The mechanism of transmission, in particular for a vehicle and method of control this mechanism
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a vehicle, in particular to the mechanism of an automatic transmission. The mechanism of transmission with automatic change gear ratio contains a combination of groups of teeth, friction coupling means including a movable element, means the application of opposing forces and assets depreciation shock. The specified combination of teeth, for example, represents the differential, provides two different gear ratios in accordance with the connected or disconnected state of the frictional coupling means. Means the application of opposing forces provide the application to rolling including the element of force, which is the criterion of the working parameter for automatic selection of gear ratio. Funds depreciation shock, made, for example, hydraulic, inhibit certain movements including rolling element between connected and disconnected States of the frictional coupling means, thereby preventing a sudden enable or disable the frictional connecting means. 2 C. and 32 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il. usamu at least two passes.The present invention also relates to a method for operating such a mechanism.In international publication WO-A-9207206 described automatic transmission in which the clutch selectively connects the two rotating element of the differential, such as, for example, epicycle gear, depending on which of the two opposing forces more. Such forces are, for example, the axial force caused by moving in the axial direction of the helical gear and contributing to release the clutch against the action of springs, and/or force is called centrifugal tachometer means and ensure the inclusion of the coupling. When a disconnected state of the clutch is necessary to prevent rotation of the third rotating element of the differential, which can be provided through a clutch which prevents rotation of this element in the opposite direction.This type of transmission has several advantages, as to its basic functioning does not require an external energy source, the sensor and control circuit. This is the mechanism of transmission, which creates forces that control them, and at the same time the criteria for parameters, heart and soul is here the optimization process freezes, that is, when the accelerator pedal is released, the engine creates a certain braking of the vehicle. In this case, the resistant torque of the engine already does not depend on anything except speed, and therefore is not indicative of deceleration required by the driver. In addition, when the torque is determined by the reaction of the helical teeth, the latter changes direction in the process of slowing it down and, therefore, no longer seeks to disconnect the clutch. In addition, when the design has a freewheel, even if the reaction of the teeth provides the possibility of separation of the coupling, when creating thus one of the conditions for working with lower speed, another condition has not been fulfilled: in the process freezes the third rotating element of the differential tends not rotate in the reverse direction, and in normal and high speed, it could not prevent the freewheel.In international publication WO 94/19629, published after the priority date of this invention, describes the selective adding extra strength to support the process of slowing it down, and in some other cases, for work comparing the two main opposing forces. Thus, when the driver of a vehicle fully presses the accelerator pedal, the possible mechanism of the transmission to a lower gear ratio even when the speed at which, for example, centrifugal force, proportional to the square of the speed, in normal conditions would work with a higher gear ratio.There is a problem of occurrence of shock during a change of gear. For example, the occurrence of such a collision is possible, if the driver accidentally releases the accelerator pedal, and shifting mechanism of the transmission to a lower gear ratio to a higher appears centrifugal force. In this case, the resulting superiority of the centrifugal force is growing rapidly, and suddenly switching may occur clutch mechanism in the clutch position. The same is possible when the process control causes a change in the additional forces, for example, calls her disappearance.In U.S. patent A-4 713 984 describes the mechanism of transmission in which the clutch is controlled not by the forces, one of which can serve as a criterion for the working parameter, but only the hydraulic actuators are controlled by means of the selection of transmission. For PR and when they dump tools.In similar constructions, described in European patent EP-A-0149012, the cross section of the channel through which flows the oil varies depending on the speed of the vehicle.The aim of the present invention is to provide a transmission mechanism in which the selective connecting means controlled variables opposing forces and in which no shock that may occur during changes of gear ratio.The proposed mechanism of the transmission contains a combination of groups of teeth, which are in mutual engagement, and friction coupling means, in which the mobile includes the element is exposed to the means of application of opposing forces, of which at least one secure attachment to rolling including the element of force, which are the criteria for a work setting related to the auto-selection of the gear ratio, and the specified combination of teeth provides two different gear ratios in accordance with the connected or disconnected state of the frictional coupling means, and the transmission mechanism embodying the depreciation shock, ustanovku connected and disconnected States of the frictional coupling means.Funds depreciation prevent the occurrence of shock by inhibiting including rolling element, especially in the cases above.Means the application of opposing forces preferably contain a device for application of a controlled force applying mechanism in the transmission power, which simulates an increase or reintroduction of one of the opposing forces, usually control mechanism, to thereby largely to facilitate the work of the mechanism with one gear ratio compared to the automatic control only the basic means of