Rotary engine, the ways of working of the engine (options)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of energy and can be applied in thermal engines for various purposes, including engines for land, air, underwater vehicles, space power and powerful units of industrial CHP. A rotary engine includes a housing in the inner cavity of which with the ability unidirectional rotation is established leading to the rotor sealing plate and the driven rotor with two sealing edges of the depression on the outer cylindrical surface. The heating chamber is located in the body and communicated with the chambers of the compression and expansion of distribution through the bypass channels executed on the slave rotor and housing. The profiles of the rotors is screw. In the casing a chamber with a heat exchanger-recuperator. The proposed design of the rotary engine and the execution order of processes allow to increase fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness of the engine. 3 S. and 6 C.p. f-crystals, 10 ill.

The invention relates to the field of energy and can be applied in thermal engines for various purposes, including the engines ground, vozdushnenjko literature known rotary engines:

[1] (SU authorship 1252509, CL F 01 C 21/16, 23.08.86);

[2] (SU authorship 1414964, CL F 02 B 55/00, 07.08.88);

[3] (RU, patent 2013589, CL F 02 B 53/00, 27.10.96) is adopted as a prototype.

[4] (SU, application 94045350, CL F 02 B 53/00, 27.10.96), comprising a housing with an internal cavity formed by two intersecting cylindrical bores in which is installed with the possibility of unidirectional synchronous rotation leading to the rotor sealing plate and the driven rotor with two sealing edges and a depression on the outer cylindrical surface kinematically associated synchronizing gears.

In the end covers of the body has an inlet open to purge air compression chamber, outlet ports are located in the shell casing, the combustion chamber is located inside the slave rotor. The profiles of the rotors are connected with each other with minimal gaps and form thus a working camera compression and expansion with non-contact seals. In contrast to the known planetary schemes simple rotational movement of the rotors ensures their high circumferential speed (50. ..150 m/s) and defines the unique weight and dimensions of the engine (specific gravity less than 0.1 kg/kW). In addition to tohono solution to the problems of wear, resource, lubrication, reliability, efficiency and environmental performance of the engine.

For example, in the invention [1] to minimize the clearances provided gapless clock transmission unit; [2] implements active management gap with feedback by adjusting thermal regime of the housing; a patent [3] describes the special labyrinth structure providing a "reverse effect", i.e. the return leaks in the process of expanding back in the camera extension; application [4] provides a way to seal the working chambers of the engine directly in the process by condensation and high-speed abrasion in the gaps relatively soft substances. However, the use of recovery in engines of the above mentioned schemes is difficult, because the combustion chamber they are located inside the slave rotor and perform the connecting channels between the combustion chamber (heating) and heat exchanger-recuperator difficult. In addition, the known rotary engines of low power (less than 100 kW) are characterized by high shaft speed (n 18000 rpm), to ensure quality and complete combustion of fuel, especially with direct injection it in the combustion chamber, it is difficult.

The objective of the invention is the result is achieved by that rotary engine includes a housing in the inner cavity of which with the ability unidirectional rotation is established leading to the rotor sealing plate and the driven rotor with two sealing edges and a depression on the outer cylindrical surface. The profiles of the rotors is screw. The engine includes a heating chamber located in the housing, provided with a heat exchanger with an external supply of heat or fuel nozzle and spark plug and communicates with the chambers of the compression and expansion of distribution through the bypass channels executed on the slave rotor and housing. In the case of a rotary engine made the chamber, the entrance of which is communicated through the bypass channels with the compression chamber, and the output of prelimary communicated with the heating chamber through the additional bypass channel, executed on the slave rotor. The chamber may be made in the form of a vortex tube with a fuel nozzle. The chamber has a heat exchanger-the heat exchanger, the heat input path of which is connected to the exhaust pipe of the engine, and the output from the external atmosphere or through the condenser with the inlet manifold of the engine. Distribution by-pass channels are made on the outer cylindrical surface of the camera extension. The engine may include at least two sections, while the same screw rotor sections have different direction of the helix. Volume prelimary matches one or more volumes of a single charge of compressed gas from the compression chamber.

The proposed method of operation of the engine, includes the following processes.

In the compression chamber carry out a preliminary compression, connecting the compression chamber with the chamber with the heat exchanger and the heating chamber and produce additional compression heated in the recuperator, disconnect the heating chamber from prelimary and expansion chamber and produce heating of the gas at constant volume. Then connect the heating chamber with a chamber for expanding and produce the expansion of the gas to a pressure less than that in the chamber, connect the chamber with the heating chamber and blow it with compressed gas from prelimary, disconnect the camera extension from the heating chamber and continue to expand with the next release.

Stated another way of engine operation, including the following processes.

