System conversion of heat into electricity

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a power system. The system contains a high-temperature circuit with the generator for receiving superheated steam as the primary working fluid to the first expansion device associated with the first generator of the electric power obtained by converting the obvious heat of the working fluid in the work, the output of which is mounted a condenser for transferring the latent heat of the primary working fluid to the cold source is the subsidiary working body, in the low-temperature circuit, including means to supply liquid boiling point which is above the maximum ambient temperature, the condenser is made in the form of combined condenser-heat exchanger that performs the functions of the refrigerator for the primary working fluid and a heater for auxiliary working fluid, while the low-temperature circuit contains a working medium gas having a boiling point below the melting point of said liquid, and is made in the form of a spray, a compressor with a compression ratio from 1.25 to 1.7, the second expansion device is kinematically connected with the second the first generator, and the means of fluid supply connected to the nozzle for introducing her to the auxiliary heated working fluid and its saturation pairs of compression in the compressor, with subsequent conversion of explicit and latent heat in the second expansion device as due to the expansion energy of the subsidiary working body, and due to the heat of condensation of vapor humidifier, coming out in the open collecting tank of the humidifier and condensate through a pump sprayer. The technical result is the most complete transformation of both explicit and latent heat into electricity. 7 C.p. f-crystals, 2 ill., table 2.

The invention relates to the field of power engineering and can be used to generate electricity using the heat of an external heat carrier and heat accumulated in gaseous, chemical and organic fuel.

The prior art is characterized by the fact that the known systems convert heat into electricity, which contains the circuit of the working fluid sequentially installed heat exchanger or by entering the combustion products in the working body to restore its warmth, compressor for compression and expansion device(1) and using the additional circuit using a secondary heat (2).

The disadvantages of the known systems is that they eliminate the conversion of latent heat to the external heat transfer medium, which is converted to the working fluid of the primary circuit, are large losses of his apparent warmth after the expansion of the working fluid, which reduces the efficiency of conversion of heat in General, and limits the amount of received power and, in addition, they exclude the application for recovery of heat the working fluid of low grade heat transfer fluids.

In addition, the known system conversion of heat into electricity, containing high-temperature circuit with the generator for receiving superheated steam as the primary working fluid to the first expansion device is kinematically associated with the first generator of the electric power obtained by converting the obvious warmth of the working fluid into mechanical work associated with the expansion and lowering the temperature in said expansion device, the output of which is installed steam condenser for transferring the latent heat of the primary working fluid to the cold source through the heat transfer of the subsidiary working body contained in the low temperature circuit t the he environment (3).

The disadvantages of this system is the inability to convert the latent heat of the primary working fluid into electrical energy, large deadweight losses of heat in the low temperature circuit is not suitable for electricity generation, as well as the narrowness of functionality, not to optimize the parameters of thermal processes in the system with respect to real climatic conditions and to use low-grade heat sources.

An object of the invention is the conversion of heat into electricity, allowing you to convert both explicit and latent heat in the universal form of energy - electricity, while reducing heat loss in the low-temperature circuit, as well as expanding Arsenal of systems convert heat into electricity and their functionality to ensure the optimization of parameters of thermal processes in the system with respect to real climatic conditions and to use low-grade heat sources.

The invention consists in the fact that the system of converting heat Elo pair as the primary working fluid to the first expansion device, kinematically associated with the first generator of the electric power obtained by converting the obvious warmth of the working fluid into mechanical work associated with the expansion and lowering the temperature in said expansion device, the output of which is mounted a condenser for transferring the latent heat of the primary working fluid to the cold source is the subsidiary working body contained in the low-temperature circuit, including means to supply liquid boiling point which is above the maximum ambient temperature specified condenser is made in the form of combined condenser-heat exchanger, with the possibility of simultaneous execution of the functions of the refrigerator for the primary working fluid and a heater for auxiliary working fluid, while the low-temperature circuit contains as an auxiliary working fluid gas having a boiling point below the melting point of said liquid, and is made in the form of series-connected airbrush, compressor with a compression ratio from 1.25 to 1.7 and the second expansion device with a thermal head, comprising from 0.04 to 0.045 thermal head first rozsiritelne second electricity generator, made with a rated capacity of up to 1,5 nominal power of the first generator, and the means of fluid supply connected to the nozzle for introducing it as a humidifier heated on the steam condenser-heat exchanger auxiliary working fluid and the saturation of the last pairs in compression in the compressor, with subsequent conversion of explicit and latent heat into mechanical work in the second expansion device as due to the expansion energy of the subsidiary working body, and due to the heat of condensation of vapor humidifier.

