrier layer 3, which creates an alkaline environment in the layer 3 ash.The rest, a small portion of the cations Sr2+and Cs+is delayed by sorption geochemical barrier layer 3 on the particles of the brown hematite or red mud, and layer 2 on the particles of montmorillonite clay.In the end, the system technogenic geochemical barriers created in reservoir storage that clears aqueous solutions from radionuclides strontium-90 and cesium-137. 1. Reservoir storage of liquid industrial waste with radioactive isotopes strontium-90 and cesium-137, made in the form of capacity with multi-layer insulation of walls and a bottom, characterized in that the lesniak and a layer of gravel gypsum and limestone gravel, moreover, the reservoir storage contains charophytes, Potamogeton and cattail.2. Store under item 1, characterized in that each component layer contains the ingredients in the ratio of 1:1.
FIELD: immobilization of heterogeneous radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes production of dehydrated radioactive sediment and filtrate on filtering centrifuge; heating of dehydrated radioactive sediment at 500 - 600 °C; crushing of products of heating into fragments measuring maximum 30 mm; case-hardening of crushed fragments with high-penetration cement solution which is, essentially, mixture of cement having specific surfaced area of minimum 8000 cm2/g and liquid phase at liquid phase-to-cement mass proportion of 0.6 - 1.4; for the final procedure mixture obtained is cooled down.
EFFECT: reduced amount of radioactive wastes, enhanced radiation safety, and reduced power requirement.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: treatment of heterogeneous liquid radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes extraction of radium from radioactive oil slimes by means of hot water, acid or alkali solutions. Before doing so radioactive oil slime is subjected to recovery annealing with lack of hydrogen in atmosphere of incomplete combustion of carbon and hydrocarbons produced by using oil products. Recovery annealing temperature is maintained between 700 and 900 °C for 1 to 3 h. Annealed oil slime is treated with hot steam and once more with heat steam and sulfuric acid at concentration of the latter between 5 and 10% relative to mass of extracting solution.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of radioactive waste treatment.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: recovery of liquid radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is used for localizing spent granular, powdered, or milled ion-exchange resins in Na- or H-form in dry or wet condition by including them in solid matrix. Matrix base is made of blast-furnace slag milled to fractions below 0.075 mm and tempered with sodium hydroxide solution of 100 - 150 g/l concentration.
EFFECT: enhanced degree of filling compound with wastes and extended range of its application.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 8 ex
FIELD: decontaminating natural water reservoirs from radionuclides.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes introduction of sorbent in contaminated water body. Used as sorbent is zeolite powder or man-produced substance, such as red slime or slime production waste. Mirabilite is used as precipitant and in addition water is decontaminated by using water-plant, such as reed and pondweed planted out in water reservoir in advance.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of water reservoir decontamination from radionuclides.
1 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: recovery of liquid radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for recovering alpha-active nitric acid solution containing trivalent iron includes pre-concentration of solution being recovered by its evaporation to produce regenerated nitric acid in still bottoms, whereupon still bottoms are neutralized to pH of 1 - 2 and trivalent iron is partially recovered by sodium sulfate until valence forms ratio Fe3+ : Fe2 = 2 : 1 is attained. This is followed by next neutralization with alkali to pH = 10 - 11. Magnetite sediment obtained after settling down is conveyed for curing. Then solution is decanted, clarified solution is magnetically separated and additionally cleaned.
EFFECT: reduced volume of secondary wastes, reduced consumption of chemical agents used for the purpose.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: radioactive waste processing by the burning method.
