The heat exchanger for dirty liquids

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for cooling of hot contaminated water that is used in the nuclear industry. The heat exchanger includes tubes, beam forming, welded and fastened across the width of the tube, which together with locking lid defines a flexible head, and the tubular lattice also is welded and fixed to the body along its entire periphery. The result of the invention is to provide a double protection of the environment from radioactive leaks. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The present invention relates to heat transfer devices and, in particular, to devices designed for cooling hot liquid contaminated with radioactive substances into and out of the housing a nuclear reactor.

In nuclear power plants of the known device cooling hot and dirty liquids, in which the intermediate heat exchanger.

This type of device includes the first heat exchanger, usually called intermediate heat exchanger, which provides the first heat exchange between the hot and polluted liquid leaving the reactor, and the first cooling fluid, bones, the second coolant is supplied from the outside.

The use of such devices with an intermediate heat exchanger provides double protection outdoor environment from radioactive leaks. In fact, that happened pollution, radioactive substances must pass through two separating wall heat transfer (one per heat exchanger).

Because cooling and hot fluid flowing in the heat exchanger, are dissimilar temperature, in normal operation of a nuclear reactor in the heat exchanger often have temperature gradients and transient thermal processes large amplitude, and during the occurrence of the accident, the amplitudes of these processes increase even more.

One of the main goals of the developers of nuclear power plants is providing an intermediate heat exchanger to the maximum possible mechanical strength, so that it could withstand the stresses occurring as a result of different degrees of deformation of the pipes which served coolant, and pipes of the heat exchanger through which flows the hot liquid.

From the patent SU A, F 28 D 7/00, 1985 known shell and tube heat exchanger, soderjashie (output) connection for coolant, a pair of tube sheets mounted in said camera, and one of the gratings is rigidly attached to the housing, and the second forms, together with a locking lid, a flexible head, which has an output (input) connection for coolant, a bundle of parallel tubes, the opposite ends of which are attached to the tube grids, inlet pipe inlet into the chamber contaminated hot liquid, is attached to the housing outlet for release of contaminated hot liquid, a nozzle for the flow of coolant.

However, this solution does not provide sufficient resistance to mechanical deformations, which are elements of the heat exchanger, as well as sufficient guarantees tightness in case of leakage of contaminated fluid.

The technical task of the present invention is to provide a heat exchange device, which has a mechanical resistance to deformation resulting from temperature gradient, is not inferior to the corresponding strength of the known heat exchangers, and which has so greatly improved the tightness that can be installed in the auxiliary circuits of cores is the same time the coolant, directly supplied from the outside environment, and the device can also be installed on older nuclear power plants, do not have the capabilities to install bulky equipment.

The problem is solved in that in the known heat exchanger, designed to provide indirect exchange of heat between the subject cooling hot and the contaminated fluid and the cooling fluid, and containing a cylindrical housing bounding an internal chamber and ending with a head in which there is an input (output) connection for coolant; a pair of tube sheets mounted in said camera, and one of the gratings is rigidly attached to the housing, and the second forms, together with a locking lid, a flexible head, which has an output (input) connection to the coolant; a bundle of parallel tubes, the opposite ends of which are attached to the tube grids; inlet pipe inlet into the chamber contaminated hot liquid; attached to the housing outlet for release of contaminated hot fluid and the outlet for the flow of a coolant, in which the socket for protechnical pipe is welded and attached across the width of the tube, which together with locking lid forms a movable head, and the said tubular grille also is welded and fixed to the body along its entire periphery.

While it is preferable to position the nozzle, which is, at least partially, the bellows element, relative to the axis of the housing closer to the welded and fixed to the body tube to the grid than to the upper part of the movable head.

It is desirable that the nozzle for the flow of coolant and inlet pipe inlet into the chamber contaminated hot liquid were on the same generatrix of the cylinder wall.

Thus, impermeability and mechanical strength of the present invention heat exchanger allows its use in the auxiliary circuit of the reactor, which in case of an accident provides cooling coming from the specified body of contaminated hot liquid coolant, which is supplied directly from the outside.