In the compression chamber carry out a preliminary compression, then connect the compression chamber with an antechamber with a recuperator and exert compression gas podagraria previously heated charge to a pressure of less than in the chamber, connecting the heating chamber with an antechamber and implement the expansion of the gas from prelimary in the heating chamber, disconnect the heating chamber from prelimary and camera extension and warm gas, connecting the heating chamber with a chamber for expanding and implementing the expansion of the gas to a pressure less than that in the chamber, connect the chamber with the heating chamber and continue the expansion of the gas to the displacement of the heated gas from the heating chamber a fresh charge, disconnect the camera extension from the heating chamber and continue the expansion of the heated gas in the chamber expansion and subsequent release.

In Fig. 1 shows the engine in cross-section along C-C in the plane of the end face of the male rotor; Fig. 2 - section A-A of Fig. 3 - B of Fig. 4 - section E-E in the beginning of the expansion process; Fig. 5 - option of the engine with a long heating process (combustion) of the charge; Fig. 6 - section M-M of Fig. 7 - section K-K of Fig. 8 - section K-K for the variant with the disk valve; Fig. 9 shows a variant of the two-piece engine; Fig. 10 shows the seal design with gas lubrication.

The engine includes a housing 1 with lids 2,3. In the inner cavity of the housing formed by two intersecting is a PR 6 with two sealing edges and a depression on the outer cylindrical surface. The rotors are kinematically connected synchronizing transmission, ensuring unidirectional rotation with equal angular velocity (not illustrated). In the end covers are open 7 connected to the inlet pipe 8. In the shell of the case is made outlet ports 9, connected by a channel 10 with blade crown turbine 11 active type, made in one piece with a flywheel fixedly mounted on the shaft 12 of the male rotor. The outlet of the turbine 11 is guide vanes for the turbine 13 of the turbocharger boost. In the casing of the chamber 14 and the heating chamber 15 with insulation 16, which may be in the form of the combustion chamber with the spark plug and the fuel injector 17 or contain counterflow heater-heat exchanger with external heat supply (for example, like the heater of the Stirling engine). In the chamber 14 posted by the heat exchanger in counter-flow compact heat exchanger 18, made for example in the form of a corrugated sheet of heat-resistant steel, the corrugations have small ribs, which they pass and cross, in contact with each other in many points, and provide a perception of significant pressure drops. Heating tract 19 recuperator pipe 20 is connected with trubka turbocharger (closed loop). When the open loop pipe 21 is connected with the atmosphere, which acts as a large refrigerator. Volume prelimary runs from conditions accommodate a single charge of compressed air injected into the chamber from the compression chamber during one cycle.

The volume of a single charge of gas VG. p.in the chamber is determined by the relationship:

< / BR>
where VK. S.- volume compression chamber;

v- volumetric efficiency during compression and displacement of gas in the antechamber;

- the compression of the gas in the compression chamber at the end of its displacement in the antechamber.

The profiles of the rotors in the axial direction of the twisted helix, the angle of twist of the ends within the length of the working chamber in Fig. 1, 2 is approximately 30o. The execution of the screw rotors eliminates excessively high gas velocity and hydrodynamic losses at the end of the compression process and the beginning of the expansion process, to improve the smoothness and uniformity of torque.

On one of the cylindrical ends of the outer surface of the driven rotor is made the bypass distribution channels in the form of grooves 22 with longitudinal ribs-the ribs 23. The notches in the end of the compression process channels 24 in the cover saetia, the corresponding pressure drop in the chamber of the expansion to less than the pressure in the prechamber. At the other end of the driven rotor is made the bypass channels, grooves 26, and through holes 27, 28 of the chamber 14 during the compression process communicated with the inlet of the heating chamber (combustion) 15. The heating chamber has the shape of a sphere, compact cylinder, or other body of rotation, the entrance 28 and 29 are arranged tangentially and spaced apart in the axial direction to provide conditions uniflow vortex purge; in the beginning of the expansion process exit 29 through the bypass channel 26 and the recess 30 in the housing cover is connected to the camera extension. On the same end of the driven rotor has an additional recess 31 by means of which the chamber and the heating chamber are connected, when the pressure in the chamber expansion becomes less than the pressure in the prechamber. On the end and cylindrical surfaces of the body associated with the rotors, it is advisable to install seals with gas lubrication 5, a one-piece or split ring 32 (see Fig. 10) with an internal cavity, which is connected by a pipe 33 with a source of compressed air, and a throttling holes 34 with macroanatomy or pockets on the sealing surfaces is such seals have confirmed its high efficiency. The motor can be made two-piece with two working cavities separated by an average cover 36 (see Fig. 9) with a common synchronizing transmission with gears 37, 38 (third intermediate "parasitic" gear in this section is not visible). Same rotors in different sections have different (right and left) direction of the helix, leading the rotors (hence slaves too) in different sections are mounted or in-phase (in this embodiment, the axial component of the pressure force of the gases mutually compensated), or in antiphase, i.e., offset by 180o(as in Fig. 9), which provides high uniformity of torque and reducing the pulsation of the gas flow in the turbine 13. The notches 26, 31 are executed on the slave rotor in antiphase, i.e., opposed, they are common to both cavities and function with renewed intensity that is accompanied by a decrease in passive volume and leakage.

