The way of generating electricity
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a technology of power generation in chemically regenerative cycle using turbines running on gas. Offers a way of generating electricity, comprising an endothermic catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, the removal of a gaseous product of the reformer, the combustion of the latter with compressed air, followed by expansion of the gas product of combustion, additional combustion exhaust gas of the above mentioned expansion of the gaseous product of reforming and subsequent expansion of the resulting gaseous product of combustion and exhaust gas flow extensions to the specified endothermic catalytic steam reforming and the exhaust flue gas from the aforementioned steam reforming, with the distinctive feature is that an endothermic catalytic steam reforming is performed with the formation of enriched hydrogen gas stream supplied to the additional combustion, and depleted in hydrogen gas stream, supplied to the combustion of compressed air. The invention improves the efficiency of power generation. 3 C. p. Ohm loop using turbines, running on gas, more particularly to a method of power generation.A known way of generating electricity, including two-stage endothermic catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, the first stage of which is carried out at high pressure, and the second stage is at low pressure, the outlet of the reforming product from the first stage, which is burned with compressed air, followed by expansion of the resulting gas product of combustion and reforming product from the second stage, which burned exhaust gas expansion of the gas product of combustion with subsequent expansion of the resulting gas product of combustion and feed produced as a result of this expansion of the waste product to the specified two-stage thermal catalytic steam reforming, and exhaust flue gas from the aforementioned steam reforming (see, for example, Evaluation of Advanced Gas Turbine Cycles, Final report, August 1993, Fluor Daniel Inc., Irvine, CA).The disadvantage of this method is that its efficiency does not exceed about 50-52%.Object of the invention is the provision of a way of generating electricity, providing increased efficiency.Education enriched hydrogen gas stream is carried out by continuous separation of hydrogen by catalytic steam reforming, which is suitable can be implemented in any standard membrane reactor, equipped with a fixed bed of steam reforming catalyst. Such known reactors equipped with permeable to hydrogen by a metal membrane on a porous ceramic layer.Membered penetrates through the membrane tube and the resulting enriched hydrogen gas away from the tube using casinosites, which is usually a par. Since the hydrogen is continuously removed from the formed during the reaction in the catalyst layer of the gas from the catalyst layer divert depleted in hydrogen gas.When used in the proposed method, the membrane reactor is withdrawn from the catalyst layer depleted in hydrogen gas fed to the combustion of compressed air. When discharged from the reactor gas has a high pressure that is required for combustion compressed air.Enriched with hydrogen gas, which take away from the membrane tube at a lower pressure than the exhaust from the catalyst layer, the gas is fed to the above-mentioned additional combustion. At the second stage of combustion of the enriched hydrogen gas is burned exhaust gas expansion phase product of combustion by compressed air. The resulting additional combustion gas expands to atmospheric pressure or a pressure slightly above atmospheric. The mechanical energy resulting from the expansion of the last combustion gas in the gas turbines of the first and second stage of expansion, translated into electricity using a suitable generator, such as generator three-phase current, which shaft is connected with a gas turbine drawing.The installation includes a membrane reactor 1 for the implementation of the steam reformer having a layer 2 of a steam reforming catalyst, for example based on Nickel, and palladium membrane tube 3. The reactor is supplied by line 4 for supplying a mixture of hydrocarbon gas and steam under pressure and line 5 for feeding into the reactor 1 media for removal of gas, which represents, for example, steam. In addition, the reactor 1 is equipped with line 6 for the flue, line 7 for supplying lean gas flow through the combustion chamber 8, where it is burned with compressed air supplied through line 9 from the air compressor 10 and line 11 to supply enriched hydrogen gas stream at an additional stage of combustion chamber 12, where it is burned exhaust gas supplied through the line 13, is connected to the expander 14. In the expander 14 is available on line 15 hot combustion gas. Additional stage combustion chamber 12 is connected through line 16 to the additional expander 17, which in turn is connected through line 18 to the reactor 1. On line 18 hot exhaust gas is fed into the reactor 1 to provide indirect heating of the layer 2 catalyst. The expanders 14 and 17 are connected with each other and with the three-phase current generator 19.The proposed method illustory 2 catalyst in the reactor 1, in which the gas is subjected to steam reforming by contacting with a catalyst, which is indirectly heated by hot flue gas supplied through the line 18 from defender 17. This hot exhaust gas is fed into the reactor at a temperature of 750oC and after heat away along the line 6 with a temperature of 636oC.Part received during steam reforming of natural gas, hydrogen permeates through the above membrane tube 3 and an enriched hydrogen gas stream away from the tube 3 by means of steam supplied through line 5. Enriched with hydrogen gas composition 43,6 about. % hydrogen and 96,4% vol. water having a temperature of 600oC, available on line 11 in the amount of 33407 nm3/h on additional stage combustion 12. Depleted hydrogen gas composition 22,1 about. % methane, 12,3% vol. hydrogen, a 1.8% vol. carbon monoxide, 17,7% vol. carbon dioxide, 45,9% vol. water and 0.2 vol.