The system of converting low-grade heat

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for use in the field of heat to generate electricity using the heat of an external heat carrier and heat accumulated in gaseous chemical and organic fuel. The inventive system for converting low-grade heat, containing circuit serially fitted with heat exchanger, compressor and expansion device equipped with an introductory pipeline with built-in valve for supplying liquid humectant having a boiling point above ambient temperature, and a nozzle for introducing a spray humidifier in the working body, which is used as a gas with a boiling point below the melting temperature of the humidifier, and an electric generator, and the dispenser is placed in the above-mentioned circuit after the heat exchanger inlet in an axial compressor with the possibility of saturation of the working fluid pairs humidifier compression in the compressor, and the expansion device made in the form of an axial gas turbine for the simultaneous conversion of explicit and latent heat into useful work by expanding s in the housing, the blades of a turbine and a compressor mounted diametrically opposite, the number of turbine blades made of at least

equal to the number of compressor blades and turbine rotor connected to the rotors of the compressor and the electric generator to compensate for converting external energy consumption; in addition, the system is supplied by combustion of gaseous fuel that is installed with the possibility of introduction of products of combustion in the working fluid to recover heat the latter. The invention allows to generate electricity to use the warmth not just any low-grade heat sources, and combustion gases. 7 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. , 1 table.

The invention relates to the field of power engineering and can be used to generate electricity using the heat of an external heat carrier and heat accumulated in gaseous chemical and organic fuel.

The prior art is characterized by the fact that the known system of converting low-grade heat, containing the circuit of the working fluid sequentially installed heat exchanger or by entering the combustion products in the working body to restore its heat to the expanding and lowering the temperature of the latter (1) and using the additional circuit using a secondary heat (2).

A disadvantage of known systems is that they eliminate the conversion of latent heat to the external heat transfer medium, which is converted to the working fluid of the primary circuit, are large losses of his apparent warmth after the expansion of the working fluid, which reduces the efficiency of conversion of heat in General, and limits the amount of received power and, in addition, they exclude the application for recovery of heat the working fluid of low grade heat transfer fluids.

An object of the invention is a device converting low-grade heat and the creation of a universal system for generating electricity efficiently use the heat not just any low-grade heat sources (in particular air of different origin, gases, local exhaust ventilation, waste heat steam generators, gas turbines, and refrigerators, geothermal heat sources, etc ), but also the emissions of this chemical fuels like hydrogen, the gases of combustion of fossil fuels, due to the efficient conversion not only explicit, but also latent heat into mechanical work, for modern heat engines because of their high temperaturesto, as well as the most effective and complete transformation of the related work in the energy with the simultaneous optimization of the parameters of the conversion processes, as well as expanding Arsenal of appropriate systems.

Being the technical solution, forms the basis of the invention, in contrast to the process is the following: the warmth of the external coolant is introduced into the working body to recover its heat content to the admission of the latter into the compressor, and not after it, which gives the possibility of using for this purpose the low-temperature heat transfer fluids, and also eliminates the absorption refrigerator in a closed cycle working fluid thermal waste after the expansion, while maintaining optimal conditions at the inlet of the working fluid in the compressor. Instead of applying fridge and to improve the efficiency of conversion in the invention lower the temperature of the working fluid at the input it into the expansion device. What to compressor working fluid is saturated with moisture, vaporizing it in the past due to the obvious warmth of the external fluid while maintaining the enthalpy of the working fluid without change, as this apparent heat goes without loss of latent heat slave is his apparent heat into mechanical energy decreases its temperature, hydration beyond saturation, the pair of the humidifier condenses, latent heat is transferred in the clear, and the latter, maintaining the pressure in the expansion device, is converted into additional mechanical work by lowering the temperature of the working fluid at the input it into the compressor tabefore exiting the expansion device txwith the conversion of heat corresponding to their difference in mechanical work. In addition, the conversion process of the heat of combustion of hydrogen gas and hydrocarbon fuel produces associated with oxygen and nitrogen.