The method of operation of the engine includes the following processes. In the compression chamber through the pipe 8 and window 7 serves the compressed air from the turbocharger and is carried out in the compression chamber pre-compressing air to a pressure of about 10 bar.

After that, the compression chamber by the grooves 22 and channels 24 is connected to the input R of the Eva 15, and provide additional compression. When this compressed air in the recuperator heat of exhaust gases is heated from 590 to 1400 K and enters the heating chamber.

At the end of the compression process, the air pressure increases to 23 bar, the temperature in the heating chamber due to adiabatic compression in the last reaches approximately 1600 K. After that, disconnect the heating chamber from prelimary and expansion chamber and through the nozzle 17 is injected fuel (or is heated by an external heat source through the heat exchanger), which is ignited by the high temperature and quickly burned at constant volume of the heating chamber, the temperature of the gas increases to ~2800 K, the phase of combustion at constant volume corresponds to the angle ~40orotation of the rotors, pressure up to ~42 bar.

Then connect the heating chamber with the camera extension 39 through the channel 29 and through the notches 26 and 30, where the heated gas pre-expand to a pressure less than that in the chamber (approximately 22 bar).

At this point, the chamber is again connected with the heating chamber through the notches 31 and the subsequent expansion occurs simultaneously in the chamber extension, the heating chamber and the prechamber, and who is devki heating chamber disjoined with camera extension at a gas pressure of about 10 bar, further expansion occurs in the cell expansion prior to the opening of the outlet box 9. The exhaust gases through the channel 10 are received in the active turbine 11, which is also the flywheel, then fired in the turbine 13 of the turbocharger, go through the pipe 20 in the heat path 19 of the heat exchanger, give heat to the working body, out through the pipe 21 into the refrigerator (or in the atmosphere) and in a closed loop into the intake pipe of the turbocharger. Compressed air remaining in the channels 22, through the openings 25 into the chamber extension and makes it useful.

Engine design with Bolotnikova distribution through the bypass channel dredging allows to exclude from the device, the valves, to increase reliability and speed.

Possible simplified design with the implementation of traditional ways of working. For example, the engine can be performed without prelimary and additional grooves 31, and the heating chamber is connected through the bypass channels 26, 22 directly with expansion and contraction.

In another version, the chamber remains, but it is performed without the heat exchanger in the form of a vortex tube, is provided with fuel injection and Postroenie flame in the chamber is removed at high speed mixture in the bypass channel, exceeding the speed of propagation of the flame front. Fig. 5, 6, 7, 8 illustrate the apparatus and method of operation of the engine, which significantly enhance the benefits mentioned above. The bypass channels tract compression is arranged similarly to Fig. 1, 2, 3, volume prelimary 14 with a recuperator made more, it includes several (2...10) - unit of volume coming from the compression chamber during one cycle. Changed the phase position of the additional recess 31. The channels 26 are made with the edge of the bulkheads. The exit opens directly into the camera extension 39 (without chamfer 30) that reduces passive volume of the grooves and the length of the driven rotor to accommodate them. Bulkheads reduce hydrodynamic losses from shock gas expansion in the volume of fill when filling and to reduce leakage in the clearances between the rotors at the time of pairing channel grooves with the surface of the male rotor. In Fig. 8 shows another variant of overflow channels leading rotor is fitted with disc protrusion 40, which is made the bypass box 41 connecting the heating chamber with the chamber extension. Analogically to bypass tract compression. This variant is characterized by a decreased passive displacement of the window 41 and menchentanemonie and Assembly.

The method of operation of the engine includes the following processes. In the compression chamber carry out a preliminary compression. Then connect the compression chamber with an antechamber with a recuperator and exert compression gas heated it in the recuperator. The heating chamber 15 through the channels 29, 26 connect the camera extension 39 and carry out a preliminary extension of the previously heated charge to a pressure less than the prechamber. Next, the heating chamber through the channels 28, 31, 27 connects with the chamber 14 and in the phase of operation corresponding to Fig. 5, is an expansion of the gas from prelimary in the heating chamber and from the latter into the chamber extension. After purging the heating chamber it is detached from prelimary and expansion chamber, the injected fuel is ignited with a very long combustion process (phase combustion in isolated constant volume can last up to ~300oangle rotors) optimal duration is regulated in the usual way by changing the angle of injection. The long duration of heating can be useful when using the heater-heat exchanger with an external supply of heat.

