The way the subsoil watering plants when growing them indoors in trays

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to agriculture, particularly the cultivation of plants in greenhouses. In the process of implementation of the method, water is fed into the lower part of the tray containing melkogravijnye material, which is covered with a perforated film and the surface of which is horizontal. On top of the feature film substrate. The depth of penetration of water into it limit with level sensor installed in the tray, and the humidity of the substrate is controlled and limited by the humidity sensor. This makes it possible to increase the uniformity of moisture while simplifying the process of irrigation. 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of agriculture, particularly the cultivation of plants in greenhouses.

Known for subsurface irrigation of plants, which is deservedly considered one of the most efficient methods of irrigation of agricultural crops [1]. In this case, the most widespread irrigation system using tubular humectants (water) in the form laid at a certain depth in the soil pipe or hose with outlet openings (outlets) for supplying water into the soil. However, when the subsoil is of moisture in the soil pipes (conduits) and holes in them is calibrated along the length of the pipelines on the basis of hydraulic calculations. However, it is difficult and expensive. The holes become clogged over time, and the results are low. Instead of the calibration conduit and holes in them with the same purpose (for more uniform distribution of water) using different controllers stabilizing the pressure at the outlet of the conduit [2].

When watering is not automatic, but based on calculated according to the formulas irrigation norm, as required in the automation of the irrigation distribution uniformity of moisture in the irrigated surface has been unable to reach.

To reduce the cost of subsoil irrigation system and make it more reliable, and most importantly, to increase (or not achieved yet!) the uniformity of moisture applied channel dispensers filled stony fractions [3]. The bottom of the channel (for waterproofing) is covered by the film, it fits stony layer at him perforated film top-poured sand (buffer) layer, and then the soil substrate.

As follows from the description of this method [3], water, which is both porous materials is distributed into the soil through the buffer layer more evenly. This system is more reliable because it doesn't clog the Bank of Russia the possibility of automating this process of irrigation. And applies this method [3] for agriculture open ground, because this system running, which complicates its application in greenhouses. In agriculture protected ground soil irrigation until almost not used [4], despite the fact that the protected ground of its use creates favorable conditions for increasing yields, reducing the incidence of plants, reduce water consumption for irrigation of plants and other [1].

The aim of the invention is to obtain a cheap way subsoil irrigation installations protected ground, allowing almost absolute uniformity of soil moisture and the ability simplest way to automate the process of sub-surface irrigation. Purpose specified in greenhouses has been achieved using several converting method, similar to the prototype [3].

For this purpose, the bottom resealable rack or ditches lined and sforzandos film is deposited finely granulated, laboratively material (coarse sand, clay, gravel), the surface of which is then aligned horizontally. On top of such granular layer (conduit) is covered with a polyethylene film with rany "buffer". However, this is not necessary if the substrate material is applied with good capillary properties (for example, just the sand of a certain faction, as applicable, when irrigation is nutrient solution). If the area of the conduit after that, apply water slowly, its level will rise over the entire area of the conduit horizontally. At some point the water reaches the level of the film (and buffer or substrate), and will hit them at exactly the same time throughout the irrigated area. And then, the water will already be through a perforation in precisely the same way and evenly flow into the substrate. Water level rise and its penetration into the substrate is controlled, regulated and constrained by a water level sensor. When the water rises in the substrate to a predetermined level, the flow of water stops. After this, the rise of moisture in the soil and its moisture take place due to capillary forces. Once submitted, the portion of the moisture will penetrate into the substrate, the water level falls below a defined, and the water supply is automatically repeated. Replenishment will be repeated until such time as soil moisture, controlled by the corresponding sensor at the right level, does not reach the specified value.

On the ATA will be the same everywhere. Thus, the humidity of the substrate at any point irrigation will always be the same. So, to automate the process of subsoil irrigation will be enough.

If instead the soil substrate used sand of the appropriate fractions, and under the roots of the plants feeding the nutrient solution will provide a peculiar kind of hydroponics.

The strength of hydroponic growing plants is well known.

The proposed method (prototype variant) was tested in the greenhouse of the all-Russian Institute of plant. N. And. Vavilov (see drawing).

Here in one of the concrete sealed racks 1, in which the plants are grown 2, was covered by a relatively thin layer of clay fines 3 "conduit". The surface of the clay was aligned horizontally and aligned layer stacked plastic film 4 c is uniformly deposited on the surface of the perforation 5. The film was covered by a thin layer of sand 6 - buffer, and the buffer - soil substrate 7. When grown in the experiment salad 2 layer soil substrate 7 was 30 cm From the tank 8 through El. the valve 9 through the pipe 10 into the zone conduit 3 water. When enabled, the control unit 11 sisupala through the pipe 10 into the conduit 3, will slowly rise, while maintaining a strictly horizontal surface.

At some point in time the water will simultaneously affect film 4 throughout its area, pass through the perforations 5 in the buffer layer 6.

After the water reaches a height defined by a level sensor 12, the valve 9 is turned off, and the water supply is temporarily stopped.

But received in the buffer 6, the moisture begins to be absorbed (absorbed) by capillarity in the sand, which leads to a decrease in its level and re-enable the valve 9 through the sensor 12. Thus, the water will gradually be absorbed into the soil, rising higher and higher, until the soil moisture sensor 13 does not output the signal on the achievement of soil moisture (at the level of its installation) to the specified value. Now El. the valve 9 is shut off by the sensor 13. After declining soil moisture due to evaporation and transpiration of moisture by plants, the process will be repeated again.

Held in the VLR the experiment at a pilot plant for growing lettuce (as early culture) when automatic its subsoil irrigation showed its efficiency, simplicity and reliability at a low cost. Productivity has increased significantly.

Uluchsheniyu (and many other cultures) does not tolerate irrigation by sprinkling.

Used information

1. "Subsurface irrigation of agricultural crops". The tutorial. , Krasnodar. 1988

2. Auth. St. N 812238, class A 01 G 25/06.

3. Auth. St. N 1613060, class A 01 G 25/06.

4. E. Aliyev, N. Smirnov "Technology of cultivation of vegetables in greenhouses". Agropromizdat. 1987, page 74.

The way the subsoil watering plants when growing them indoors in trays, including the supply of water to the bottom of the tray, separate from the perforated substrate film, and the termination of its filing upon reaching a sufficient level, characterized in that the bottom tray is placed a thin layer melkogravijnymi material, the surface of which is aligned horizontally, after which he served a perforated film, the depth of penetration of water into the substrate limit with level sensor installed in the tray, and the humidity of the substrate to control and restrict more, and humidity sensor.

 

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