This second expansion device made in the form of an axial turbine, the latter and the compressor have holes in the case for the condensate and excess moisturizer, respectively, means to supply fluid made in the form of condensate pump, tank and piping, this turbine and the compressor are made with the General body, and their rotors connected by a common shaft, with the specified turbine is made in the form of an axial compressor reverse type, and this turbine is performed with the number of blades on 1-3 a large number of compressor blades.

In addition, the second electric power generator is made reversible with tricastin or heat engine, the rotor of which is kinematically connected to the rotors of the compressor and turbine.

Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention.

In the drawing: Fig. 1 shows a schematic diagram of a system for the conversion of heat into electricity; Fig. 2 is a structural diagram of a low-temperature circuit.

The system of converting low-grade heat contains high-temperature circuit with a steam generator (boiler) 1 and the first expansion device, such as a power turbine 18, kinematically associated with the first generator 19 electricity (generator), and steam-condenser-heat exchanger 15 of the main working bodies of water vapor transferring latent heat of gaseous subsidiary working body, such as air, contained in the low-temperature circuit, made in the form of serially connected atomizer 2, compressor 3 with the compression ratio from 1.25 to 1.7, and the second expansion device in the form of an axial gas turbine 4 with thermal head, components from 0.04 to 0.045 thermal pressure turbine 18.

Turbine 4 is kinematically associated with the second generator 5 elektroenergii 19. Means of fluid-humidifier (boiling point which is above the maximum ambient temperature), such as water in a spray bottle 2 represent the condensate pump 14 to the tank 13, the pipe 9 and valve 11. In addition, water may be supplied directly from the mains through the valve 12.

When this turbine 4 and the compressor 3 have openings 29 in the housing 24 for draining condensate and excess moisturizer, respectively blades 7, 8 of the turbine and compressor 3 is installed on the working disks are diametrically opposed, and the turbine rotor 4 is kinematically connected to the rotors of the compressor 3 and the generator 5 to compensate for conversion and foreign consumption, respectively.

The blades 7 of the turbine 4 and the compressor 3 are fixed (guide device), and the blades 8 are installed on the rotating rotors (not labeled).

In addition, the turbine 4 and the compressor 3 is made with the General body 24, and their rotors connected by a common cylindrical shaft (not labeled). In other cases, at high power unit consisting of a compressor 3, a turbine 4 and the generator 5, they can be separate, but kinematically connected by couplings on the same axis IU rbine 4 and the compressor 3 can be made identical by design or turbine 4 can be performed with the number of rows of blades 7, 8 1-3 a large number of rows of blades 7, 8 of the compressor 3.

When the generator 5 is made reversible with the ability to work both in the generator and motor mode. In addition, the system is equipped with electric or thermal upper stage engine 6, a shaft (not labeled) which is kinematically connected to the rotors of the compressor 3 and the turbine 4.

The valve 26 is set to fill and nourish chemically treated water of high temperature circuit. Valves 16, 17, 21 is provided to control the circulation of the working fluid in the low temperature circuit. To fill the last available line 22 with valve 23, to release the working fluid pipe 10 with the latch 20. As an auxiliary working fluid can be used various gases with a boiling point below the melting temperature of the liquid-humidifier, such as the air.

System conversion of heat into electricity works as follows.