SUBSTANCE: the proposed furnace for radioactive waste burning has a case, within of which non less three burning chambers are coaxially located. The chambers have a general chamber for ash reburning. The general chamber is equipped with a fire grate. Each of burning chambers is autonomous, has the device for supply of fuel and oxidizer and is equipped with a fire grate and gate. The chamber for reburning the waste gases is coaxially located in the central part of the furnace. This chamber consists of external and internal cases, forming a labyrinth gas duct. The burning chambers are connected with the chamber for reburning the waste gases by means of gas-escape channels, having unequally-height and unequally-directional levels of location in each two neighboring burning chambers. A pressure-tight lock chamber of cylindrical shape is located over the burning chambers and chamber for waste gas reburning. The lock chamber is general for all burning chambers and is equipped with a cover, charging branch, pipe of exhaust ventilation, heat exchanger, transport system and control unit. The unit for control of the drives of transport system, fire grates, gates and strips is located on the lock chamber cover. The transport system consists of drive and container with a tray and limit switch. The container is fulfilled in the form of horizontally located cylinder. It is foreseen the circular motion of the cylinder. The drive of the transport system is connected with the container by means of an open gearing and is equipped with a gear, located on the output shaft. The output and input pipes for acceptance and unloading of wastes are located with good alignment one under other on the cylindrical surface of the container. The bushings are located on the side end surfaces of the container. The tray has possibility of rotation and has the shape of a bed, repeating the curvature of the internal surface of container case. Besides, the semi-axes are located on the semicircular side end surfaces of the container. These semi-axes together with the container bushings form a movable joint of the type of axis-bushing.
EFFECT: increased economical efficiency, processing efficiency, operation reliability and environment safety.
1 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: methods of liquid radioactive wastes processing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of liquid radioactive wastes processing. The invention presents a method of neutralization of the low-mineralized and medium-mineralized low-active liquid wastes in the field conditions, which includes the liquid wastes purification by mechanical filters and ultrafilters. The subsequent desalination is conducted by reverse-osmotic filters and an after-purification - by ion-exchange filters with a reactant treatment of the spent ion-exchange resins using potassium ferrocyanide and cobalt salts. Then the treated resin is used as a sorption prefilter, in which they use purification of the wastes before their feeding to the ion-exchange filter. The formed secondary A-wastes are fixed in the stable medium. Advantages of the invention consist is an improved purification efficiency and reduction of the secondary wastes volume.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improved purification efficiency and reduction of the secondary wastes volume.
FIELD: nuclear engineering; methods of processing of radioactive effluent.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of nuclear engineering, in particular, to the methods of processing of radioactive effluent. The method of processing of the radioactive effluent containing radionuclides in the ionic and colloid forms and ballast components of the mineral and organic nature in the soluted and suspended states provides, that the organic components of the radioactive effluent are oxidized up to a gaseous state, and the mineral ionic components and radionuclides are transformed in a suspended state in the form of hydroxides of metals by feeding of the ozone waste. A stream of the oxygenated waste is separated for a thickened slurry and a liquid phase, using the selective sorbents conduct an afterpurification of the liquid phase from the radionuclides, which have remained in the ionic form. The produced slime and the spent sorbents are transformed into the solid form and sent for a long -term storage. Before treatment with ozone the stream of the radioactive effluent is purified from the suspended particles using its percolation through a mesh filtering material, and before an afterpurification of the liquid phase with the help of the selective sorbents conduct a membrane microstraining with separation from the liquid phase of radionuclides in the colloid form, which are sent back in the stream of the radioactive effluent after injection in it of ozone. The technical effect of the invention consist in an improved purification of the radioactive effluent from radionuclides.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved purification of the radioactive effluent from radionuclides.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: recovery of liquid radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for treatment of sulfuric ammonium radioactive solutions includes electrotype coagulation treatment involving passage of radioactive solutions through vibroliquefied iron-coke galvanic pair. Radioactive solution pH is corrected and radionuclide-containing deposit separated. In the process pH of radioactive solutions is corrected in two stages with deposit being separated after each stage. First-stage deposit is mixed up with montmorillonite clay and granules are molded. Then they are dried out and agglomerated to produce glass-ceramics wherein radionuclide-containing deposits are immobilized. Filtrate is treated with foam layer to blow off ammonia and then passed through natural ion-exchanger. Method for immobilizing radionuclide-containing deposit in glass-ceramics includes molding of granules of radionuclide-containing deposit mixed up with montmorillonite clay. Granules are molded in two stages. Core of granule of radionuclide-containing deposit mixed up with montmorillonite clay is produced during first stage and covered with shell of glass-ceramics based on homogeneous mixture of montmorillonite clay and quartz sand, during second stage, quartz sand content of mixture being 10 - 30 mass percent.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of radioactive waste immobilization.
6 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex