# The method of collecting and processing information about the sample surface

(57) Abstract:

The method involves the sequential removal at specified points on the surface at least plot the power curve and determine it parameters of the sample, followed by building the corresponding spatial distributions. On the power curve produce the selection of reference points and fixed at least at these points the value of force of the cantilever deflection, and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end. The number of anchor points and/or specified fixed values determine the parameters of the sample, characterizing the topography and/or surface properties of the sample, and/or the number and properties of surface layers. Including coordinates of the sample surface, and/or boundaries of the surface layers or the thickness of the surface layer, or adhesion force of the sample surface and/or surface layers, or the coefficient of elasticity of the sample surface and/or surface layers. Provides enhanced functionality, improving the accuracy and reliability of the obtained information, improve productivity and informative. 29 C.p. f-crystals, 18 ill. In the so-called AFM-microscopy to study the surface of the sample is measured interaction forces between the surface and the probe is placed in close proximity to the surface (1 nm) or directly on it. In AFM-microscopy and in the proposed method, in addition to the strength of the interatomic interaction can be recorded electric and magnetic forces.When scanning surface is achieved highest resolution, however, due to the shear slip on the effect of variable coefficient of friction, abrasion of the probe, the probe can be damaged in a collision with irregularities, such as a wall surface of the grooves, and other factors, due to constant contact. Moreover, often the frictional force prevents the movement of the probe, introducing significant error, while scanning the surface layer is broken. And, finally, significant on the deforming surface of the sample.An attempt to overcome this deficiency was made in a non-contact vibration modes of microscopy. Thus, the known contactless vibration method of receiving and data processing in scanning probe microscopy, including bringing the probe, located at the free end of the cantilever (elastic console), the oscillation of the harmonic signal at the frequency of mechanical resonance, maintaining a constant average distance between the probe and the surface and recording the coordinates of the probe without harmonic component (see EP N 0574234, G 01 B 21/30, 1993). When approaching the probe to the sample surface as a result of their interaction with the amplitude of oscillation of the probe is changed. In scanning over the investigated area tracking system maintains a constant average distance between the probe and the surface such that the oscillation amplitude of the probe was kept equal to a specified value. As a result the path of the probe without taking into account the harmonic component encircles the relief surface so that the coordinates of this path and make the image of the sample surface.Also known vibration method of obtaining data in scanning probe microscopy, including the casting C is the frequency of mechanical resonance, maintaining a constant average distance between the probe and the surface and recording the coordinates of the probe without taking into account the harmonic component of the phase of the cantilever oscillation (U.S. patent N 5406832, G 01 B 5/00, 1995). The average trajectory of moving the probe around the surface topography, and map the phase change signal indirectly characterizes the distribution of its properties, because the measured phase shift is not that other, as the time that the probe is in contact with the surface at each study point. This time depends on the local strength of adhesion at the corresponding point. Thus, the use of this method of data collection is a map showing the distribution of the local strength of adhesion at each point of the surface.The disadvantages of vibration is low resolution and indirect determination of surface parameters, resulting in a lack of accuracy and the reliability of the obtained data. Moreover, the vibrating means is not allowed to share information about the properties of the surface layers and the surface of the sample about its various parameters (due to ambiguous understanding of the reasons for the changes recorded is desii on the results of phase measurements) and tracking system (which provides constant amplitude) introduce additional error in the final result.Also known hopping" method of scanning probe microscopy, including the measurement of the coordinates of the probe in the process of rapprochement with the sample and the dilution of the sample and the probe, and then displays the topography on the measured values of the coordinates at the point of reversal, and the approximation is performed until reaching a constant force, which serves as a feedback circuit (tracking system) (see EP N 0584440, G 01 B 7/34, 1993). In scanning the surface information about the terrain is stored and used in the formulation of the trajectory of the probe, which allows to improve the performance of the method and at the same time to exclude undesirable tangential sliding of the probe on the surface. However, this method is not sufficiently informative, as it allows to obtain the distribution of properties across the surface of the sample, pattern located on the surface layers. The known method has a high accuracy, because it does not take into consideration that the probe deforms the surface due to the forces of adhesion due to surface layers and surface heterogeneity. Unaccounted deformation may depend on the properties, distribution, and thickness of surface layers and the variation of the surface properties. The known is the way the accumulated data about the terrain used for exact determination of the height placement of the probe above the surface and to conduct independent electric or magnetic measurements rescan.However, this method is not excluded component of error due to the fact that the information about the topography and surface properties that can be removed independently, and terrain data is influenced by the parameters characterizing the physical properties of surface layers and surface contamination. Moreover, in this way you cannot share information about the influence of the sample surface and located on it layers. In the application Japan N 526841, G 01 B 21/30, 1995, was a method of two-variable control design including fixing the coordinates of the sample at the moment of reaching a given value of the interaction force between the sample surface with the probe scanning the surface with the purpose of obtaining relief, and the calculation of the adhesion of one surface point on the power curve, which is removed under the conditions of contact of the probe with the sample, and the