In the steam generator 1 high-temperature circuit is heated water and the formation of the primary working fluid is superheated water vapor, clear heat which is perpetuated in the turbine 18, having a thermal head (differential temperature is obrazovanie, proceeding with the expansion and lowering the temperature of the steam in the turbine 18, and the condenser-heat exchanger 15 is transferred to the latent heat of the primary working fluid to the cold source is the subsidiary working body - the air contained in the low temperature circuit. When this capacitor 15 also serves as a refrigerator for the primary working fluid and a heater for auxiliary working fluid.

In the initial position of the low-temperature loop compressor 3, a turbine 4, the power generator 5 and the motor 6 is stationary, all the valves and the valve closed. Before you start open the valves 20, 21, and at the start of the reversible generator 5 include work in the short-term locomotor mode. If the generator 5 to include inappropriate for some reasons include the operation of the engine 6.

In both cases there is an initial unwinding of the rotors of the compressor 3 and the turbine 4. Then open the valve 23 and one of the valves 11, 12. In the working fluid (air) through a nozzle 2 is supplied to the compressor 3 with simultaneous spraying in the spray 2 humidifier (water). The saturation of the working fluid pairs humidifier happens to momela clear heat, obtained in the condenser-heat exchanger 1 in a latent heat of vapor hydrating water. Thus, the working body with obvious warmth he received when compressed in the compressor 3, is transferred without change in the last turbine 4, as the difference in pressure on the inlet and outlet of the working fluid in the compressor 3 and the turbine 4 are equal to each other. Next, the compressed working fluid, rich in pairs hydrating water, is fed to the turbine blades 4, between which is the expansion and transition of its energy compression into mechanical energy, which are completely given to the turbine 4 on the same shaft as the compressor 3 for the next compression work of the body. This is followed by lowering the temperature of the working fluid in the turbine 4 with simultaneous condensation in it steams hydrating water as the humidity of the working fluid beyond saturation, and the transformation of the latent heat of the vapor in explicit with its transition into additional mechanical work, and then, with the exception of the conversion losses in electricity to power external devices, since the development speed to rated generator 5 will regenerate his energy on anything else within the system is not consumed. Formed Ko for other purposes.

Thus, the turbine 4 is under the influence of two components: the expansion energy of the auxiliary working fluid compressed by the compressor 3, i.e., the apparent warmth of the working fluid, and its latent heat, which is derived from the latent heat of the main working body of the high-temperature circuit and-or low-potential heat of the external fluid, such as air, flowing through the valve 23. Because the turbine blades 4 and the compressor 3 are on the same shaft, the latter operates at the expense of system resources, does not require a special drive motor and does not have the appropriate energy loss, and its design is simplified.

Full saturation of the working fluid pairs humidifier is characterized by the equality of the readings of dry and wet thermometers of a psychrometer, which is installed at the inlet of the working fluid in the turbine 4. Their testimony taken at its optimum temperature at the outlet of the guide vanes of the turbine 4 in the range of 0.3 to 0.5oC, which regulate by changing the pressure of the working fluid at the input it into the compressor 3 by means of the valve 23 in the open loop or the valve 25 is closed (see below). With increasing pressure, the temperature of the servant of the mA can operate in the following modes:

1. When unfolded the low temperature circuit - open valves 20, 21, 23 and closed on 16, 17, 25 and use as an external coolant air of different origin with the temperature below 10oC and no more than 60oC, including air and exhaust ventilation of industrial premises. The working fluid circulates through the open loop, i.e., flows through valves 21 and 23 in the direction of arrow 22 and is discharged into the atmosphere through the valve 20.