application of opposing forces.If the device for application of a controlled force includes hydraulic drive means depreciation can include a differential pressure in the drain line to the pressure chamber of the actuator, so that when the pressure in the drive is missing or lowered, to bring the adjustable force to zero or a small value, including mobile element can only move at a low speed in the direction corresponding to the emptying of the pressure chamber of the actuator.Another aim of the invention is to provide a process control mechanism Trieste, that provides the specified combination with one of two different gear ratios depending on, in the United or disunited condition of these funds, including the effects on the movable element including a friction coupling means of the two main opposing forces, one at each change of state of these funds varies with ensuring the stability of the new state, while using at least some funds application of opposing forces provided the application to rolling including the element of force, which is the criterion of the working parameter related to the auto-selection of the gear ratio, and, moreover, in which:< / BR>mobile includes the element is subjected to an additional external regulated power for the election assistance thus the occurrence of one of two States;
moving the enclosing element inhibit at least in one direction.Adjustable force may have a relatively small value, as it is the only kind of additional forces and its creation at a relatively low energy consumption. The shock and aprimer in the direction corresponding to the disappearance of adjustable power.The advantage of the present invention is that, when the main opposing force or forces that must be overcome adjustable force to change the state of the frictional coupling means, changes in the function of the given operating parameter, the value of the adjustable power also varies as a function of the same work setting.Thus, when the device for application of a controlled force prevents the state change of the friction coupling means, the power that they create, only a bit more opposing forces that must be overcome. This prevents the shock that may occur during changes in transmission occurring in the result of this action, whatever the value of the working parameter.In the rest of the description gear ratio is "low" when it corresponds to a low speed output with respect to the velocity at the entrance. Otherwise its final drive ratio is considered "large".Other features and advantages of the invention will become clearer from the following description set forth with reference to the examples, the mini-view of half of a longitudinal section of the proposed mechanism of the transmission, having two gears at rest;
Fig. 2 and 3 depict views similar to the view of Fig. 1, but related, respectively, to work with lower speed and with a straight transfer;
Fig. 4 depicts a graphical representation of the control algorithm of the transmission mechanism shown in Fig. 1-3; and
Fig. 5 depicts a view similar to the view of Fig. 3, but corresponding to the second variant of execution.The mechanism of transmission with two-speed transmission shown in Fig. 1 and intended in particular for a vehicle, includes an input shaft 2a and the output shaft 2b, located on the axis 12 of the mechanism. The shaft 2a is connected with the output shaft of the engine 5 of the vehicle by means of an intermediate coupling 86. The shaft 2b is designed for direct or indirect drive input of the differential to the drive wheels of the vehicle. Between the shaft 2b and the input of the differential it is possible to install, for example, another mechanism of transmission from two or more transmission and/or mechanism for changing the direction of forward or backward with manual control.The shafts 2a and 2b are fixed in the axial direction with respect to the body 4 of the mechanism of transmission.The transmission mechanism includes defme and a sun wheel 9 with the external teeth, moreover, the wheels 8 and 9 are in engagement with the planetary wheel 11 supported with equal angular intervals around the axis 12 of the planetary planet carrier 13, which is rigidly connected with the output shaft 2b. Wheel 11 is installed with the possibility of free rotation around the eccentric axis 14 led 13. The wheel 9 is installed with the possibility of free rotation around the axis 12 relative to the shaft 2b, which it covers. However, the free wheel clutch 16 prevents rotation of the wheel 9 in the reverse direction, i.e. in the direction opposite to the rotation shaft 2a with respect to the housing 4.The wheel 8 is locked against rotation, but is installed with the possibility of free axial sliding relative to the input shaft 2a through slots 17.Around the wheel 8 is a sleeve 18, which contains a set of annular discs 19, alternating with annular disks 22. The disk 19 is locked against rotation relative to the wheel 8 with the possibility of axial sliding. To this end, the disk 19 is provided with internal teeth that are in engagement with the slots 21, which are made integral with the wheel 8. The disks 22 are locked against rotation relative to the cage 13 with the possibility of axial movement. For this purpose, the casing 20 NAIA as with the external teeth of the disks 22, and with the external teeth 24 of the carrier 13.A stack of disks 19 and 22 can be clamped in the axial direction between the support plate 26, is made in one piece with the planet carrier 13, and the movable plate 27, which is part of the casing 20.On the cover 20 mounted centrifugal weights 29, arranged in a ring around the clutch 18.Weights, thus locked against rotation relative to the shaft 2b of the transmission mechanism.Each weight has a massive main part 31 located radially outside of the disks 19 and 22, and the drive lever 32 is pressed against the outer surface of the plate 26 by means of Belleville springs 34. The lever 32 is connected with the portion 31 bent at a right angle lever 33, pivotally mounted on the casing 20 on an axis 28 that is located tangentially with respect to the axis 12. In international publication WO-A-91/13275 described device for an articulated set of weights, which has a number of advantages. The center G of gravity of the centrifugal weights is located inside or