The way of generating electricity

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a technology of power generation in chemically regenerative cycle using turbines running on gas. Offers a way of generating electricity, comprising an endothermic catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, the removal of a gaseous product of the reformer, the combustion of the latter with compressed air, followed by expansion of the gas product of combustion, additional combustion exhaust gas of the above mentioned expansion of the gaseous product of reforming and subsequent expansion of the resulting gaseous product of combustion and exhaust gas flow extensions to the specified endothermic catalytic steam reforming and the exhaust flue gas from the aforementioned steam reforming, with the distinctive feature is that an endothermic catalytic steam reforming is performed with the formation of enriched hydrogen gas stream supplied to the additional combustion, and depleted in hydrogen gas stream, supplied to the combustion of compressed air. The invention improves the efficiency of power generation. 3 C. p. Ohm loop using turbines, running on gas, more particularly to a method of power generation.

A known way of generating electricity, including two-stage endothermic catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, the first stage of which is carried out at high pressure, and the second stage is at low pressure, the outlet of the reforming product from the first stage, which is burned with compressed air, followed by expansion of the resulting gas product of combustion and reforming product from the second stage, which burned exhaust gas expansion of the gas product of combustion with subsequent expansion of the resulting gas product of combustion and feed produced as a result of this expansion of the waste product to the specified two-stage thermal catalytic steam reforming, and exhaust flue gas from the aforementioned steam reforming (see, for example, Evaluation of Advanced Gas Turbine Cycles, Final report, August 1993, Fluor Daniel Inc., Irvine, CA).

The disadvantage of this method is that its efficiency does not exceed about 50-52%.

Object of the invention is the provision of a way of generating electricity, providing increased efficiency.

Education enriched hydrogen gas stream is carried out by continuous separation of hydrogen by catalytic steam reforming, which is suitable can be implemented in any standard membrane reactor, equipped with a fixed bed of steam reforming catalyst. Such known reactors equipped with permeable to hydrogen by a metal membrane on a porous ceramic layer.

Membered penetrates through the membrane tube and the resulting enriched hydrogen gas away from the tube using casinosites, which is usually a par. Since the hydrogen is continuously removed from the formed during the reaction in the catalyst layer of the gas from the catalyst layer divert depleted in hydrogen gas.

When used in the proposed method, the membrane reactor is withdrawn from the catalyst layer depleted in hydrogen gas fed to the combustion of compressed air. When discharged from the reactor gas has a high pressure that is required for combustion compressed air.

Enriched with hydrogen gas, which take away from the membrane tube at a lower pressure than the exhaust from the catalyst layer, the gas is fed to the above-mentioned additional combustion. At the second stage of combustion of the enriched hydrogen gas is burned exhaust gas expansion phase product of combustion by compressed air. The resulting additional combustion gas expands to atmospheric pressure or a pressure slightly above atmospheric. The mechanical energy resulting from the expansion of the last combustion gas in the gas turbines of the first and second stage of expansion, translated into electricity using a suitable generator, such as generator three-phase current, which shaft is connected with a gas turbine drawing.

The installation includes a membrane reactor 1 for the implementation of the steam reformer having a layer 2 of a steam reforming catalyst, for example based on Nickel, and palladium membrane tube 3. The reactor is supplied by line 4 for supplying a mixture of hydrocarbon gas and steam under pressure and line 5 for feeding into the reactor 1 media for removal of gas, which represents, for example, steam. In addition, the reactor 1 is equipped with line 6 for the flue, line 7 for supplying lean gas flow through the combustion chamber 8, where it is burned with compressed air supplied through line 9 from the air compressor 10 and line 11 to supply enriched hydrogen gas stream at an additional stage of combustion chamber 12, where it is burned exhaust gas supplied through the line 13, is connected to the expander 14. In the expander 14 is available on line 15 hot combustion gas. Additional stage combustion chamber 12 is connected through line 16 to the additional expander 17, which in turn is connected through line 18 to the reactor 1. On line 18 hot exhaust gas is fed into the reactor 1 to provide indirect heating of the layer 2 catalyst. The expanders 14 and 17 are connected with each other and with the three-phase current generator 19.

The proposed method illustory 2 catalyst in the reactor 1, in which the gas is subjected to steam reforming by contacting with a catalyst, which is indirectly heated by hot flue gas supplied through the line 18 from defender 17. This hot exhaust gas is fed into the reactor at a temperature of 750oC and after heat away along the line 6 with a temperature of 636oC.