2. When open-loop low-temperature circuit, including condenser-heat exchanger 15, if necessary, increasing the power output of generator 5 based on the load (power consumption), but the low temperature of the working fluid flowing through the valve 21, 23. This includes additional work in high temperature circuit, the working fluid which is passed through the condenser-heat exchanger 15. In the latent heat of condensation of the main working body of the high-temperature circuit, in turn clear the heat of condensation is transferred to the subsidiary working body of low temperature circuit. In this mode, the working fluid of low temperature circuit also circulates open circuit when open sudostpassage through the valve 23 of the air below 10oC, the working fluid of low temperature circuit is directed through a closed loop with open valves 16, 17 and 25 and the closed - 23, 21 and 20 by the use of fossil fuels as a heat source of high temperature circuit, and as a heat source of low temperature circuit - only the latent heat of the working fluid of high temperature circuit.

Thus, in the second mode to generate electricity generator 5 are the total latent heat of the main working body of the high-temperature circuit and the external heat of the fluid (air) flowing through the valve 23 at temperatures from 10 to 20oC.

The energy balance of the process occurring in the system for power plants in Central Russia and South, presents the table. 1

The heat balance of the process occurring in the low temperature circuit may be represented in the following form.

The enthalpy of the working fluid at the outlet of the compressor 3 is determined by the equation:

Qk= Qand+ AdL', (1)

where Qand- the enthalpy of the air entering the compressor 3;

AdL' - heat equivalent of the work of the compressor 3.

The enthalpy of the working SUB>t= Qk, AdL - heat equivalent of the turbine 4, a compensating operation of the compressor 3, Qeff- heat a working fluid that is converted by the turbine 4 to the external work, Qx- the removal of heat from the turbine 4 to the atmosphere.

As AdL' = AdL", (1) and (2) implies Qeff= Qand- Qxand the effective power is:

< / BR>
When Neff<0, the generator 5 operates in the motor mode, and when Neff>0 - in generator mode.

It should be noted that Qand= Q'I+ Q'with, Qx= QI+ Qwithwhere Q'I, QI- clear heat the working fluid at the inlet into the compressor 3 and the output from the turbine 4, and Q'with, Qwith- latent heat of the working fluid at the inlet into the compressor 3 and the output from the turbine 4.

During system operation, the compressor 3 is isolated from the external environment, working in the adiabatic mode with adiabatic k = 1.4 and compresses the working fluid is supplied at atmospheric pressure P1= 1104kg/m2to pressure P2= 1,53104kg/m2. The efficiency of serial compressor usually is = 0,78. To evaluate the resulting effective specific power of Nefffor G = 1 kg of propellant, when these original asdoh with parameters typical average strip of Russia: temperature t = 20oC, bulk density = 1.2 kg/m3relative humidity = 50%, a moisture content of xa= 7.6 g/kg Under these settings, the compression of air compressor:

< / BR>
The increase in the temperature t of the working fluid during its compression by the compressor 3:

< / BR>
The increase in the temperature t of the working fluid due to the losses of the compressor 3:

< / BR>
where: the heat capacity c = 0,241 kcal/deg,

t = 10,45oC

Temperature tkat the outlet of the compressor 3

tk= ta+t+t= 68,25C

The enthalpy of Qkthe working fluid to moisture:

Qto= tkc + xandi, where the heat of vaporization humidifier i = 0,559 (see HUTTE "Reference", lecture notes, 1936, S. 603 and 606).

Qto= 20,85 kcal/

The enthalpy of Qandafter wetting (at the inlet of the turbine 4):

Qand= tandc + xandi, where i = 0,580

(tand= 27,65oC - the temperature at the turbine inlet after moistening. At this temperature, full moisture content xand= 24,42 g/kg).

