A method of producing acetylene

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a plasma chemical processing of coal. Describes a method of producing acetylene from the crushed coal in a hydrogen plasma. Coal is subjected to pre-treatment prior to being fed into the reactor by passing an electrical layer through the layer. The proposed method allows to increase the output of acetylene on the organic mass of coal and reduce the costs of electricity for the receipt and allocation of acetylene. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il., table 2.

The invention relates to the field of chemical technology and can be used to produce acetylene from coal by low-temperature plasma.

A known method of producing acetylene from coal in a hydrogen plasma company "Hulls Germany [1]. According to this method, acetylene get in plasma of hydrogen, is heated in a DC plasma torch. Energy consumption is 9.5 to 10.5 kWh/kg of acetylene. The output of acetylene used in this method depends entirely on the composition and quality of the coal. R. Muller, "Application of plasma arc processes in the chemical industry". (Elektrowarme International, 45(1987) B 3/4 Juni/August).

There is also known a method of producing acetylene by the pyrolysis of coal, containing the kWh/kg of acetylene. By-products were carbon (up to 10% for raw materials), hydrocyanic acid (0.2%), and hydrogen, the amount of which depends on the quality of coal. In the processing of pulverized coal with a high content of volatile constituents, the concentration of acetylene in the sin has achieved a 15.7%. The output of acetylene in the calculation of raw materials amounted to 35%.

Closest to the proposed method is a method developed by the company "AVCO" /A. P. Suris. "Chemical reactors", Chemistry, 1983/.

The drawback of both methods is the complete dependence of the yield of acetylene only on the composition and quality of raw materials - coal.

The invention solves this task.

To achieve a technical result of the proposed method of producing acetylene which involves processing of coal in a hydrogen plasma, quenching of the reaction products, introduced advanced processing node coal flow into the reactor, which is a distinguishing feature of the proposed method.

In this node crushed coal is subjected to processing by an electric current, resulting in a preliminary decomposition of coal drying and decomposition of organic matter of coal and vyd

The proposed method is illustrated by a drawing, which shows a diagram of the installation plasma pyrolysis of coal.

The diagram shows the plasma torch 1 with a source of DC power 2, plasmachemical reactor 3 with a quenching device 4, the dispenser coal 5, the ejector 6, the processing unit coal 7, filter dust from the gases of pyrolysis 8, site submission plasma and carrier gas 9.

In the plasma torch 1, the reactor 3, the quenching device 4 is supplied water for cooling.

After processing node coal measured temperature of the coal powder using a thermocouple 10.

The method is as follows. The crushed coal is fed through the spout 5 and the ejector 6 in the node processing of coal 7 electrical shock, where there is a thermal decomposition of the organic mass of coal with the release of moisture and volatile components.

The processing node coal is a device where the inside is transported charcoal powder, in which electric current is supplied for processing.

After the node processing the coal is fed into the plasma-chemical reactor, where the process of mixing carbon powder with a stream of hydrogen plasma generated in the PLA is in the quenching device to prevent decomposition of acetylene.

To determine the effect of coal quality on the yield of acetylene in experiments took brown coals babaevskii field of Bashkortostan. Experiments to study the behavior of coal in the heating process was carried out in laboratory conditions on derivatograph.

From the analysis of derivatograph the coals studied, it follows that the process of thermal decomposition of coal is accompanied by distinct peaks, corresponding to the production of moisture and volatile substances.

The fraction of carbon powder was 0 to 0.14 mm Processing electric current conducted with varying degrees of impact, thus altering the temperature of the carbon powder to the inlet of the reactor.

The proportion of released volatiles depending on the temperature of the powdered coal is subjected to processing by an electric current, are shown in table 1.

The maximum fraction of emitted volatile substances, components of 40-55%, was observed at temperatures 420-450oC. When the heating temperature of the coal powder above 450oC we observed formation of the resin. Heating coal powder, you can make permanent, alternating currents, currents of high frequency currents microwave field, because processing of coal has value only contribution is eaten processing, where he was subjected to electric current, achieving temperatures of 350, 420, 450oC, respectively.

To obtain comparative data of crushed coal fraction 0-0,14 mm was applied to the reactor without pre-treatment by electric current.

The results are shown in table 2.

Presented in table 2 test results it follows that the method of producing acetylene from pre-treatment of coal by electric current with temperature processing of coal 420-450oC provides increased yields of acetylene and reducing energy consumption to obtain the same compared to the prototype.

Sources used

1. R. Muller // the Use of electric arc plasma processes in the chemical industry. Magazine Elektrowarme International 45 (1987) B 3/4 Juni/August

2. A. P. Suris // plasma-Chemical reactors. M.: Chemistry. - 1983.

1. A method of producing acetylene from the crushed coal in a hydrogen plasma, characterized in that the coal is subjected to pre-treatment prior to being fed into the reactor by passing an electric current through his coat.

2. The method according to p. 1, wherein processing the electric current is carried out until the rate is

 

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