distribution of the values obtained adhesion for all surface points. It is obvious that the above-mentioned component of error is reduced, but not eliminated, and the low reliability of the results due to changes in the strength of adhesion caused by the heterogeneity of surface properties and change the thickness of the surface layers, is present in full.The closest Iasca and placed on the cantilever probe to achieve a given value of the interaction force between the sample surface with the probe before scanning, then at each point of the scan fixation elevation (Z coordinate) at a constant force of interaction between sample and probe, removing the section of the power curve during the instant of contact of the sample with the probe and subsequent short-term cultivation (at the time of removal of the power curve of the feedback circuit, a supporting force of interaction of the sample with the probe constant disconnects), recollection of the power curve and the determination of adhesion strength at this point, stop to restore a given value of the interaction force between the sample surface with the probe and the transition to the next point of the scanned surface (see U.S. patent N 5477732, G 01 B 21/30, 1995). Thus, in this method of measurement at each point is carried out in two stages: first, when stationary in a fixed position of the probe and the sample is a relief, then, independently, is applied to the sample intensive power impulse effect, moving it in the direction of the probe, and removed the power curve, which calculates the value of the force of adhesion. One of the variants of the method involves the repeated removal of the power curve at each point with the purpose of averaging the obtained values of adhesion.In other words, the known method has low accuracy, and reliability of measurement data is low (it does not consider the influence of surface sigh values, as well as the impact on the results of the control of the friction force), limited functionality (does not display the thicknesses and properties of surface layers), and lack of reliability and performance (due to the two-stage nature of the measurements, the trajectory of the relative motion of the probe and the sample).From the above it becomes clear that one of the main disadvantages of the existing methods probe microscopy is the impossibility of the separation of "clean" the surface of the sample and the parameters located on it layers (or about the properties of the layers in the sandwich structure of the sample, which is the same). Thus, vibration methods react primarily on the surface layers, but cannot give information about the surface while in contact and hopping scanning microscopes essentially ignored located on the surface of the sample layers.Thus, the technical result expected from use of the present invention is to enhance the functionality of the method of collecting and processing information about the topography and surface properties due to the receipt of certain distributions of properties and settings "is Ty and reliability of measurement data, improve the performance and reliability of the method, increasing its value and simplify the implementation and improve the accuracy and extend the scope of application due to the assured exceptions contact or any interaction of the probe with the sample at the transition from one surface to the other, complete elimination of the friction force.This result is achieved in that in the method of collecting and processing information about the sample surface, comprising the sequential removal in specific points of the test surface at least plot the power curve in the convergence process and/or following the reverse dilution of the sample and located on the cantilever probe and determine it parameters of the sample, followed by building the corresponding spatial distributions, when removing the at least plot the power curve produce the selection of reference points and fixed values of the strength of cantilever deflection, and/or coordinates to the fixed end, and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end at least at the points of support of the power curve, the parameters of the model, characterizing the topography and/or surface properties formation is the values of the force deflection of the cantilever, and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end at appropriate points.In addition, as parameters characterizing the topography and/or surface properties of the sample, and/or the number and properties of surface layers, use the coordinates of the sample surface and/or boundaries of the surface layers or the thickness of the surface layer, or adhesion force of the sample surface and/or surface layers, or the coefficient of elasticity of the sample surface and/or surface layers.It is also recommended value forces the cantilever deflection, and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end in at least reference points to form a set of argument values, and determining parameters of a sample to produce by forming many features from the received arguments and determine their value.In addition, as a reference choose a point limiting quasipermanent parts of the power curve, and/or the point at which the power curve abruptly changes slope.The op is erva or its second derivative along the coordinate of the fixed end of the cantilever reach threshold values, obtained, for example, the results of the previous scan or measurement.It is also reasonable construction of spatial distributions to produce relative coordinates of the sample surface.Pets also the choice of reference points and/or the fixation strength of the cantilever deflection and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end to produce after filtering sets the current values of the strength of the cantilever deflection and the coordinates of its fixed end.In addition, the definition of parameters for fixed values of the force of cantilever deflection and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end in this subset of control points can be made based on the values of these quantities in other subsets of the control points.It is also recommended that the definition of the parameters to produce the recorded values forces the cantilever deflection and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed con is in the process of convergence or dilution with the sample, respectively.The number of surface layers of the sample can be determined as the number of anchor points, limiting quasipermanent parts of the power curve, and/or points, at which the power curve abruptly changes slope in the process of convergence or dilution of the sample and probe without units and reverse, if it is included in the reference.In addition, when determining the number of surface layers of the sample can not be considered the starting point quasi-vertical sections.It is also advisable coordinate of the surface of the sample is determined from ratios:Ro=Zo - So