near the part 31 at a certain distance from the axis 28, measured parallel to the axis 12.Thus, rotation of the carrier 13 rotates parts 31 of the weights 29 radially outward around their tangential axes 28 under deystvitelnoe position, it is shown in Fig. 3.This results in a relative axial displacement of the lever 32 with respect to the axis of the hinge 28 of the centrifugal weight and, consequently, the lever 32 with respect to the casing 20. With regard to the direction of displacement corresponding to the breeding weights 29 under the action of centrifugal forces, the casing 20 is pressed in the axial direction of the crown wheel with the possibility of free relative rotation by a thrust bearing B2.Therefore, displacement of the cover 20 relative to the lever 32 causes relative movement of the latter and the plate 27 of the coupling 18b towards each other. This relative displacement can match the compression spring 34 and/or offset plates 27 in the side plate 26 in the direction of the turn clutch 18.When the transmission mechanism is at rest, as shown in Fig. 1, the spring 34 by means of the weights 29, which rest on the casing 20, passes on the last force, which includes the clutch 18 so that the shaft 2a of the transmission mechanism is connected with the shaft 2b rotatably, and a transmission mechanism forms a direct transmission for the transmission of torque to a certain maximalizovane screw. Therefore, in each pair of teeth which engages under load, there are opposite axial force proportional to the district transferred forces and, consequently, the torques on shafts 2a and 2b. The direction of inclination of the helical teeth is chosen so that the axial forces Pac(Fig. 2), resulting in the wheel 8 when the transfer of the drive torque acting in the direction in which the wheel 8 pushes the plate 27 by means of the bearing B2. Thus, in the presence of axial forces Pacthe wheel 8 is pushing plate 27 in the direction of separation from the plate 26 of the coupling 18. On wheels 11 which engages not only with the wheel 8, but with the wheel 9, is affected by two opposite balanced axial reaction forces PS1and PS2and on the wheel 9 because of its engagement with the wheel 11 is the effect of the axial force of Papequal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the axial force Pacwheel 8. The power of the Papcaused by wheel 9 is transmitted to the casing 4 by means of a thrust bearing B3. Thus, the axial force Pacacts on the plate 27 of the coupling relative to the housing 4 and, consequently, with respect to the clutch plate 26 and in the direction of release of the clutch 18b. The power transmitted by the other and, consequently, the preservation of the weights 29 in the rest position and the compression spring 34.This state is shown in Fig. 2. The following describes the basic functioning of the transmission mechanism, based on the fact that he initially is in this state. While the amount of torque transmitted to the unit shaft 2a, such that the axial forces Pacthe wheel 8 is sufficient to compress the springs 34 and hold the weights 29 in the rest position, shown in Fig. 2, the distance between the plates 26 and 27 of the coupling allows the disks 19 and 22 to slide one on the other without passing each other in torque. In this case, the possible rotation of the carrier 13 with a speed different from the speed of the shaft 2a, and a tendency to stop under the action of the load, which must pass the shaft 2b. As a result of this wheel 11 tend to act as reversing mechanism, rotate the wheel 9 in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the wheel 8. But this rotation is prevented by the coupling 16. Therefore, the rotation of the wheel 9 stops coupler 16, and the carrier 13 rotates at a speed, average between zero speed wheel 9 and the speed of the wheel 8 and the shaft 2a. Therefore, the unit works as reduction gearing. If the speed of rotation system-easy installation shall be convened between the plates 26 and 27 of the axial force gear the greater the axial force Pacand the plate 27 by its action moves to the side plate 26 to provide direct transmission.When the clutch 18 is enabled, all the power is transmitted directly from the wheel 8 is interlocked with the shaft 2a to the cage 13 is interlocked with the shaft 2b. As a result, the teeth of the transmission 7 is already not working, i.e. they do not transmit any power and hence do not cause any axial forces. Thus, the axial force due to the centrifugal force, can be fully focused on the convergence of the plates 26 and 27 with each other. Therefore, it becomes more understandable process of switching to the direct transfer: as soon as the disks 19 and 22 begin to RUB against each other and to transmit part of the power load on the teeth will be proportionally reduced, the axial force Pacalso be proportionally reduced, and the predominance of the centrifugal force increases until such time as the clutch 18 is fully provide direct transmission.It may be that the speed of rotation of the shaft 2b is reduced and/or that the transmitted torque is increased to a value at which the weights 29 does not provide more in the coupling 18 of the adhesion forces sufficient to transmit torque. In this slales, and again, you receive the power of the Pacthat turns off the clutch so that the transmission mechanism then operates as a downshift. Thus, whenever the switch with the lower speed to work with direct drive, axial force Pacchanges, i.e. there is a stabilization of the new prevailing transmission ratio. The big advantage of this design is, on the one hand, prevent too frequent changes of the transmission near some critical point, and, on the other hand, the short duration of the state of slip of the clutch 18.When the transmission is at rest, thanks to the inclusion of the coupling spring 34 form a mechanical connection between the input and output of the transmission mechanism. Thus, the vehicle is retained by the motor at standstill, when the latter is in stop mode. If you disable the clutch 18 in the rest of the transmission, nothing prevents the free movement of the vehicle on the front of the transmission, as in this case, the stoppage of the wheel 8 by the motor 5 causes rotation of the wheel 9 in the normal direction, which sleeve 16 does not prevent.