% nitrogen having a temperature of 600oC, away from the layer 2 catalyst and in the number 24943 nm3/h is available on line 7 stage 8 combustion by compressed air supplied through line 9. Supplied to the combustion gas has a pressure of 40 ATM. The hot product of combustion expanding in the expander 14 to the impact of rotational energy. From the expander 14 she additional stage combustion 12. Get additional hot combustion gas product extend in the second expander 17 to the impact of rotational energy. Get the expanders 14 and 17 of the rotational energy is transferred into electricity with a capacity of 56 MW from generator 19. Considering the fact that the energy content fed to the reactor 1 natural gas is 100 MW, the efficiency of this process is 56%.Comparative example (as per prototype). Repeat the process for the above example with the only difference that the membrane steam reforming reactor is replaced by the reforming reactor, which does not involve the division of the resulting hydrogen. With natural gas as the energy content of 100 MW is subjected to steam reforming with getting gas composition 25,0% vol. methane, and 18.3% vol. hydrogen, 0,7 vol.% carbon monoxide, 5,0% vol. carbon dioxide, 50,8% vol. water and 0.2 vol.% of nitrogen. While steam reforming is also carried out by indirect heat exchange with hot flue gas of the second stage of expansion with temperature 702oC, which after heat away from the reactor with a temperature 641oC.Get in the reactor in the amount of 33,661 nm3/h gas flow with a temperature of 600oC is divided into the om. This produced electricity with a capacity of 52 MW, which corresponds to an efficiency of 52%. Therefore, the efficiency of the method on the prototype reduced by four abs.% compared with the proposed method according to the above example. 1. The way of generating electricity, comprising an endothermic catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, the removal of a gaseous product of the reformer, the combustion of the latter with compressed air, followed by expansion of the gas product of combustion, additional combustion exhaust gas of the above mentioned expansion of the gaseous product of reforming and subsequent expansion of the resulting gaseous product of combustion and exhaust gas flow extensions to the specified endothermic catalytic steam reforming and the exhaust flue gas from the aforementioned steam reforming, characterized in that the endothermic catalytic steam reforming is performed with the formation of enriched hydrogen gas stream supplied to the additional combustion, and depleted in hydrogen gas flow supplied to the combustion of compressed air.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the enriched hydrogen gas stream serves on the El use steam.4. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the endothermic catalytic steam reforming is carried out in the presence of leaking hydrogen membrane.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine contains housing with fitted-in shaft, compressor, combustion chamber with igniter, turbine and fuel preparation and delivery system. Housing is provided with cover sealing its inlet. Fuel preparation and delivery system is made in form of electrolyzer installed with possibility of supply of direct current to its electrodes, free passing of electrolyte (water solution of electrolyte) through electrolyzer and products of water decomposition formed under action of direct current passing through electrolyte. Electrolyzer is installed before compressor in sealed part of housing. Pumping device and nozzle serve to deliver and atomize water solution of electrolyte in electrolyzer. Nozzle is furnished with cavitator made in form of local contraction of channel.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel, adverse effect on environment.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine contains housing with fitted-in shaft, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and fuel preparation and delivery system. Housing is provided into cover sealing its inlet. Fuel preparation and delivery system is made in form of electrolyzer with supply of direct current to guide and working blades of compressor. Pumping device and nozzle with cavitator of fuel preparation and delivery system are made to feed and atomize water solution of electrolyte in electrolyzer. Compressor is made for building vacuum in seal part of housing and decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen under action of direct current passing through electrolyte.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel, no adverse effect on environment.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine contains housing with fitted-in shaft, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and fuel preparation and delivery system. Housing is provided with cover sealing its inlet. Fuel preparation and delivery system is made in form of electrolyzer consisting of electrodes to which direct current is supplied and installed before compressor in sealed part of housing and of electrodes formed by delivery of direct current to guide and working blades of compressor. Pumping device of fuel preparation and delivery system provides delivery and atomizing of electrolyte (water solution of electrolyte) through nozzle furnished with cavitator, in electrolyzer where electrolysis of water takes place under action of direct current passing through electrolyte. Compressor is made for building vacuum in sealed part of housing and compression and delivery of gas mixture into combustion chamber.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel, no adverse effect on environment.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technological processes, fuel.