where Ro is the coordinate of the sample surface,

Zo, So - coordinate of the fixed end of the cantilever and the deviation of its free end at the moment of achievement by the power of the cantilever deflection values of 0 or-A when approaching the sample and the probe, and 0 or +A at a dilution of sample and probe, respectively,

A positive constant value.Pets also coordinate of the surface of the sample to diagnose the condition Zt - St = const,

where Zt and St are the current values of the coordinates of the fixed end of the cantilever and the deflection of its free end, respectively.In addition to the Eber at the anchor points, not including the starting point of the quasi-vertical sections at the convergence of the sample and probe and end points of quasi-vertical sections at a dilution of sample and probe.Coordinates at the boundaries of the surface layers of the sample and their thickness can be determined from the formula:

Ri = Zi - Si, Di = [R(i+1) - Ri], where Ri and Di - coordinate of the boundary of the i-th layer and its thickness, respectively, i= (0, 1, 2...),

Zi, Si - coordinate of the fixed end of the cantilever and the deviation of its free end in an appropriate anchor point, not including the initial points of quasi-vertical sections at the convergence of the sample and probe and end points of quasi-vertical sections at a dilution of sample and probe.In addition, the coordinates of the boundaries of the surface layers of the sample relative to the sample surface and its thickness can be determined from the ratios of the form:

R i = Zi - Si - Ro, Di = [R'(i+1) - R i], where R i and Di - coordinate of the boundary of the i-th layer relative to the sample surface and its thickness, respectively, i= (0, 1, 2...),

Zi, Si - coordinate of the fixed end of the cantilever and the deviation of its free end, respectively, in the corresponding anchor point, not including the initial points of quasi-vertical sections contiguous with LeSabre also the coordinates of the boundaries of the surface layers of the sample, measured when breeding or closer, to determine the relative coordinates of the surface, measured also when breeding or convergence, respectively.The strength of adhesion of the surface layers of the sample is determined by the strength of the cantilever deflection at the points of support, not including the end point of the quasi-vertical sections at a dilution of sample and probe.In addition, the total adhesion force of the surface and the surface layers of the sample is defined as the absolute maximum force of the cantilever deflection in the process of dilution of the sample and the probe.It is also recommended that the coordinate boundaries of the sample surface to determine the adjusted current between the probe and the surface, the total adhesion force ratio:

Roa= Ro + Fac/Kp, where Roa is the coordinate of the boundary surface of the sample, adjusted for the current between the probe and the surface, the total adhesion force,

F - total adhesion strength of the sample surface,

Kp = Kktg/(1-tg)

Kk is the coefficient of elasticity of the cantilever bending,

tg - the tangent of the slope of the power curve in the neighborhood of Zo.Thus the coordinate of the sample surface can be determined with the amendment on the elastic properties of the surface and is.Pets also the coefficient of elasticity of the surface layers of the sample to determine the ratio:

Ki = BKktgi/(1-tgi),

where Ki is the coefficient of elasticity of the i-th layer,

tgi is the tangent of the slope of the plot of the power curve located between the respective reference points, B is the coefficient of proportionality.In addition, the coefficient of elasticity of the sample surface can be determined from the relation:

