Trigger with three stable states and a total yield

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of e-pulse technique and can be used to create switching, counting, threshold and memory devices for automatic systems, as well as for storage and processing binary and ternary information in digital technology. Triggering pulses at the input cause the appearance on the common output voltage, the polarity of which is determined by the polarity of the trigger pulse, and a zero voltage appearing at the input, interrupts the pulse at the output and returns the trigger to its original state with the output voltage equal to zero. The trigger consists of two parallel connected transistor switches. The transistor (T) (1,2) keys have different conductivity types, and their collectors are combined to form the total output relative to the earthed point of the two power sources connected in series. After the expiration of the trigger pulse output voltage is stored in the positive feedback circuit, connected in parallel to the keys. It is two amplifiers with a T(3) T(4) opposite conductivity type connected in series, and connect the second information when enabled, fixing not only the fact of appearance of the signal at the input, but the plus sign (+) or minus sign (-). 5 Il.

The invention relates to techniques for automatic control of production processes and can be used to create devices pulse technique as switching, counting, threshold and memory elements, as well as for storage and processing of binary information in digital technology.

Known trigger system - an electronic device with two States of stable equilibrium, capable of long-term stay in one of them and alternate them under the influence of external control signals.

The trigger system is very diverse, but the differences are associated with circuits control the operation of the device, and the trigger underlying system, is a common trigger RS with two inputs and two outputs. Its simplest option - static RS-trigger [1] is chosen as the prototype. It consists of two parallel-connected transistor, covered cross positive feedback so that when one transistor is in a conducting state and is saturated, and the second transistor is necessarily closed. This status is no triggering pulse, the caller appears on one of the outputs of the high voltage level, then this input is referred to as direct, in contrast to the reverse, the starting pulse which causes the high voltage level on the second (inverse) output. The emergence of high voltage level on one of the outputs is necessarily accompanied by the disappearance of his on another and therefore the voltage on the second output assumes no new information. So usually there is only one output, the voltage of which varies depending on which input you receive the triggering pulse from zero to the voltage source.

Upon termination of the trigger pulse trigger remains in that condition, which is caused by the triggering pulse. This ability to store the information obtained is called memory. If one can take for 1 and the other 0, we can assume that the trigger stores the recorded binary information.

The presence of two separate inputs and two outputs complicates the electrical circuit trigger device and complicates the electrical connections with other components of the device as a whole. But the main disadvantage of this trigger is that it is not marcenia slipping into one of two stable States and produces a false output signal without affecting the trigger pulse. Finally, the inputs and outputs are electrically connected and you may experience an electrical connection between them.

The purpose of the invention is to create a trigger with three stable States and can alternate between these States under the influence of the zero-voltage trigger pulses of the opposite polarity is supplied to one input so that zero voltage returns the trigger to its original state with the output voltage equal to zero, and the triggering pulses of opposite polarity appear at the same output voltage is also opposite polarity.

The trigger of this type does not give false information when enabled, allows you to remove obsolete information, captures not only the fact of appearance of the input signal, but also its sign, for example, a plus sign (+) or (-).

The electrical circuit of the trigger shown in Fig. 1.

The trigger is formed by two parallel main branches ab and cd, each of which represents a transistor switch and contains a transistor and a collector resistor T1RK1and T2RK2. Branches are powered by two series-connected voltage sources E with sesamstra connected and form a common output device.

Parallel to the main branches included the extension branch of positive feedback MN. It consists of two cascaded amplifier transistors T3and T4different types of conductivity. The emitters of the amplifiers are connected together and grounded through the resistance R, of the base are connected together and a common point of the collectors of the transistors of the main branches. The collector load of the amplifier is formed by two series-connected resistors R'3R3and R'4R4. Their common point is connected to the base of the transistor of the main circuit, which has the opposite conductivity type to the conductivity of the transistor constituting the amplifier.

To describe the operation of the proposed device will use its simplified diagram (Fig. 2). In contrast to the schematic diagram (Fig. 1) it contains only the main branches representing two parallel transistor with United at the point O' the collectors of the transistors T1and T2. For simplicity, we assume that the characteristics of the transistors T1and T2identical and differ only in the directions of current and voltage.