The invention consists in that the system of converting low-grade heat, containing the circuit of the working fluid sequentially mounted heat exchanger for recovering heat of the working fluid, a compressor for compression and expansion apparatus for converting heat of the working fluid flowing from the expansion and lowering the temperature of the latter, to solve the tasks are provided with piping with built in him, valves and fittings to flow of the liquid of the humidifier having a boiling point above the maximum temperature acrosswith gas with a boiling point below the melting temperature of the humidifier, as well as the electric generator, and the dispenser is placed in the above-mentioned circuit after the heat exchanger inlet in an axial compressor with the possibility of saturation of the heated working fluid pairs humidifier in the compression process in the compressor and the expansion device made in the form of an axial gas turbine for the simultaneous conversion of explicit and latent heat into useful work by expanding the working fluid, and due to the condensation of vapors of the humidifier, with the turbine and compressor are made with holes in the case for the condensate and excess moisturizer, respectively, the blades of a turbine and a compressor mounted diametrically opposite, the number of turbine blades is made at least equal to the number of compressor blades and turbine rotor is kinematically connected to the rotors of the compressor and the electric generator to compensate for conversion and foreign consumption, respectively, in addition, the system is supplied by combustion of gaseous fuel that is installed with the possibility of introduction of products of combustion in the working body for at least partial recovery of the heat of the latter.

In addition, the turbine and compressor are made with the General body, and R is poison blades, 1-3 a large number of rows of compressor blades, the system is equipped with a condensate pump for feeding the humidifier, coming from the respective holes of the turbine and compressor casing, a supply pipe of the humidifier, power generator is made reversible with the ability to work both in the generator and motor mode, the system is equipped with an accelerating electric or thermal engine, the shaft of which is kinematically connected to the rotors of the compressor and turbine.

Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention.

In Fig. 1 shows a structural diagram of a node including a turbine and a compressor; Fig. 2 - schematic diagram of the claimed system.

The system of converting low-grade heat contains the circuit of the working fluid sequentially installed heat exchanger 15 for recovery of the heat of the working fluid, a compressor 3 for compressing, by a pipe (not labeled) with a built in him shut-off and control valves, such as valve 11 and/or 12 for supplying a liquid to the humidifier and nebulizer 2 for introducing a spray humidifier in the working body, and a generator 5, the dispenser 2 is posted in womanwho body pairs humidifier in the compression process in the compressor 3, and the expansion device made in the form of an axial gas turbine 4 for simultaneous conversion of explicit and latent heat into useful work, while the turbine 4 and the compressor 3 is made with holes 9 in the housing 24 for draining condensate and excess moisturizer, respectively, of the blades 7, 8 of the turbine and compressor 3 is installed on the working disks are diametrically opposed, the number of blades 7, 8 of the turbine 4 is made at least equal to the number of blades 7, 8 of the compressor 3, and the turbine rotor 4 is kinematically connected to the rotors of the compressor 3 and the generator 5 to compensate for conversion and foreign consumption, respectively, in addition, the system is equipped with a camera 18 combustion of gaseous fuel that is installed with the possibility of introduction of products of combustion in the working body.

The blades 7 of the turbine 4 and the compressor 3 are fixed (guide device), and the blades 8 are installed on the rotating rotors (not labeled).

In addition, the turbine 4 and the compressor 3 is made with the General body 24, and their rotors connected by a common cylindrical shaft (not labeled), the turbine 4 is made in the form of an axial compressor reverse type, whereby the turbine 4 and the compressor 3 can be performed identicator 7, 8 of the compressor 3.

The system is equipped with a condensate pump 14 to supply the humidifier, coming from the respective holes 9 of the turbine housings 4 and the compressor 3. To collect the humidifier is provided by the container 13. When the generator 5 is made reversible with the ability to work both in the generator and motor mode. In addition, the system is equipped with electric or thermal upper stage engine 6, a shaft (not labeled) which is kinematically connected to the rotors of the compressor 3 and the turbine 4.