Kp = Kktg/(1-tg),

where Kp is the coefficient of elasticity of the sample surface.When this convergence and/or dilution of the sample and the probe is carried out until reaching the force of cantilever deflection threshold.It is also recommended removing the power curve at the given points of the test surface of the sample to produce more than one time, defining the difference between the obtained values of the parameters of the surface or surface layers of the sample, the degree of impact of the tip on the surface or the surface layers of the sample, respectively.In addition, removal of the power curve at the given points of the test surface of the sample can occur during convergence and dilution of the sample and the probe, and the difference between the obtained values of the parameters that determine the magnitude of staticy electric potential, and from the total signal by demodulation determining the magnitude of the force of electrostatic interaction between the probe and the surface and/or surface layers of the sample.Pets also removing the power curve at the given points of the test surface of the sample to produce more than once, under different electric potential of the conductive probe relative to the sample surface, defining the difference between the obtained values of the force of cantilever deflection the force of electrostatic interaction between the probe and the surface and/or surface layers of the sample.In addition, removal of the power curve at the given points of the test surface of the sample can be performed more than once, under different electric potential of the probe relative to the sample surface, defining the difference between the obtained values of derivative forces of the cantilever deflection coordinate of the fixed end of the gradient magnitude of the electrostatic force of interaction between the probe and the surface and/or surface layers of the sample.And finally, together with the removal of the power curve, or it may be check the magnitude of the tunneling current between a conductive probe and the surface of the surface and/or surface layers of the sample.Thus, in the proposed method of obtaining information about the surface topography and its properties, the number of surface layers, their thickness, and configuration properties are not separated in time, all measurements are performed in the current point on the surface at the same time, in the process of removal of the power curve, in particular during the lowering and lifting of the probe.Removing the power curve above named process, including tracking the coordinates of this curve (force F acting on the probe, located on the cantilever or, equivalently, the value of S or the deflection angle of the probe, and the Z coordinate of its fixed end) and the derivative dF/dZ (in special cases also the second and/or third derivative), and fixation values Fi, Zi and, if necessary, dF/dZ in characteristic points of the power curve, forming many arguments. The entire volume of measurement data, the values of several quantities characterizing the surface structure of the sample receive the proposal from the analysis of the power curve, and moreover, its individual characteristic points, the above reference. This not only extends the functionality of the method, but also makes the measured values are comparable, allows you to adjust some of them with on the surface and the surface properties, to build maps of distributions that are bound to the surface topography and relative to this relief, a particular with regard to the number of amendments, and reflecting the true picture of the surface layers and their characteristics.Feature of the proposed method is that the power curve of the register selected by the operator or processor reference (specific) point. The coordinates of selected points, the values of the distances between them, the values of slope and derivative plots of the power curve and the difference between them carry the information about the different characteristics of the surface molecular layers lying on it, and exploring the probe. Registering and evaluating these data, putting them in line coordinates of surface points in which they are obtained, subjecting them to the treatment according to the above algorithms, we have an opportunity to develop maps of the distribution of values of the relevant characteristics of the surface or loose objects in the studied area.Anchor point - this is the most informative points of the power curve, in which it (or its derivative) changes the slope or reaches a threshold, including specified with a certain quantization step of, for example, coordinately areas.Under "quasi-vertical", "quasicrystalline" or "quasidiagonality" refers to the sections or segments, which can be considered as those with a specified degree of accuracy.The peculiarity of this method is also bound all of the distributions obtained for the surface coordinate, and certain in addition to measurements and even by processing the measurement results, taking into account the number of amendments.Note also that S (So) is a value having a sign. Bending of the cantilever towards the surface of the sample it is positive, in the opposite - negative.It should be clear that as used below, the term "coordinate" depending on the context of use as to denote the coordinates of the point of the power curve is its projection on the axis S, and Z to denote the coordinates of any point in space, in particular the coordinates of the probe at the given point of the power curve in space. The coordinate space is the same as the projection on the Z axis, but only now it is not fixed end and the free cantilever (probe). When the probe is on the sample surface or layer it coordinate coincides with the coordinate of the corresponding surface.From below when hoasnet, what's underneath the surface, surface properties and surface layers are understood and their geometric parameters and characteristics - coordinates and thickness. At the same time, the surface layers are included as "soft" layers that the probe passes freely or freely deforms located on the surface of the sample, understood in the usual sense (it can be any adsorbed layers: pollution, water, two-dimensional condensed gas (steam), etc., let's call them "nepoverennye"), and "hard" layers, in which the probe penetrates or deforms them with sufficient force (this is the structure of the surface, all kinds of hard coatings, etc., let's call them "subsurface").Removing sections of the power curve is as in other known methods for a given mutual position of the sample and the probe, i.e., at a constant location in the horizontal plane, if the convergence and breeding occur vertically. In other words we are talking about one of the points of the surface, after removal of the power curve in which the probe and/or sample (matters only their relative position, can move one or both of them) are moved horizontally and the process of removing Salpetriere spatial distributions of the relevant parameters and properties.Under the power curve refers to a curve according to the values of the force deflection of the free end of the cantilever with the probe from the values of the position coordinates of the fixed end of the cantilever or any curve obtained from this curve, such as curve force deflection of the free end of the cantilever distance of the probe to the surface.It should be noted also that under the power curve is not necessarily all of the power curve, but also given its area or their combination.The