about the implementation mechanism of the transmission with the lowering speed under the conditions other than, due to the axial forces of the springs 34, the weights 29 and the teeth of the wheel 8.For this purpose, the transmission mechanism includes a brake 43, which provides the ability to stop wheel 9 with respect to the housing 4, regardless of the coupling 16. In other words, the brake 43 is set to work in parallel with the coupling 16 between the wheel 9 and the casing 4. Hydraulic piston 44 is mounted for sliding in the axial direction selectively in the direction of the interaction or separation with brake 43. The brake 43 and the piston 44 are annular in shape, and their axes coincide with the axis 12 of the transmission mechanism. The piston 44 is located adjacent to the hydraulic chamber 46, which can selectively be supplied oil under pressure for releasing the piston 44 in the direction of engagement with the brake 43.In addition, the piston 44 is rigidly attached to the plunger 47, which can abut the casing 20 through a thrust bearing B4. When the pressure in the chamber 46 pushes the piston 44 in the direction of engagement with the brake 43, the housing 20 before the brake 43 is turned repelled back by an amount sufficient to detach the coupling 18.Thus, when the piston 44 is in the position usaimage the stop wheel 8, what happens in the process of slowing it down, and as a result, the unit provides a speed decrease, as and when uncoupling 18.Therefore, the node of the elements 43, 44, 46, 47, described above, forms the means providing the driver of the vehicle the ability to work as a downshift, when the driver wishes to improve the braking effect of the engine, for example on the descent, or the drive torque on the shaft 2b. When torque is actuated, the brake 43 is in the on state exerts undue influence, together with the impact of the coupling 16, however, this is not a fault.Filling and emptying of the chamber 46 is regulated by a solenoid valve 69, which in the rest state (Fig. 1 and 3) connects the chamber 46 with the channel 151 flow with hydraulic resistance. When AC power is supplied (Fig. 2) on the valve 69 of the latter separates the chamber 46 from the channel 151 and connects it to the outlet of the pump 57, which is driven by the engine 5. Regardless of the status of the valve 69, the pump 57 can also be used to supply the lubrication circuit (not shown) of the transmission mechanism.The valve 69 is controlled by the block 152 management, soedineniya 154, setting manual or automatic control and made available for the driver, with the pedal position sensor 156 accelerator and switch 157, which establishes a normal or sport mode the vehicle and provides the driver a choice between two different automatic modes of operation of the transmission mechanism.From the foregoing it is obvious that the springs 34 and establishes a mechanism of transmission direct transmission, when the vehicle is stationary. Therefore, when starting to appear on the teeth forces Pacit is necessary to switch the transmission mechanism to work with lower speed, so that then the end of this mode were carried out in low gear. It can systematically give rise to an undesirable impact for the prevention of which provided that the node that contains the brake 43, the piston 44 and the plunger 47, sets the transmission mechanism in the position of working with a lower speed when the engine is running (running the pump 57), but when the speed of the shaft 2b defined by the sensor 153, below a certain threshold S, the value of which is explained below. Thus, when the motion of the shaft 2b, the mechanism of transmission from the and sThe switch 157 provides the driver the ability to change the threshold S. If the driver selects the normal mode, the threshold S is quite low and corresponds to, for example, the speed of the engine 5, a component of 2500 rpm when the transmission mechanism with decreasing speed.Once a threshold is exceeded, the valve 69 sets the actuator 44, 46 in the position plum, this permits the gear shift of the transmission to work with a direct transfer, if the axial force generated by the centrifugal weights or a spring 34 is sufficient to overcome the force RACteeth directed in the opposite direction. If the driver selects the sport mode, the threshold S is high and corresponds to, for example, the speed of the engine 5, part 3500 rpm when the transmission mechanism with decreasing speed.After exceeding the threshold S, the camera 46 is not emptied until the transmission mechanism operates with a lower speed, because nothing pushes back the piston 44. When the force of the centrifugal weights begins to overcome the force on the teeth, the first climb and move the casing 20 in the direction of ejection of the piston 44 back through the thrust bearing B on the piston, which is transmitted to the casing 20. Therefore, the centrifugal weights prevents the sudden inclusion of the coupling 18.When the sensor 156 detects that the accelerator pedal is fully pressed down, the block 152 actuates the valve 69, the camera 46 is filled, and the work begins with the lowering speed.The switch 154 gives the driver a choice between automatic operation described above, and lowering speed. In the latter case, the block 152 provides a constant filling of the chamber 46.In Fig. 4 shows a graphical representation of the algorithm of block 152. Test 158 determines the state of switch 154. If the switch 154 is set to "manual control", directly command 159 filling of the actuator 44, 46. If the switch 154 is set to "automatic control", test 161 determines the state of switch 157 and depending on the result of this test sets the threshold value S1 or S2. Finally, by a sensor 153 detects the speed V of the vehicle (step 162), which is then in the test 163 is compared with the threshold S. If the speed V is less than the threshold S, command 159 on Naltchik 156 points to the requirement of high power, received from the driver, in this case, a command is issued to the 159 on the content of the drive.Thus, when the transmission mechanism is switched from working with lower speed to work with a direct transfer, whether after pulling away or during acceleration from low speed or when the driver releases the accelerator pedal after pressing, or when he moves the switch 154 of the provisions of the "manual control" to "automatic control", or switch 157 of the provisions of the "sport mode" to "normal mode", in fact in all these cases, the chamber 46 is filled with hydraulic fluid and, therefore, must be emptied with the software already described the braking effect and the possibility of including clutch 18 through the plate 27. This provides a particular advantage when the power piston 44 is the determining factor in maintaining the work as a downshift: indeed, in this case, the sudden disappearance of the power piston 44 creates the risk of sudden inclusion of the coupling 18. Depreciation shock due to difficulty emptying the chamber 46, prevents sudden turning on of the clutch in all these cases.When the lowering speed is fast to work with lower speed when passing a threshold S in the direction of the speed reduction. The driver can also increase the braking effect of the engine by setting switch 154 in the position "manual control".To fill the chamber 46 to provide the above described functions may use hydraulic pressure sufficiently high magnitude, providing overcome the axial force generated by the weights 29 and having the opposite direction, at any speed of rotation of the flywheel about the axis 12.But from the point of view of safety and energy saving, it is preferable to apply in the chamber 46 is limited by the amount of pressure, so that the axial force of the piston 44 has helped to overcome the opposing force of the weights 29, only if the speed of rotation of the centrifugal weights is small so that the switching to a lower speed does not lead to too high speed of the engine 5.In the position shown in Fig. 1, the engine and the vehicle is stationary, and the power to block 152 and the valve 69 is not available, and therefore the latter is in position emptying of the chamber 46. Spring 34 resting on the plate 27, pushing the casing 20 in the switching position of the clutch 18 and emptying of the chamber 46. The transmission mechanism is in the position of direct PE As shown in Fig. 2, the chamber 46 is filled and supports lowering the speed force RACon the teeth and against the force of the weights 29 or springs 34 (the design of the unit allows you to act accordingly only the larger of the two forces generated by the weights 29 and a spring 34). It is also possible that the magnitude of the force on the teeth is sufficient to maintain operation with a lower speed when the camera 46 is not filled, but this state is not shown. On the contrary, when the engine rotates, but the clutch 86 is turned off, the power of the Pacthe teeth are missing, and one piston 44 against the spring force 34, holds the clutch 18 in the off state.As shown in Fig. 3, the camera 46 is not filled, and the weights 29 are pushing the cover in the switching position of the clutch 18 and emptying of the chamber 46, and the spring 34 is compressed.The following describes only the differences of the transmission mechanism shown in Fig. 5, from the mechanism shown in Fig. 1 - 3.The use of the epicycle gear with the entrance on the crown wheel and the output planetary drive rod hardly provides the opportunity to achieve gear ratios more than 1.6.In certain cases, the possible need for significantly greater decrease in speed, the s relationships are achieved by switching one mechanism to work with decreasing speed, while other switches to direct transmission. It is therefore essential that when working with the slower one of the two mechanisms had a gear ratio of approximately equal to 3.To this end the shaft 2a of the transmission mechanism connected with the slidable wheel 9, which is pressed in the axial direction of the casing 20 through a thrust bearing B2so the power of the Pacteeth betrayed to the casing 20 in the direction off the clutch 18.Carrier 13 is also locked against rotation relative to the shaft 2b, but due to some practical reasons for this compound in this design is not straight but is made through the casing 20 and the axial slots 167, located between the casing 20 and the shaft 2b. Therefore, the casing 20 is able to slide freely relative to the shaft 2b. Provided not shown on the drawing tools that stop the shaft 2b and drove 13 in the axial direction relative to the casing 4.The wheel 8 is attached to the housing 4 through the clutch 16 and selectively through the brake 43. Clutch 16 prevents rotation of the wheel 8 in the opposite direction. In addition, the wheel 8 passes created them axial force of Pacthe teeth on the casing 4 POSReady along with the wheel 9.In addition, the shaft 2b, and the casing 20 are flanges 168, 169, limiting located between damping ring chamber 171, is connected by a channel 172 having a hydraulic resistance, channel 173 for lubrication made in the center of the output shaft 2b.Not fully shown that such lubricant channel, the lubricant which is carried out by the pump 59 can be performed along the entire length of the axis 12 of the transmission for lubrication of bearings, splines, thrust bearings, seals, etc. with the exception of channel 172, Luggage 171 sealed, in particular with two seals 174 mounted in the casing 20 is slidable along the cylindrical bearing surfaces of the shaft 2b at a relative mutual displacement of the casing 20 and the shaft 2b. Slots 167 are located in the chamber 171. The design of the unit provides the possibility of reducing the volume of the chamber 171 when moving the casing 20 in the direction off the clutch 18, for which, therefore, need emptying chamber 171 through a narrow channel 172.Thus, in the example shown in Fig. 5, the necessity of emptying of the chamber 46 prevents not only the sudden inclusion of the coupling 18, but also her sudden shutdown that could suddenly bring in the example, it is shown in Fig. 5, where the rotation speed is changed 3 times while on and off the clutch. When the coupling is switched on, the camera 171 again draws the oil through the channel 172.In addition, the functioning of the mechanism shown in Fig. 5, similarly shown in Fig. 1 to 4, except that when the direct transmission coupling 18 connects already wheel 9, and not the wheel 8, with the shaft 2b, and the fact that when working with the lowering speed of the stopped wheel 8, which provides between the wheel 9 and the planet carrier 13 and the gear ratio of approximately 3 instead of 1.5, existing between the wheel 8 and the planet carrier 13 in the example shown in Fig. 1 - 3.Of course, the invention is not limited to the described and shown in the drawings variants of execution.When the driver requires sport mode driving, contributing to the increase in the speed of rotation of the shaft 2a, there is a possibility to supply a constant pressure to the chamber 46 to create the casing 20 strength, visiteuses of grappling, caused by the centrifugal weights. Thus, the transmitted torque when the direct transmission for a given speed of rotation of the centrifugal weights is less, and the speed above which the transmission Vosne.You can exercise control through hydraulic control unit, not electronic.Describes the mechanisms of transmission with two gears can be combined to form a more complex transmissions, such as, for example, described in international publication WO-A-9207206. It is also possible application of the invention in transmissions with more gears, such as are described in the same publication WO-A-9207206.The main structure containing the transmission 7, shown in Fig. 1 or Fig. 5, and providing for the direct transmission through the clutch driven centrifugal force, and work with lowering speed under the action of a drive off the clutch against the effects of centrifugal weights, has the advantage that the drive power is increased in proportion to the rotation speed of the centrifugal weights. When the drive is made in the form of a hydraulic actuator 44, 46, the same effect can be achieved by using pump 57, which creates a pressure increasing in proportion to the speed of the shaft 2b. Thus, when the actuator is activated to turn off the clutch, the latter is quite pot rotation.More generally, this aspect of the invention provides the possibility that the drive is powered, it creates a changing force in excess of just the right amount variable opposing force that must be overcome to change the state of the clutch. 