When using prior art devices is eliminated, and to provide appropriate proof that these devices must contain at least two heat exchanger. Consequently, the proposed real svline nuclear power plants of the old type.

On the figure of the attached drawing, which is given only as an example, shows one variant of implementation of the present invention a heat exchanger.

Shows the heat exchanger includes a housing 1, which is the direct beam pipe 2, through which passes the coolant. This tube bundle 2, shown only partially, is placed between the tube sheets 3. Pipe 2 is welded and reinforced throughout the thickness of the tube sheets 3. Case 1 ends with a head 4, which has an input (output) socket 9 for the coolant. Head 5 mounted for movement relative to the housing 1. In case of the heat exchanger has an input (output) connection for contaminated hot liquid. On the movable head 5 is provided in the output (input) connection to the coolant. The pipe 8 is partly the element of the compensation bellows 10. In the heat exchanger define:

- ZZ', the main axis of the cylindrical body 1;

- XX', the axis of the pipe 8 provided in the movable cylinder;

-YY' axis of the pipe 7 provided in the housing for the supply (outlet) hot liquid.

Relative to the axis ZZ' of the nozzle 8 is located closer to the tube sheet holes 3 than ver the straw to neutralize deformation, occur in the contact zone of the tube with the housing, i.e. in the zone where the temperature gradient is maximum.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the angle formed in the plane perpendicular to the axis ZZ', between the projection of the axis XX' on the plane and the projection of the axis YY' on the same plane, is equal to zero. Therefore, the compensation bellows is as close as possible to the zone in which the temperature gradient is maximum, allowing the bellows to quickly neutralize deformation.

1. The heat exchanger is designed to provide an indirect exchange of heat between the subject cooling hot and the contaminated fluid and the cooling fluid, which comprises a cylindrical housing defining an internal chamber and ending with a head in which there is an input (output) connection for coolant; a pair of tube sheets mounted in said camera, and one of the gratings is rigidly attached to the housing, and the second forms, together with a locking lid, a flexible head, which has an output (input) connection for coolant, a bundle of parallel tubes, the opposite ends of which are attached to pipe the second pipe for the release of contaminated hot liquid, the outlet for the flow of cooling fluid, characterized in that last, at least partially, is a member of the compensation bellows and forming the beam pipe is welded and attached across the width of the tube, which together with locking lid forms a movable head, and the said tubular grille also is welded and fixed to the body along its entire periphery.

2. The heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that the tube, which, at least partially, the bellows element, is positioned relative to the axis of the housing closer to the welded and fixed to the body tube to the grid than to the upper part of the movable head.

3. The heat exchanger under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the outlet for the flow of coolant and inlet pipe inlet into the chamber contaminated hot liquid are located on the same generatrix of the cylinder walls.

 

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FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, inner pipe is fitted into outer pipe after shape-treatment of at least outer surface of inner pipe or inner surface of outer pipe, and after fitting inner pipe outer pipe, inner pipe is expanded to bring outer surface of inner pipe in tight contact with inner surface of outer pipe, and shape-treatment of surface forms at least one channel to reveal leakage between two pipes. Before fitting in pipes at least outer surface of inner pipe or inner surface of outer pipe is coated with layer of solder, for instance, tin, and inner pipe is expanded so that outer pipe also expands, and solder layer between inner and outer pipes is melted. Outer pipe is expanded so that melted layer of solder is forced out from space between inner and outer pipe at least intone channel to reveal leakage. Such heat exchange pipe contains assembly unit consisting of outer pipe and inner pipe fitted at tight contact in between and at least one channel to reveal leakage passing in contact surface and near the surface between inner and outer pipes. Thin film-like layer of solar material, such as tin, is provided in place of contact between inner and outer pipes which, owing to melting, connects with inner pipe and outer pipe, inner and outer pipes adjoining with displacement. Invention makes it possible to increase heat transfer to value equal to or practically equal to that of solid heat exchange pipe and channel to reveal leakage remains free from filling medium, thus providing accurate and reliable revealing of leakage.

EFFECT: improved reliability.

15 cl, 6 dwg

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