specifics of the proposal is the definition of a set of fixed values as the force of the cantilever deflection and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or derivatives (for example, first and second) on the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end.Say also that the use of the coordinates of the sample surface and/or boundaries of the surface layers or the thickness of the surface layer, or the adhesion strength of the sample surface and/or surface layers, or coefficient of elasticity of the sample surface and/or surface layers as informative parameters should understand the use of both one and several of these who were in one way or another. Filtering can be performed in the process of removal of the power curve, and directly with removed earlier data. The proposal is continuously recorded, measured (or specified, such as, Z) values of F and Z, as well as derivatives F', F', and so on (all values or part of them), but are recorded and subsequently used for mapping, building distribution and processing only their values at reference points. When this cut-off high-frequency components in the registered values of F and Z allows to reduce the error in the determination of reference points and fixing the values of the arguments in them. Job reference points and thresholds, as well as the interpretation of the results (and therefore controlled surface points) can be produced in the offer based on the values recorded previously or subsequently in these or other reference points, as in the process of the prior or subsequent scan of this (or even any) of the sample, and during removal of the previous, subsequent or current of the power curve at the given point of the surface.Thus, the process of removal of the power curve at any given point controlled Powai curve and/or defined by the derivative at these points; these are either used directly, immediately upon receipt, for example, to determine the point of fracture, threshold, etc. or recorded in memory for a short period of time, not exceeding the interval of time required for removal of the power curve at the given point of the surface, and are used with a delay, after which in both cases are erased, and b) fixed support (typical) point; for this as the criteria for determining control points are used, the data acquired and stored in the first stage. At the same time, when used for control point information obtained during the previous removal of the power curve at the given point of the surface or even the previous scan, using the current values, and the values or functions related to the control point.From the above it is obvious that under the reverse refers to the transition from convergence of the probe and the sample to their breeding or removed from each other, and commit to being named the learning process, the use of measured values. In other words removing the curve comprises a measurement of current values and subsequent fixation of all or part of them.In satimat total effect separation of the cantilever, including adhesion, capillary and other possible components.It should be noted that all the above operations for determining the shape and the parameters of the power curve, including finding anchor points, produce, usually above the signal passed pre-processing, such as filtering, i.e. the selection of the useful signal against the background noise of different origin (instrument and external). This can occur with the use of the processor, which uses a detector parameter change signal (fault detector), engaged in the prediction of extreme points pseudoregular signal using a priori information about the additive noise and disturbance.Note also that in the simplest case, the set of generated functions (arguments) is one function (argument). For example, if the arguments are considered values of the strength of cantilever deflection at reference points "a" and "b" and the second derivative of the force deflection of the cantilever by the coordinate of its fixed end at an anchor point, many of the parameter values are fixed values of these quantities and the parameters of the sample is carried out by forming some what of edeleny their values by substituting the values of the arguments.In Fig. 1 shows a block diagram of a device for implementing the method of Fig. 2, the cantilever shown separately. Fig. 3 and 4 illustrate plots of the power curve typical for the clean surface without surface layers, and Fig. 3 while the convergence of the surface and the probe, and Fig. 4 breeding. In Fig. 5 schematically shows a power curve (as when approaching and when breeding), characteristic of the surface and surface layers (as nepoverennye and subsurface) and identifies the specific points and areas on Fig. 6 - 8 (a, b) variants of the algorithm of the processor while explaining step-by-step process of the proposed method, and Fig. 9 - 15 shows the structure and distribution, obtained using the proposed method. So, in Fig. 9-11 depict maps of the distributions obtained on the surface of the polymer containing clusters of cadmium and partially covered by a layer of adsorbed water. In particular, in Fig. 9 shows a map of the surface topography of the polymer, including clusters of cadmium in Fig. 10 shows the map coordinates of the surface adsorbed layer relative to the polymer surface (essentially, the distribution of the thickness of the adsorbed layer), the s values for the strength of adhesion).In Fig. 12, 13 depicts a fragment of the surface of the matrix gold ohmic contacts located on the GaAs substrate, and Fig. 12 shows a map of surface topography, and Fig. 13 depicts a map of the electrical values of the tunneling current between the surface and the probe when the difference of potential between them in 1 volt.In Fig. 14, 15 depicts a fragment of the surface of the matrix triangles polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) on a silicon substrate, and Fig. 14 shows the map of the surface topography, and Fig. 15 map of electrostatic interactions between the probe and the surface at the moment of contact when a difference of potential between them in 1 volt.In Fig. 16-18 shows the experimental force curves taken on surfaces covered with surface layers.In the device shown in Fig. 1, a sample 1 is placed on the three-coordinate piezoelectric element 2. Above the surface of the sample 1 is placed an elastic cantilever 3, fastened to the pole 4. The light beam emitted by the source 5 is reflected from the cantilever 3 and arrives at the detector 6 connected to the input of the processor 7 that controls the operation of the piezoelectric element 2. The information output processor 7 is connected to the input of the display unit (display, blot for the implementation of the proposed method it is possible to use any known AFM device, including those described in the above-mentioned sources of information.The method is as follows. At each point of the investigated area of the sample surface 1 is removed, the power curve is the dependence of the bending of the cantilever 3 (S in Fig. 3-5), which is the probe 9, the distance to the surface of the sample 1, fastened to the pole 4 of the end of the cantilever 3 (Z in Fig. 2-5). The amount of bending is proportional to the current applied to the cantilever 3 the strength of the interatomic interaction F, is registered by the detector 6 (he usually responds to the magnitude or angle of deflection of the cantilever 3, which is proportional to the underlying strength of the deviation).Information