In the supply pipe of the humidifier last may come either from the condensate pump 14 through the valve 11, or from the water supply through the valve 12.

The camera 18 of the combustion is supplied by a fan 19 for air supply and valve 20 to supply hydrogen.

Valves 16, 17, 23 are installed to control the circulation of the working fluid circuit, the valve 25 for removal (if necessary) the transformation products.

Arrow 1 (Fig. 1) through the pipe 22 (Fig. 2) the working fluid fills the circuit. When the temperature of the working fluid at the outlet from the turbine 4 above 0oC, in its use as air, and as the humidifier water. As gaseous Topley what real heat is as follows.

In the initial position, the circuit is filled with air, a compressor 3, a turbine 4, the power generator 5 and the motor 6 is stationary, all the valves and gate valves, except valve 23 closed. For system start-up the last door, a reversible electric generator 5 include work in the short-term locomotor mode. If the generator 5 to include inappropriate for some reasons include the operation of the engine 6.

In both cases there is an initial unwinding of the rotors of the compressor 3 and the turbine 4. Then open the valve 16 and one of the valves 11, 12. In the working fluid (air) through a nozzle 2 is supplied to the compressor 3 with simultaneous spraying in the spray 2 humidifier (water). The saturation of the working fluid pairs humidifier happening since the beginning of the spraying and ends with the complete saturation of the compressor 3 with the transition enclosed in a working body of explicit external heat carrier and/or the combustion products in the chamber 18 in a latent heat of vapor hydrating water. While working the body with obvious warmth he received when compressed in the compressor 3, is transferred without change in the last turbine 4, as the difference in pressure on the inlet and outlet of the working water acts on the turbine blades 4, between which is the expansion and transition of its energy compression into mechanical energy, which are completely given to the turbine 4 on the same shaft as the compressor 3 for the next compression work of the body. This is followed by lowering the temperature of the working fluid in the turbine 4 with simultaneous condensation in it steams hydrating water as the humidity of the working fluid beyond saturation, and the transformation of the latent heat of the vapor in explicit with its transition into additional mechanical work, and further except for the conversion losses in electricity to power external devices, since the development speed to rated generator 5 will regenerate his energy on anything else within the system is not consumed. The resulting condensate humidifier at an average temperature of condensation return through the tank 13 to a pump 14, or used for other purposes.

Thus, the turbine 4 is under the influence of two components: the energy of expansion of the working fluid compressed by the compressor 3, i.e., the apparent heat of the working fluid and the latent heat of the working fluid, which is derived from the total heat of vneshnej is on the same shaft, recent work at the expense of system resources, does not require a special drive motor and does not have the appropriate energy loss, and its design is simplified.

Full saturation of the working fluid pairs humidifier is characterized by the equality of the readings of dry and wet thermometers of a psychrometer, which is installed at the inlet of the working fluid in the turbine 4. Their testimony taken at its optimum temperature at the outlet of the guide vanes of the turbine 4 in the range of 0.3 to 0.5oC, which regulate by changing the pressure of the working fluid at the outlet from the compressor 3 by means of the valve 16 when the open loop or the valve 17 is closed (see below). With increasing pressure, the temperature of the working fluid at the outlet of the guide vanes of the turbine 4 decreases, and decreasing - increasing.