In a symmetric system with RK1
Transistor switches can be considered using their direct load. They represent the dependence of the current on the voltage at the selected values of the source voltage and the resistance of the collector resistor [2], is depicted on the field the static characteristics of the transistor. In Fig. For showing the load line of the transistor n-p-n included as shown in Fig. 3V.

Load direct effect transistor p-n-p differs only in the direction of the currents and voltages. It is shown in Fig.SV.

For the considered case, when the power key is powered by two series-connected voltage sources E with grounded common point, the load obtained by direct shear load direct on the value of E on the axis of the stresses and the value of E/2R on the current axis, as shown in Fig. 3C and 3d.

Load direct the entire device is obtained by combining direct load main branches. Load direct branches ab and cd are the same and form a single load line shown in Fig.4. At each moment the state of the device corresponds to a point lying on a load line. This point depending on the voltage at the bases transisto O' and the current is zero.

At points B and C one transistor is in the saturation state, another state, the cutoff current. For example, at point B, the transistor T1conducts current and saturated, and T2closed. At the point C is saturated T2, a T1is in the cutoff state.

All points on the load straight BC are unstable and if under the effect of a short trigger pulse at the base of one transistor device is in one of these points, after the termination of the pulse the state changes.

To capture the state at the points B and C is the branch of positive feedback MN.

If, for example, under the action of the trigger pulse scheme was at the point B, where the transistor T1saturated and transistor T2locked, the voltage at the point O' is greater than zero, and at the bases of the transistors T3and T4together, you receive a positive voltage. It opens the transistor T3and its collector resistor R3= R'3+ R3current flows, creating R'3the saturation voltage on the basis of T1. This tension exists as long as the result is a positive feedback transistor T3
.

The transistor T2as the transistor T4during operation of the transistors T1and T3is in the cutoff state. The emitters of transistors T3and T4connected to ground via a resistor R whose resistance is on the order of hundreds of ohms. He stabilizes, making it more sustainable, and limits the voltage at the bases of T3and T4that B is the equilibrium current through the resistor R does not leak and the emitters of T3T4have the Ground potential.

To put the device in the opposite position, point C to the input file triggering pulse of negative polarity. He locks the transistor T3and simultaneously opens the transistors T4and T2. The process goes in reverse order.

In the state corresponding to the point B, the output voltage Uo= UOO'is positive and the amplitude of his almost reaches (+ E), point C is the voltage close to (-E).

The trigger and its tilting may be effected by filing a trigger pulses on the United bases of the transistors T3and T4or feed them directly to the bases of the transistors Ttstuat.

When the power is turned on, the voltage at the trigger output UOO'is set to zero and this condition of stable equilibrium. It is stored prior to joining the point O' trigger pulse. Positive triggering pulse causes the current in the collector circuit of transistor T3. The flow of this current through the collector resistor R'3creates a voltage supplied to the base of the T1and opening it. The resulting current of the transistor T1creates as a result, the voltage drop across RK1. This voltage UOO'and an output.

Negative triggering pulse causes the output voltage of the opposite sign. If the output voltage of the point O' to ground, the current in the transistors T3and T4will stop the transistors T1and T2will also become non-conductive and the circuit will return to its original state.

The trigger can be used in devices ternary notation, but the overall point sources O must be isolated from Earth the whole device.

Sources of information

1. Zeldin B. A. Triggers. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1983, page 6, Fig. 2A.

2. Stepanenko, I. P. Osnovatelnee and a common output, formed by two parallel main branches, each of which is a transistor switch and contains a transistor with the collector resistor, powered by two series-connected voltage sources, a common point of which is grounded, characterized in that the main branches of the used transistors of different conductivity type, the collectors of which are connected to form the overall output of the trigger relative to the earth, parallel to the main branches included the branch of positive feedback, represented by two cascaded amplifier with transistors of different conductivity type, the emitters of which are connected together and grounded through a resistor, bases are connected together and a common point of the collectors of the transistors of the main branches, their collector load is formed by two series-connected resistors each, and a common point of resistors connected to the base of transistor main branches, which has the opposite conductivity type compared to the conductivity of the transistor amplifier.

 

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