from the output of the detector 6 is supplied to the CPU 7, where it is processed using the proposed or known algorithms. Moreover, the following algorithms can be used both directly and as part known or to adjust them. Moreover, it should be noted that, as will become clear from the further, the method can be carried out in manual mode, without using a processor for processing the measurement results, as well as in semi-automatic mode, when the processor is used only for building distributions in selected about the which first brings, and then removes the sample 1 from the probe 9 at the point of scanning, and performs the scanning itself.When scanning the selected portion of the study object in the selected points (or each) is a supply of a cantilever with a probe to the surface to comply with any specified conditions, for example to achieve zero or negative (reverse) deflection of the cantilever 3. After this condition the direction of movement of the cantilever 3 is inverted and extends at a certain distance. Stop probe 9, as a rule, is made after its exit from the area of interactions with the object. When you are moving the probe 9 in the next scan point and the process is repeated. During the approach - retraction of the cantilever 3 check the power curve. The power curve can be recorded in memory and subsequently or immediately processed, i.e. it defines specified by the operator points or areas are defined by their settings, if you want the calculations and the results are recorded in the appropriate files. Set by the operator points or plots can also be determined, processed, and sapam the P CLASS="ptx2">In the process of removal of the power curve are only pairs of values or single values or derivatives of characteristic points, forming many arguments. For fixed values of the arguments are determined (as explained below) the values of the parameters characterizing the properties of the test surface or objects on it. Each obtained value functions are associated with the coordinates of the point on the sample surface, similar values with all force curves recorded in separate files, thus forming a card - image distributions of the values of the relevant characteristics of the surface or loose objects in the studied area.Consider the power curve in more detail (see Fig. 3, 4, where the power curves shown in the coordinates of S, Z, and below the position of the cantilever in some characteristic points).In point 1c (Fig. 3-5 index "C"("p" denotes a reference point and the point of reversal obtained in the approximation process (cultivation) of sample 1 and probe 9) probe 9 (Fig. C) removed from the surface of the sample 1 and does not feel the influence of surface forces. When approaching the surface of the sample 1 on the probe 9 begin to act distantly is under the influence of a significant and rapidly changing forces, the probe 9 spike is attracted to the surface, sharply flexing the cantilever 3 (point 3c). Further movement of the fixed end of the cantilever 3 to the surface of the sample 1 will reduce the bending of the cantilever 3 and the point 4c it is completely straight. If you continue to move to the surface will start bending of the cantilever in the opposite direction. At the point 5c direction changes to the opposite direction (reverse). The position of this point is determined by the operator or processor 7.When removing the fixed end of the cantilever 3 from the surface of the sample 1 (Fig. 4) the process is reversed. The cantilever 3 is rectified (dot 4p) and begins to bend towards the surface because of surface forces, adhesion keep the probe 9 and do not allow him to break away from it. In the end the force of elasticity of the cantilever 3 is increased so much that overcomes the adhesion force and the probe 9 is detached from the surface. The cantilever is rectified (dot 6p). After straightening the cantilever moves to the point 1p.From consideration of the power curve, it follows that the magnitude of the absolute maximum at the point 6p, expressed in values of the strength, local strength of adhesion at a given point of the surface, i.e. the force which constantly presses the AOR is the jump of the power curve.Segments between points 3c-5c and 5p-6p (Fig. 3, 4) reflect the value of the bending of the cantilever (force of the elastic deflection of the cantilever when the probe is in direct contact with the surface. This part of the power curve is called contact. By registering the value of the abscissa any equally certain point on the contact part of the force curve, it is possible to get information about the topography of the surface topography, because the coordinates of these points determine the vertical location of the probe 9 on the surface under the application of a force of a given magnitude (the ordinate of the point that defines the elastic force of the cantilever, plus the ordinate of the point 6p defining surface adhesion force, also valid at this point on the probe 9). The criterion for selecting the point on the segment can serve as the value of its ordinate. The advantage of the proposed method is that at each point of the surface of the sample 1 in a single measuring process is the minimal set of values, in the simplest case, for example, the surface topography and the force of adhesion. This force can be unevenly distributed on the surface and to achieve significant values, introducing a significant error in the measurement of the topography of the known methods. When iSpazio, it is possible to accurately determine the magnitude of the total force with which the probe was acting on the surface in a registered point (the sum of the forces of adhesion and the elastic force of the cantilever) and calculate a corrective amendment to the measured values, or when the secondary removal of the power curve at the same point of the surface to adjust the coordinates of the selected point of measurement according to a magnitude of the force of adhesion. In other words, measuring the topography of the terrain surface can be made more accurately without errors caused by the influence of surface forces of adhesion.The movement towards the surface when removing the power curve is performed until reaching the designated operator of the magnitude of the force of the bend, if necessary, is stored coordinate of the fixed end of the cantilever, and then a change of direction is reverse, which prevents damage to the probe 9.Registering the abscissa of point 3c - currents adhesion of the probe to the surface, you can log the data are essentially the same as data received vibration methods. However, these data carry information not only about the surface topography, but also soft and movable molecular layers of nauczania information about the terrain, and point 3c. Thus, it is possible to obtain pure information about the thickness of molecular layers on the surface, separating it from the information about the topography of the terrain.The presence of adsorbed molecular layers or layers, caused in any way changing the appearance of the power curve (Fig. 5). Thus, layers, freely permeable probe 9, will change the distance between points 3c and 4c. The probe 9 may stick first to the molecular layer, pass through it, and then stick already to the surface of the sample 1. Can happen deformation of the surface layers of the probe 9 with their subsequent breakthrough or without. Molecular layers can be deformed and to move towards the probe. All these phenomena will affect the power curve between points 2c-3c