The system can operate in two modes: 1) when open loop working fluid - open valves 16 and 23 and closed on 17, 21 and 25 using as an external coolant air of different origin with the temperature below 10oC and no more than 60oC, including air and exhaust ventilation of industrial premises. The working fluid circulates through open and the temperature of the incoming arrow 22 air below 10oC, the working fluid is directed through a closed circuit in two versions: a) with closed valves 16, 21, 23 and 25 and an open - 17 using with the help of the heat exchanger 1 as an external coolant various liquids, steam, gases from the burning of fossil fuel for heating the working fluid to 10 - 60oC; b) with closed valves 16 and 23 opened 17, 21 and 25 and the open valve 20 using the camera 18 of the combustion fan 19 as an external source of oxygen. Hydrogen fuel, burning in oxygen, forming water vapor, and the rest of the air is deprived of oxygen and as a result composed only of nitrogen (and minor impurities normal air - argon 1.16% and carbon dioxide 0,04%), heated to 1500oC, enters the path of the working fluid, fueling the latest up to an optimum temperature, where its heat is converted into additional mechanical work and electricity, as described above. Since this implementation of the invention, air is the working fluid turns into nitrogen with a significant surplus, the latter is withdrawn from the circuit through the valve 25. The number of simultaneously received, therefore, for the industry of nitrogen can be up to 95 kg Hania hydrocarbon fuel, for example, natural gas, methane, is formed in the turbine working fluid consisting of nitrogen of 92.9%, carbon dioxide 6% and argon to 1.1% with access to 100 kWh generated on the fuel consumption by up to 65 kg n and 4 kg of carbon dioxide, which is also displayed through the valve 25. While carbon dioxide is easily provided in the form of dry ice in the liquefaction of nitrogen. When given the changing composition of the working fluid physical properties are not significantly change as the humidifier water remains.

The heat balance of the process occurring in the system may be represented in the following form.

The enthalpy of the working fluid at the outlet of the compressor 3 is determined by the equation

Qto= Qand+ AdL',

where Qand- the enthalpy of the air entering the compressor 3;

AdL' - heat equivalent of the work of the compressor 3.

The enthalpy of the working fluid at the inlet to the power turbine 4 is defined by the equation

Qt= AdL + Qeff+ Qx, (2)

where Qt= Qto, AdL - heat equivalent of the turbine 4, a compensating operation of the compressor 3; Qeff- heat a working fluid that is converted by the turbine 4 to the external work; Qx- the removal of heat from the turbine 4 is th is

< / BR>
When Neff< 0, the generator 5 operates in the motor mode, and when Neff> 0 - in generator mode.

It should be noted that Qand= Q'I+ Q'with, Qx= QI+ Qwithwhere Q'I, QI- clear heat the working fluid at the inlet into the compressor 3 and the output from the turbine 4; Q'with, Qwith- latent heat of the working fluid at the inlet into the compressor 3 and the inlet of the turbine 4.

During system operation, the compressor 3 is isolated from the external environment, working in the adiabatic mode with the adiabatic exponent k = 1.4 and compresses the working fluid is supplied at atmospheric pressure P1= 1 104kg/m2to pressure P2= 1,53 104kg/m2. The efficiency of serial compressor usually is = 0,78. To evaluate the resulting effective specific power of Nefffor G = 1 kg of the working fluid in these source data, you can perform the following illustrative calculations, for example, such an external coolant as the air with parameters typical of an average strip of Russia: temperature t = 20oC, bulk density = 1.2 kg/m3relative humidity = 50%, a moisture content of Xand= 7,6 g/kg Under these settings, the compression air is improving the temperature t of the working fluid due to the losses of the compressor 3

< / BR>
where the heat capacity C = 0,241 kcal/deg,

t = 10,45oC.

Temperature ttoat the outlet of the compressor 3

tto= ta+t+t = 68,25oC.

The enthalpy of Qtothe working fluid to hydrate

Qto= ttoC + Xandi, where the heat of vaporization humidifier i = 0,559 (see HUTTE "Reference", lecture notes, 1936, S. 603 and 606).

Qto= 20,85 kcal/sec.

The enthalpy of Qandafter wetting (at the inlet of the turbine 4)

Qand= tandC + Xandi, where i = 0,580

(tand= 27,65oC - the temperature at the turbine inlet after moistening. At this temperature, full moisture content Xand= 24,42 g/kg).

Qand= 20,86 kcal/sec.

The number of XIPevaporated liquid (humidifier)

XIP= Xand- Xand= 16,82 g/kg

The temperature t'xthe working fluid at the outlet of the guide vanes of the turbine 4

.