SUBSTANCE: method includes drying of solid fuel, its pyrolysis in reactor in fluidizated layer with solid coolant with preparation of steam-gas mixture and coal char, their discharge from reactor and separation. Steam-gas mixture is cleaned, and part of it is burned in combustion chamber of gas turbine with generation of electric energy and utilization of exhaust gases. Coal char is separated into coal char separator into two flows by fractions. Coarse fraction is sent to activator for production of activated coal, and the fine one - into gas generator for preparation of generator gas, which is then cleaned and conditioned together with remaining part of cleaned steam-gas mixture to prepare synthesis-gas, which is supplied to reactor for synthesis of liquid carbohydrates. Solid coolant is heated in technological furnace by its partial combustion with production of smoke gases and returned to pyrolysis reactor. At that prepared activated coal is directed as sorption material for purification of steam-gas mixture and generator gas, and spent activated coal is returned back to gasification stage.
EFFECT: maximum possible amount of high-quality liquid fuels of wide purpose with simultaneous efficient power generation by application of gas tube installation.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat power engineering. Steam gas plant with coal pyrolysis includes steam turbine unit, gas turbine unit, waste-heat boiler of gas turbine unit. Steam turbine unit includes steam boiler operating on solid fuel, steam turbine, regenerative air heater and condensate pump. Gas turbine unit includes combustion gaseous fuel chamber, compressor and gas turbine using heated compressed air as working medium. At that, steam gas plant includes a group of independent operating pyrolysers, pyrolysis gas coolers, separator and fine filter. Pyrolysers are installed above burner tier of steam boiler and equipped with pulverised coal and air supply branch pipes. Each pyrolyser is connected by means of coal char supply channel at least to one boiler burner and pyrolysis gas cooler, one of the outlets of which is connected to separator. Coolers and separator is connected via resin and liquid hydrocarbon outlet pipeline to the boiler burners. Separator is connected via pyrolysis gas supercharger by means of supply channel of that gas to fine filter, one of the outlets of which is connected through booster compressor to combustion gaseous fuel chamber, and its other outlet - to the boiler burners through char coal supply channel. Outlets of coolers are connected to regenerative air heaters.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing economy, operating reliability, ecological properties of steam gas plant.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: gas generator consists of inlet and outlet valves with rods located in its combustion chamber, of communicating with chamber cylinder with spring-loaded stepped slide valve positioned between two arresters of its run and of mechanisms of delay. A channel of fuel discharge with an on-off valve installed in it is connected to a fuel supply main. The mechanisms of delay correspond to spring elements arranged on rods of the inlet and outlet valves and resting on the case of the chamber; the spring elements change character of power to a reverse one in the process of deformation. A fuel tank with a filter, and a fuel pump with an electric engine are mounted on the gas generator. The fuel system is equipped with a conic nozzle and controlled system of air ejector.
EFFECT: usage of generator as independent unit.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: electro-station of combined cycle with inter-cyclic gasification consists of: gasificator (2) with solid fuel, air compressor (12), combustion chamber (11) for combustion of gas fuel from gasificator in mixture with compressed air from compressor, gas turbine (13), booster (21), circuit of gasified agent (A), bypass (D) of gasified agent, and multi-purpose valve (23). Bypass (D) adjoins an inlet branch of combustion chamber (11). Circuit (A) of gasified agent supply diverges from booster (21) rising pressure of gasified agent supplied to gasificator (2). Bypass (D) of gasified agent has valve (23) of control of withdrawn pressure. Value of flow or pressure of gasified agent supplied into gasificator (2) via circuit (A) of supply of gasifier agent can be controlled depending on degree of valve (23) opening. Valve (23) is located on bypass (D) of gasifier agent. There is eliminated necessity in installation of control accessories in circuit (A) of gasifier agent supply.
EFFECT: avoiding drops of pressure in circuit of gasifier agent supply, which allows essential reduction of pressure at output of booster.
18 cl, 29 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: low pressure oxidiser is compressed with multi-stage compressor, and then it is supplied to high pressure combustion chamber to which some part of fuel and heated high pressure oxidiser flow is supplied as well. Combustion products are supplied from combustion chamber to gas turbine, and then to fuel element for electrochemical oxidation of the other fuel part. At least some part of low pressure oxidiser is supplied to fuel element input and the flow leaving the fuel element is burnt in low pressure combustion chamber. Low pressure oxidiser supplied to fuel element input is taken from lower stages of compressor.
EFFECT: reducing fuel flow, improving operating reliability of fuel element and decreasing the losses due to insufficient expansion of combustion products in the turbine.