_{4}. Producing a mathematical operation on coordinates of the power curve at the anchor points corresponding to these areas, fixing the coordinates of the boundary points quasiparallel segments, measuring the distance between them and the slopes of these segments, it is possible to determine the coordinates relative to the surface, the properties and thickness of these layers and to obtain a distribution of these values in the studied area. Retransmitting the removal of the power curve,"ptx2">The slope of the segments of the contact part of the force curve between points 3c

_{4}-4c-5c

_{1}and 5p

_{1}-6p (Fig. 5), i.e., the area of the curve, where the probe is in contact with the surface determines its elastic (mechanical) properties. Knowing the coefficient of elasticity of the cantilever, the probe material and the contact area can determine the young's modulus of the material contacting the ground surface and thereby identify its composition. You can also define the coefficient of elasticity of the surface, using only the value of the coefficient of elasticity of the cantilever and the angle of contact of the power curve or just the angle. Measuring this angle (the angle, the tangent of an angle), you can get maps of the elastic properties of the investigated areas of the surface. In the study of surfaces consisting of several layers with different elastic properties or covered with any thick elastic layer that can prevent the passage of the probe 9 through them, to the contact part of the force curve appears segments corresponding to these layers, the slopes of which reflect their elastic properties, and the projection on the Z - thickness (see Fig. 5 points 5c, 5p and 5s