1. The mechanism of transmission with automatic change gear ratio, which contain a combination of groups of teeth (7), are in mutual engagement, and friction coupling means (18), in which the movable containing element (20) is subjected to means (29, 34, 44, B2) application of opposing forces, of which at least one secure attachment to rolling including the element of force, which are the criteria for a work setting related to the auto-selection of the gear ratio, and the specified combination of teeth provides two different gear ratios in accordance with the connected or disconnected state of the frictional coupling means, characterized in that it contains means (151, 171, 172) depreciation shock, mounted for braking at least some movements including rolling element (20) between soy is these under item 1, characterized in that the means (151, 171, 172) depreciation shock made hydraulic.3. The mechanism of transmission by p. 2, characterized in that the impact cushioning contain hydraulic chamber with variable volume (171), limited by two walls (168, 169), which are made with the ability to move one relative to another and one (169) of which is attached to a movable element including (20).4. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the means of the application of opposing forces to contain the centrifugal weights (29), responsible for the movement of rolling stock including element (20) in the direction of the United States.5. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that the means of the application of opposing forces to contain the device (B2) for transmission including rolling element (20) forces, depending on the transmitted torque and aimed in the direction of off.6. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that the means of the application of opposing forces contain a device for transmission including rolling element (20) repelling force (PacPap) zobrazeno condition, and directed towards off.7. The mechanism of transmission by p. 6, characterized in that the friction coupling means (18) located in the United state, ensure the transfer of power instead of teeth (8; 9), resulting in the latter at least partially unloaded when the connecting means (18) in the United state.8. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the operating parameter is selected so that each switching gear ratio from the first value to the second causes a change of the operating parameter in a direction in which the opposing force, which is the criterion of the operating parameter is changed in the direction of stabilizing the second gear ratio.9. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 8, characterized in that the specified combination of teeth contains differential(8, 9, 11, 13), includes multiple rotating elements (8, 9, 11), the teeth of which are in mutual engagement, and friction coupling means (18), functionally installed between two of the rotating elements (8, 13; 9, 13) to selectively provide differential with the first or second perit clutch (16) free wheel to prevent rotation in the opposite direction of the jet rotating element (9; 8) differential, when the friction coupling means (18) allow relative rotation of the two rotating elements(13, 8; 13, 9).11. The mechanism of transmission by p. 10, characterized in that it contains means (43) stop for selective blocking of reactive rotating element (9) regardless of the coupling (16) free running, and the means of application of opposing forces contain device (44, 46, 47) for the application of a controlled force for selective application to the rolling element including (2) forces that contribute to finding frictional connecting means (18) in the disconnected state, and the mechanism further comprises a device (44) for aligning means (43) stop in the blocking state, when the means (47) application of a variable force to provide switching of the friction coupling means in the disconnected state.12. The mechanism of transmission on p. 11, characterized in that the means stopping contain brake (43), functionally installed in parallel with the clutch (16) is free running.13. The mechanism of transmission under item 11 or 12, characterized in that the device for application of a controlled force IV contains the movable partition includes element (20) in the direction off through a thrust bearing (B4).14. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 10, characterized in that the means of the application of opposing forces contain device (44, 46, 47) for the application of a controlled force for selective application to including rolling element (20) forces contributing to the finding of the frictional coupling devices in a connected or disconnected state.15. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.11 to 14, characterized in that the device (44, 46, 47) for the application of a controlled force to bring him in action contributes to the mechanism of transmission with the lowest gear ratio.16. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.11 to 15, characterized in that it contains means (152, 153, 157) control actuation devices for the application of a controlled force when reducing speed below a predetermined threshold and means (152, 154, 156) of the electoral management actuation of the specified devices regardless of the threshold.17. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.11 to 16, characterized in that the damping of the shocks contain a device (151) for braking element (44), which is part of PR is about a device for application of a controlled force performed with application of a controlled force in the first direction of movement of the actuating element (44), and device for braking element (44) inhibits its movement in the opposite direction to the first.19. The mechanism of transmission by p. 18, characterized in that the device for application of a controlled force contains a hydraulic actuator (44, 46), and the means of the braking element contain the discharge channel (151) hydraulic chamber (46) of the actuator with hydraulic resistance, resulting in a braking element (44) by reducing the hydraulic pressure in the movement of this element in the direction corresponding to the emptying of the hydraulic chamber (46).20. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.11 to 19, characterized in that the damping of the shocks contain a device (168, 169, 172) for braking movement including rolling element (20) in the direction of application of a controlled force.21. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.11 to 20, characterized in that the device for application of a controlled force to bring him in action creates a force, the magnitude of which varies as a function of the given operating parameter in the same direction as the opposing force is for the application of a controlled force must be overcome to change the state of the frictional coupling means.22. The transmission mechanism according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 21, characterized in that the impact cushioning contain hydraulic chamber (171) with variable volume, limited by two walls (168, 169), which are made with the ability to move one relative to another and one (169) of which is attached to a movable element including (20) so that when it moves in one direction is provided emptying camera (171) through the channel (172) having a hydraulic resistance.23. The method of controlling the transmission mechanism, containing a combination of teeth (7), are in mutual engagement, and friction coupling means (18) that provides the specified combination with one of two different gear ratios depending on, in the United or disunited condition of these funds, including the effects on the movable element including a friction coupling means (18) the two main opposing forces, one at each change of state of these funds varies with ensuring the stability of the new state, at the same time using at least some funds application of opposing forces provided attached is emeticheskogo choice of gear ratio, characterized in that the movable element including put additional pressure regulated power for the election assistance thus the emergence of one of the two States; and a moving element including inhibit at least in one direction.24. The method according to p. 23, characterized in that the movable element including (20) brake against movement in the opposite direction to the application of a controlled force.25. The method according to p. 23 or 24, wherein the regulated force is applied in accordance with the specified range, change the operating parameter of the transmission mechanism.26. The method according to p. 24 or 25, wherein the regulated force is applied in accordance with the specified speed range.27. The method according to p. 25 or 26, wherein the set of at least one of (S) boundary of the specified range.28. The method according to any of paragraphs.23 to 27, wherein the regulated force is applied in the opposite direction to the one of the opposing forces created tachometric means (29) and seeks to provide a combination of teeth (7) with the higher of the two ratios.30. The method according to any of paragraphs.23 to 29, wherein the regulated force is applied in the same direction with one of the opposing forces (Pac) created a torque means and seeks to provide a combination of teeth (7) with the lower of the two ratios.31. The method according to any of paragraphs.28 to 30, wherein the regulated force is applied in a range of low speeds so that the transmission mechanism works with the smallest gear ratio of this range.32. The method according to any of paragraphs.28 - 31 applied to the transmission mechanism, in which the combination of teeth (7) represents the differential, acting as direct transmission, when the friction coupling means (18) are located in the United state; coupling (16) freewheel prevents rotation of the reactive element (9; 8) in the opposite direction when the friction coupling means (18) are in a disconnected state; means the application of opposing forces to contain the spring (34), seeking to cause frictional connecting the CPE is of the friction coupling means (18) in the disconnected state, when the speed of the output shaft (2b) mechanism of transmission is less than a certain threshold, when the source (5) energy set before transmission mechanism.33. The method according to any of paragraphs.23 to 32, wherein the adjustable force change in the direction of the teeth (7) with the lowest gear ratio in identifying the needs of the transmission mechanism of the transmission of significant power.34. The method according to any of paragraphs.23 - 33, characterized in that it provides the change in the value of the adjustable power as a function of the given operating parameter in the same direction with at least one main opposing force that is adjustable force must be overcome to change the state of the frictional coupling means.
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle contains frame 1 with cab 9, front and rear steerable wheels 4, 6 and middle wheels 5, engine placed behind the cab along vehicle and covered by hood 11. hydrostatic transmission contains pumping station 21 consisting of matching reduction gear driven by engine placed behind the cab, and three pumps connected by pipelines with hydraulic motors providing separate drives of wheels. Hydraulic motors are arranged along frame 1 between sidemembers on solid brackets made in form of boxes with flanges connected with wall of side member between its webs. Invention makes it possible to create ecologically clean and reliable multipurpose all-wheel-drive vehicle of high cross-country capacity with hydrostatic transmission to drive all wheels.
EFFECT: provision of convenient mounting and servicing of transmission units.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.
FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles with positive displacement hydraulic drive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission includes constant-capacity guided-vane hydraulic pump mechanically connected with vehicle engine communicating through pressure, drain and suction hydraulic lines through hydraulic distributor enclosing pressure and drain hydraulic lines and playing the part of reversor with at least one constant-capacity reversible guide-vane hydraulic motor to transmit torque to one or two driving wheels of automobile. Spaces of suction and drain hydraulic lines communicate with space of hydraulic tank. Suction hydraulic line passes through adjustable hydraulic restrictor whose control lever is mechanically coupled with automobile accelerator pedal.