The moisture content Xxat the outlet of the guide vanes of the turbine 4 (full saturation)

Xx= 4 g/kg

The number of Xtosteam condensed in the turbine 4 (when the temperature decreases to t'x)

Xto= Xand- Xx= 20,42 g/kg

Heat Qd
Qd= Xtoi, where i = 0,595;

Qd= 12,18 kcal/sec.

The final temperature txat the outlet from the turbine is:

< / BR>
The enthalpy of Qand1 kg of the working fluid (air):

Qand= tandC + Xandi, where i = 0,584;

Qand= 9.28 are kcal/sec.

The enthalpy of Qx1 kg of the working fluid at the outlet of turbine

Qx= txC + Xxi, where i = 0,592;

Qx= 3,59 kcal/sec.

According to (3)

< / BR>
The total capacity of the turbine 4

Nt= Neff+ Nto= 71,2 kW.

Factoreffthe efficiency of the heat of the air (hot spring)

.

Factoreffthe efficiency of the use of other heat sources in the application of the heat exchanger 15 is equal to 0.8. Factoreffthe efficiency of the heat of combustion of hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuel gases in the chamber 18 - 0,96.

Can be similarly calculated indicators for different initial conditions, as can be seen from the table.

In the present invention expands the Arsenal of technical means of conversion of heat and provided the opportunity to convert it into universalistically sources, as well as high conversion into electricity of heat accumulated in the organic chemical and fuel (hydrogen) with associated development for industry (using hydrogen gas and a hydrocarbon fuel) the last of nitrogen. The latent heat of the working fluid is not released into waste heat, and increases energy. The invention reduces the level of working pressure, increases the received power density, decrease the intensity and cost of the equipment, as well as the total investment in the construction of power plants.

Sources of information taken into account

1. Kirilin C. A. and other Technical thermodynamics. - M.: Energoizdat, 1983, S. 273.

2. USSR author's certificate N 601441, F 01 K 21/02, 1978.

1. The system of converting low-grade heat that contains the path of the working fluid with the established heat exchanger for recovering heat of the working fluid, a compressor for compression, expansion device in the form of an axial gas turbine for conversion of heat of the working fluid flowing from the expansion and lowering the temperature of the latter, and an electric generator, and an introductory pipeline built is xymalos ambient temperature, and dispenser for introducing a spray humidifier in the working body, which is used as a gas with a boiling point below the melting temperature of the humidifier, and the turbine rotor is kinematically connected to the compressor rotor and the generator, wherein the dispenser is placed in the above-mentioned circuit after the heat exchanger inlet in an axial compressor with the possibility of saturation of the pairs of the humidifier heated working fluid in the compression process it in compressor and axial turbine installed and performed with simultaneous conversion of explicit and latent heat into useful work by expanding the working fluid, and due to the condensation of vapor from the humidifier coming out in the open collecting tank of the humidifier, and the turbine and compressor are made with holes in the case for the condensate and excess of the humidifier accordingly, the blades of a turbine and a compressor mounted diametrically opposite, the number of turbine blades is made at least equal to the number of compressor blades and turbine rotor is kinematically connected to the rotors of the compressor and the electric generator with the ability to compensate conversion losses and foreign consumption, respectively, the forth body for at least partial recovery of the heat of the latter.

2. The system under item 1, characterized in that the turbine and compressor are made with the General body, and their rotors connected by a common shaft.

3. The system under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the turbine is made in the form of an axial compressor reversible type.

4. System according to one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the turbine is performed with the number of rows of blades 1 - 3 a large number of rows of compressor blades.

5. System according to one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that it is provided by the condensate pump humidifier, coming from the respective holes of the turbine and compressor casing in the supply pipe of the humidifier.

6. System according to one of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the generator is made reversible with the ability to work both in the generator and motor mode.

7. System according to one of paragraphs.1 - 6, characterized in that it is equipped with an accelerating electric or thermal motor, the rotor of which is kinematically connected to the compressor rotor and the turbine.

8. System according to one of paragraphs.1 to 7, characterized in that the inlet of the heat exchanger connected to the combustion chamber.

 

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