Qand= 20,86 kcal/

The number of xIPevaporated liquid (humidifier):

xIP= xand- xand= 16,82 g/kg

The temperature t'xthe working fluid on the ATA turbine 4 (full saturation):

xx= 4 g/kg

The number of xtosteam condensed in the turbine 4 (when the temperature decreases to t'x):

xto= xand- xx= 20,42 g/kg

Heat Qdcondensed steam, the supporting pressure of the working fluid at the turbine blades, which turns into additional mechanical work (except losses of 10%):

Qd= xtoi,

where i = 0,595

Qd= 12,18 kcal/

The final temperature txat the outlet from the turbine is:

< / BR>
The enthalpy of Qand1 kg of the working fluid (air):

Qand= tandc + xandi,

where i = 0,584

Qand= 9.28 are kcal/

The enthalpy of Qx1 kg of the working fluid at the outlet from the turbine:

Qx= txc + xxi,

where i = 0,592

Qx= 3,59 kcal/

According to (3)

< / BR>
The total capacity of the turbine 4:

Nt= Neff+ Nto= 71,2 kW

Factoreffthe efficiency of the heat of the air (hot spring):

< / BR>
Can be similarly calculated indicators for different initial conditions, as can be seen from table. 2

In the present invention expands the Arsenal of technical means of heat transformation and about ecoeffectiveness use as heat fossil fuel, and the warmth of atmospheric air. The process of such transformation is characterized by the fact that the latent heat of the working fluid is not released into waste heat, and serves to increase the received energy,

The invention for 60% or more (depends on latitude) generated at power plant electricity is significantly reduced level of operating pressures, increases the received power density, significantly reduced the intensity and cost of the equipment, as well as the total investment in the construction of power plants. In addition, there is the possibility of effective reconstruction of the foundations of global energy - thermal power plants with existing infrastructure, which further reduces investment in the reconstruction. But the most important thing is that in this reconstruction of power plants at low cost will increase to 3 or more times and in the same time will decrease the specific fuel consumption, which is radially impact on the improvement of the ecological state of the planet's atmosphere.

Sources of information taken into account:

1. Kirilin C. A. and other "engineering thermodynamics", M, Energoizdat, 1983, S. 273.

2. Authorship SS is Izdat, 1962, S. 97-99.

1. System conversion of heat into electricity, containing high-temperature circuit with the generator for receiving superheated steam as the primary working fluid to the first expansion device is kinematically associated with the first generator of the electric power obtained by converting the obvious warmth of the working fluid into mechanical work associated with the expansion and lowering the temperature in said expansion device, the output of which is mounted a condenser for transferring the latent heat of the primary working fluid to the cold source is the subsidiary working body contained in the low-temperature circuit, including means to supply liquid boiling point which is above the maximum ambient temperature, characterized in that the specified capacitor made in the form of steam-condenser-heat exchanger with the ability to simultaneously perform the function of the refrigerator for the primary working fluid and a heater for auxiliary working fluid and the low-temperature circuit contains as an auxiliary working fluid gas, boiling point which compressor with a compression ratio from 1.25 to 1.7, the second expansion device is kinematically connected with additionally installed a second generator of electricity, made with a rated capacity of up to 1,5 nominal power of the first generator, and the means of fluid supply connected to the nozzle for introducing it as a humidifier heated on the steam condenser-heat exchanger auxiliary working fluid and the saturation of the last pairs of compression in the compressor, with subsequent conversion of explicit and latent heat into mechanical work in the second expansion device as due to the expansion energy of the subsidiary working body, and due to the heat of condensation of vapor humidifier, coming out in the open collecting tank of the humidifier and through the condensate pump - spray.

2. The system under item 1, characterized in that the second expansion device made in the form of an axial turbine, the latter and the compressor have holes in the case for the condensate and excess of the humidifier accordingly.

3. The system under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the fluid supply is made in the form of condensate pump, tank and piping.

4. The system under item 2 or 3, oth">

5. System according to one of paragraphs.2 to 4, characterized in that the turbine is made in the form of an axial compressor reverse type.

6. System according to one of paragraphs.2 to 5, characterized in that the turbine is performed with the number of blades 1 - 3 a large number of compressor blades.

7. System according to one of paragraphs.1 - 6, characterized in that the second electric power generator is made reversible with the ability to work in generator and motor modes.

8. System according to one of paragraphs.2 to 7, characterized in that it is equipped with an accelerating electric or thermal motor, the rotor of which is kinematically connected to the rotors of the compressor and turbine.

 

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