EFFECT: simplified design of transmission, reduced fuel consumption and weight of transmission and its cost, and increased efficiency of automobile.
18 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; machine building hydraulics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used on vehicles and machine-and-tractor units operating under unsteady conditions of movement. Proposed device contains planetary train 1, reactive link 3 connected with drive gear of oil pump 5. Planetary train is connected through carrier shaft with gearbox 9 and is set into operation by engine 11. Two-step adjustable restrictor 12 is installed in pressure main line of pump. Safety valve 14 and control cock 15 are connected to input of adjustable restrictor, being also installed in pressure main line of pump pneumohydraulic accumulator, being end member of pressure main line, is provided with three spaces. It consists of hydraulic cylinder, free piston, piston with rod, piston position regulator, oil line and oil channel. Space between pistons is filled with oil which regulates volume.
EFFECT: reduced influence of vibrations of external traction load onto functioning of machine-and-tractor unit.
FIELD: transport engineering; hydrostatic transmissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrostatic transmission contains pumping unit consisting of main and makeup pumps driven by vehicle engine, hydraulic motors connected by main hydraulic lines with pumping unit and forming circulating hydraulic circuit, and electrically driven self-contained pump whose delivery space is connected with hydraulic circuit formed by main hydraulic lines. Hydrostatic transmission is furnished additionally with sealed hydraulic tank with device for charging its air space with compressed air from vehicle pneumatic system and containing shutoff cock, compressed air pressure regulator in sealed hydraulic tank with safety valve and vacuum manual control valve to discharge compressed air from sealed hydraulic tank, two-position manual control valve for alternate hydraulic coupling of suction space of self-contained electrically-driven pump with hydraulic tank and with device for charging the tank with working liquid, check valve arranged in drain hydraulic line at inlet of sealed hydraulic tank, and manually controlled shutoff valve in suction hydraulic line at outlet of sealed hydraulic tank.
EFFECT: improved reliability of hydrostatic transmission of vehicle designed for operation under various road conditions.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in different vehicles and in devices and mechanisms for clashless engagement of driven shafts. Proposed torque converter contains drive and driven units of converter. Drive unit is made in form of disks 2-5 with slots freely fitted on splined shaft 1. Movable blades are fitted in said slots. Driven unit of converter is made in form of cylindrical housing 7 with driven shaft 16 and rings 11 and 12 fitted on shaft. Disks 2-5 with blades 6 of drive unit of converter are arranged inside rings. Slots in disks 2-5 of drive unit of converter are made through being arranged tangentially. Each of rings 11, 12 in cylindrical housing 7 of converter driven unit is installed for rolling on guide 13, being connected with axle-shaft 14 flush-fitted in cradle of step bearing 15 whose body is in rigid engagement with cylindrical housing 7. With drive unit rotating, summary driven torque is formed from its hydraulic and inertia components. Formulas for calculating the torque are given in description of invention.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydraulic - inertia converter, its control system, gearbox of converter and method of torque conversion.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed recuperative reversible stepless hydraulic transmission of wheeled vehicle contains drive engine 5, recuperator 20 with overrunning clutch 24, controllable reversible hydraulic machine 18 with pressure and suction and control plunger 8 communicating with hydraulic control system through pipelines, follow-up hydraulic booster with variable-capacity pump 12 of reverse capacity, four non-controllable hydraulic machines 29-32. Each of said hydraulic machines has vehicle wheel, and wheels of vehicle are in contact with road pavement. Recuperator 20 is made in form of planetary reduction gear whose carrier 19 is connected with pump 12 and with hydraulic machine 18 provided with two diametric pressure and two diametric suction spaces and connected with hydraulic machines 29-32 by pipelines. Hydraulic machine 18 contains "floating" plunger 33 with two cylindrical grooves between two end face spaces and "polar" plunger by channels of which end face spaces of floating plunger 33 are communicated, overlapped or reversed with pressure and suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Cylindrical grooves of floating plunger 33 synchronously overlap or hydraulically communicate two pressure and two suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Lever 6 of polar plunger is mechanically connected with corresponding slot of plate 3 of vehicle speed and reverse control member.
EFFECT: reduced number of control members, dispensing with brake system improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, reduced fuel consumption, reduced acceleration time, increased efficiency.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: public building structures, particularly drives for showcase rotation.
SUBSTANCE: drive to rotate showcase substantially formed as superimposed disc 4 installed on pin 5 provides force transmission from drive 12 to disc 4 by means of flexible tie having tensioning means. Flexible tie is formed as closed loop of chain 10 having rigid links. The chain passes around the disc 4 along disc surface generator. Drive has sprocket 11 of driving means. The sprocket 11 is installed on shaft of hydraulic drive 12. Hydraulic drive 12 is mounted on plate 13 moving in radial direction relative disc 4 by hydraulic power cylinder 16.
EFFECT: increased safety of the drive, improved disc position adjustment, reduced size, simplified mounting and enhanced maintainability.
7 cl, 2 dwg