Part received during steam reforming of natural gas, hydrogen permeates through the above membrane tube 3 and an enriched hydrogen gas stream away from the tube 3 by means of steam supplied through line 5. Enriched with hydrogen gas composition 43,6 about. % hydrogen and 96,4% vol. water having a temperature of 600oC, available on line 11 in the amount of 33407 nm3/h on additional stage combustion 12. Depleted hydrogen gas composition 22,1 about. % methane, 12,3% vol. hydrogen, a 1.8% vol. carbon monoxide, 17,7% vol. carbon dioxide, 45,9% vol. water and 0.2 vol.% nitrogen having a temperature of 600oC, away from the layer 2 catalyst and in the number 24943 nm3/h is available on line 7 stage 8 combustion by compressed air supplied through line 9. Supplied to the combustion gas has a pressure of 40 ATM. The hot product of combustion expanding in the expander 14 to the impact of rotational energy. From the expander 14 she additional stage combustion 12. Get additional hot combustion gas product extend in the second expander 17 to the impact of rotational energy. Get the expanders 14 and 17 of the rotational energy is transferred into electricity with a capacity of 56 MW from generator 19. Considering the fact that the energy content fed to the reactor 1 natural gas is 100 MW, the efficiency of this process is 56%.

Comparative example (as per prototype). Repeat the process for the above example with the only difference that the membrane steam reforming reactor is replaced by the reforming reactor, which does not involve the division of the resulting hydrogen. With natural gas as the energy content of 100 MW is subjected to steam reforming with getting gas composition 25,0% vol. methane, and 18.3% vol. hydrogen, 0,7 vol.% carbon monoxide, 5,0% vol. carbon dioxide, 50,8% vol. water and 0.2 vol.% of nitrogen. While steam reforming is also carried out by indirect heat exchange with hot flue gas of the second stage of expansion with temperature 702oC, which after heat away from the reactor with a temperature 641oC.

Get in the reactor in the amount of 33,661 nm3/h gas flow with a temperature of 600oC is divided into the om. This produced electricity with a capacity of 52 MW, which corresponds to an efficiency of 52%. Therefore, the efficiency of the method on the prototype reduced by four abs.% compared with the proposed method according to the above example.

1. The way of generating electricity, comprising an endothermic catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, the removal of a gaseous product of the reformer, the combustion of the latter with compressed air, followed by expansion of the gas product of combustion, additional combustion exhaust gas of the above mentioned expansion of the gaseous product of reforming and subsequent expansion of the resulting gaseous product of combustion and exhaust gas flow extensions to the specified endothermic catalytic steam reforming and the exhaust flue gas from the aforementioned steam reforming, characterized in that the endothermic catalytic steam reforming is performed with the formation of enriched hydrogen gas stream supplied to the additional combustion, and depleted in hydrogen gas flow supplied to the combustion of compressed air.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the enriched hydrogen gas stream serves on the El use steam.

4. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the endothermic catalytic steam reforming is carried out in the presence of leaking hydrogen membrane.

 

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Gas turbine engine // 2280182

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine contains housing with fitted-in shaft, compressor, combustion chamber with igniter, turbine and fuel preparation and delivery system. Housing is provided with cover sealing its inlet. Fuel preparation and delivery system is made in form of electrolyzer installed with possibility of supply of direct current to its electrodes, free passing of electrolyte (water solution of electrolyte) through electrolyzer and products of water decomposition formed under action of direct current passing through electrolyte. Electrolyzer is installed before compressor in sealed part of housing. Pumping device and nozzle serve to deliver and atomize water solution of electrolyte in electrolyzer. Nozzle is furnished with cavitator made in form of local contraction of channel.

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9 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: combined-cycle gas-plant includes a boiler with fluidised bed under pressure, with a furnace containing a fluidised bed and a cyclone, installed inside the body, gas turbine unit, a steam turbine with a regenerative equipment tract, heat exchangers for cooling of the gases leaving the gas turbine and ash, leaving out boiler, gas treatment unit, the vortex chamber with a device for removing the slag in the liquid state, gas cooler. In parallel with the boiler on the air supply, coal and sorbent the device comprises a gasifier with fluidised bed. A stream of fuel gas leaving the gasifier is divided into two substreams. One substream of the fuel gas is fed for combustion into the vortex chamber. The combustion products of the vortex chamber are cooled in a slag trap beam and a gas cooler, and are cleaned in a ceramic filter and fed into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine. The second substream of combustible gas passes successively cooler gas sulfur cleaner installation, ceramic filter and then enters the combustion chamber of a gas turbine. In the combustion chamber the mixture of combustion products and combustible gas subflow takes place, as well as raising of the temperature of gases produced by burning fuel gas before the gases enter the gas turbine.

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EFFECT: enlarges amount and reduced cost of power generation without by-product emission into environment.

24 cl, 147 dwg

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