9 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: combined-cycle gas-plant includes a boiler with fluidised bed under pressure, with a furnace containing a fluidised bed and a cyclone, installed inside the body, gas turbine unit, a steam turbine with a regenerative equipment tract, heat exchangers for cooling of the gases leaving the gas turbine and ash, leaving out boiler, gas treatment unit, the vortex chamber with a device for removing the slag in the liquid state, gas cooler. In parallel with the boiler on the air supply, coal and sorbent the device comprises a gasifier with fluidised bed. A stream of fuel gas leaving the gasifier is divided into two substreams. One substream of the fuel gas is fed for combustion into the vortex chamber. The combustion products of the vortex chamber are cooled in a slag trap beam and a gas cooler, and are cleaned in a ceramic filter and fed into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine. The second substream of combustible gas passes successively cooler gas sulfur cleaner installation, ceramic filter and then enters the combustion chamber of a gas turbine. In the combustion chamber the mixture of combustion products and combustible gas subflow takes place, as well as raising of the temperature of gases produced by burning fuel gas before the gases enter the gas turbine.
EFFECT: safe operation of the installation owing to the use of combustible gas produced in its own cycle, increase of efficiency factor at the cost of raising the temperature of the gases in front of the gas turbine.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: combined power system comprises a gas-turbine engine, a power generator mechanically joined by a shaft with the engine and a source of cold air connected in a gas-dynamic manner with the inlet to the engine. The system additionally comprises a device to prepare and to supply gaseous hydrogen into the engine, which includes a reservoir of liquid hydrogen, a pump of liquid hydrogen supply with a drive, suction and discharge pipelines with stop valves, a heater, an accumulator-gasifier of liquid hydrogen, and also an exhaust header comprising a gas duct with a stop valve, double-fuel burners in an engine combustion chamber, an outlet stop valve and a pressure reducer. The pump at the inlet via a suction pipeline with a stop valve is connected to a liquid hydrogen reservoir, and at the outlet - via a discharge pipeline with a stop valve to the inlet of the accumulator-gasifier. The accumulator-gasifier outlet via an outlet stop valve and a pressure reducer is connected with double-fuel burners of the combustion chamber. The gas duct is connected in a gas-dynamic manner by its inlet to the engine outlet, and by its outlet - via a stop valve - to atmosphere. The heater is arranged in the form of a closed cavity. The liquid hydrogen accumulator-gasifier is arranged in the form of a reservoir and is placed in the heater's cavity.
EFFECT: stable production of power of guaranteed level in a wide temperature range of atmospheric air with lower emission of hazardous admixtures with an exhaust gas.
18 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: dc power supplies and dc power systems operating on hydrogen and oxygen.
SUBSTANCE: novelty is that method includes electrical installation starting and running under steady state conditions involving evaporation of liquid methanol and water, production of hydrogen and carbonic acid as result of chemical reaction between methanol and water vapors followed by chemical reaction between produced hydrogen and oxygen to generate water vapors and heat, and water and carbonic acid discharge to environment. When installation is running under steady state conditions, liquid methanol is evaporated due to its thermal chemical reaction with hydrogen and oxygen compound in electrochemical generator and water vapors produced as result of this chemical reaction are conveyed for reaction with methanol vapors to produce hydrogen. Device implementing this method is built around electrochemical generator and has methanol storage tank and series-connected vapor reformer, gas separation unit with carbonic acid discharge line, and electrochemical generator with heat and reaction product discharge lines. Newly introduced in device is methanol pumping circuit incorporating series-connected electrochemical generator communicating through heat discharge line, pump, thinning-and-heat-transfer apparatus, and methanol vapor flow regulator; in addition device is provided with gas heat exchanger, as well as water vapor pumping circuit incorporating series-connected electrochemical generator communicating through hydrogen inlet with reaction product discharge line, water-separating heat-transfer apparatus communicating with water discharge line, fan, vapor reformer, and gas heat exchanger; vapor reformer inlet communicates through gas heat exchanger with methanol vapor flow regulator and methanol storage tank communicates with methanol pumping line and is inserted between thinning-and-heat-transfer apparatus and pump.
EFFECT: reduced ancillary power requirement, enhanced efficiency, reduced size and mass, and simplified design of device.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: novelty is that by-product removing device has absorbent-charged part in fuel cell that selectively absorbs carbon dioxide delivered from module for power generation, fuel reforming for energy production in first gas, and for power generation from hydrogen; absorbent-charged part affords second gas supply in which carbon dioxide concentration is reduced due to its absorption in power generation module; fuel cell has part charged with fuel for energy generation in the form of hydrogen-containing liquid or gas.
EFFECT: enlarges amount and reduced cost of power generation without by-product emission into environment.
24 cl, 147 dwg