Connecting the heating chamber with a chamber for expanding and implementing the expansion of the gas detennine heated gas from the heating chamber a fresh charge. Disconnect the camera extension from the heating chamber and continue the expansion of the heated gas in the chamber expansion and subsequent release.

For the successful implementation of the engine with non-contact seals it should be very fast. For example, engine size corresponding to Fig. 1,5, may, at power ~50 kW to have a nominal speed of the shaft about 24000 rpm, under these conditions, a large phase duration appears to be necessary for proper and complete combustion of the fuel.

Increased premkumar with the heat exchanger in a few times, respectively, increases the completeness of heat transfer and the efficiency of the recuperator.

Heat exchange surface of the heat exchanger and heater it is advisable to cover, for example, catalytic converters to eliminate emissions. Contactless sealing of the working chambers do not require lubrication, which point is caused by the emission of oil sludge and other deposits in heat exchangers-converters, which reduce the reliability of the latter.

The above method may be changed. The displacement of gas from the compression chamber and the expansion of the heating chamber can occur simultaneously, but the Fili on the ends of the rotors deployed approximately 180oC. When the two engine rotors can have a normal helical twist (~ 30 ), out of phase in adjacent sections (i.e., must be deployed in different sections 180o), when this compression occurs in one section, and the simultaneous expansion in the other; moreover, you can use one common heating chamber.

The motor is operable as a steam engine with two-phase working fluid, e.g. water, freon, carbon dioxide, etc., methods of work suitable for implementation in reciprocating engines, comply with these methods algorithm the valve or valve gazoraspredelitel.

1. Rotary engine, comprising a housing in the inner cavity of which with the ability unidirectional rotation is established leading to the rotor sealing plate and the driven rotor with two sealing edges and a depression on the outer cylindrical surface of the compression chamber, heat and expansion, inlet and outlet connections, characterized in that the heating chamber is located in the housing, provided with a heat exchanger with an external supply of heat or fuel nozzle and spark plug and communicated with the compression chambers and extending through S="ptx2">

2. The engine under item 1, characterized in that the casing of the chamber, the entrance of which is communicated through the bypass channels with the compression chamber, and out - through the additional bypass channel, executed on the slave rotor, with the heating chamber.

3. The engine under item 2, wherein the chamber is made in the form of a vortex tube with the fuel injector.

4. The engine under item 2, characterized in that the chamber has a heat exchanger-the heat exchanger, the heat input path of which is connected to the exhaust pipe of the engine, and the output from the external atmosphere or through the condenser with the inlet manifold of the engine.

5. The engine under item 1, characterized in that the bypass distribution channels are made on the outer cylindrical surface of the driven rotor in the form of notches with the edges of the bulkheads, while the notches tract compression communicated through the opening with the chamber extension.

6. The engine under item 1, characterized in that it contains at least two sections, while the same screw rotor sections have different direction of the helical line.

7. The engine under item 2, characterized in that the amount of prelimary matches one or more volumes of a single zarragoitia, its compression, heating in the heating chamber, the expansion and release of the expansion chamber, characterized in that the compression chamber carry out a preliminary compression, connecting the compression chamber with the chamber with the heat exchanger and the heating chamber and produce additional compression heated in the recuperator, disconnect the heating chamber from prelimary and expansion chamber and produce heating of the gas at constant volume, connecting the heating chamber with a chamber for expanding and produce the expansion of the gas to a pressure less than that in the chamber, connect the chamber with the heating chamber and blow it with compressed gas from prelimary, disconnect the camera extension from the heating chamber and continue to expand with the next release.

9. The method of operation of the engine, including the filling of gas compression chamber, a compression, heating in the heating chamber, the expansion and release of the expansion chamber, characterized in that the compression chamber carry out a preliminary compression, then connect the compression chamber with an antechamber with a recuperator and exert compression gas heated it in the recuperator, connecting the heating chamber with a chamber for expanding and carry out a preliminary extension of the previously heated charge to pressure smaller than in the pre is a, disconnect the heating chamber from prelimary and camera extension and warm gas, connecting the heating chamber with a chamber for expanding and implementing the expansion of the gas to a pressure less than that in the chamber, connect the chamber with the heating chamber and continue the expansion of the gas to the displacement of the heated gas from the heating chamber a fresh charge, disconnect the camera extension from the heating chamber and continue the expansion of the heated gas in the chamber expansion and subsequent release.

 

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