_{1}, 5p

_{1}). Similarly, for a more "gentle" nepoverennyh layers. Proh sootvetstvuyuschego plot the power curve. And thus, the magnitude of this slope reflects their elastic (mechanical) properties. If the probe 9 breaks through any layer on a power curve with a characteristic overshoot (jump up). If the contact of the probe 9 with the surface are irreversible changes of the contact part of the force curve taken when the movement of the cantilever 3 in the direction from the surface will differ from the corresponding region of the force curve taken when approaching the sample and the probe. Thus, measuring the scanning coordinates of the control points, the bounding segments of different slope, it is possible to monitor the change in the elastic properties of surface layers and their thicknesses. Registering the point of breakout layers or mismatch of selected parts of the curves inlet and outlet of the cantilever 3, it is possible to identify the faulty when scanning areas.It is obvious that for the same power effect of probe 9 to the surface, but with different elastic properties of the latter (which can often happen within a selected portion of the scan), surface deformation will be different from that in the known methods leads to distortions of the terrain caused by its elastic with the spine (the angle of contact of the power curve) at the same point together with measurements of the surface topography.When moving the cantilever 3 in the direction from the surface processes the output of the probe 9 of the surface (subsurface layer) and layers covering it (nepoverennyh). If convergence occurred only elastic deformation (not was irreversible processes), the type of power curve output in the lower part of the contact region will coincide with the curve of the entrance. Otherwise, these areas will vary. When passing point 3c, in which the probe 9 adheres to the surface of the sample 1, the service does not usually occur because the probe 9 continue to hold the forces of adhesion. Therefore, the power curve will go up - bending of the cantilever 3 will increase. If the surface or the layer behind it, will deform after the movement of the cantilever, this deformation results in a bend or kink the power curve above the point 3c. The slope of this area will depend on the elastic properties of the contacting probe 9 sites. The distance of the probe 9 from the surface of the sample 1 and from any nepoverennyh layers, and breaks ties on the power curve typically appear irregular perpendicularly down from the surface).After the probe 9 are detached from the surface (point 6p in Fig. 5), Anisa for him. On the power curve it looks like a typical shelf or set of shelves located after the point 6p (Fig. 5) separation of the probe 9 from the surface. Separation of the probe 9 of these layers on the power curve can be reflected or spike down, similar to the detachment of the probe from the surface, or multistage, when broken turn some connection, or a gradual decline to zero when the molecule layer "flow down" from the probe 9, freeing it. The values of the ordinates of the points expressed in units of force and measured directly in moments of isolation from the layers at the boundaries of the layers and in moments of tears rushing ties directly determine the magnitude of the interaction forces between the probe and surface layers, i.e., determine the adhesion properties of the surface layers and the magnitude of straining relationships. Selecting a reference point (typical sections) of the return branch of the force curve, measuring their coordinates, the slope and the projection of the line segments and curves, you can also define the elastic properties of the surface layers, to characterize intermolecular connections.It is obvious that when the complex nature of the power curve the magnitude of the total force of adhesion is defined as the maximum value of the bend when moving is to equate them to the corresponding values of Z (i.e., projected onto the x-axis). However, the more precisely you can define them using the formula R=Z-S, where R is the coordinate of the point on the power curve (probe 9), the Z - coordinate of the fixed end of the cantilever 3, S is the magnitude of the deflection (bending) of the cantilever 3, which in turn is equal to the force deflection of the cantilever 3 multiplied by its coefficient of elasticity. The sign of this value depends on the direction of bending of the cantilever 3. Bending away from the surface, the formula will have the form R=Z+sIt should be noted that the x-axis we consider bound to the sample and consider the relative convergence of the probe and the sample changes the coordinate of the fixed end of the cantilever. Of course, if the coordinate system to associate with the cantilever, the variable will be the coordinate of the sample.Measurement of the coordinates of the surface, as noted above, can be produced at any point in the contact part of the force curve. Most just choose the criterion S= 0 or S=A or S=-A (where A is the specified threshold value). You can also use as a criterion the beginning of the segment, where Z S = const (the beginning of the contact area) or the end of this section. The exact coordinates of the surface, where the probe, taking into account the above amendments measurements plots of the investigated surface and molecular layers, located on it, is possible by measuring the power curve at each point of the surface again, registering the difference between the coordinates of the respective reference points or values derived in them or comparing the thickness of the respective layers. Moreover, the secondary removal of the power curve in one and the same point can be used to measure magnetic or electrostatic interactions at a given distance from the surface or in close proximity to it. When first removing the power curve is determined by the Z coordinate of the point of attachment of the probe to the surface - point 3c and the coordinate of the surface point 4c, and the second pass, without reaching the point of the boundary surface (and to the point of adhesion) to the specified distance, measured magnetic or electrostatic forces. Thus it is essential that the distance to the measurement point is supported relative to the surface, and not relative to the point of sticking, as in the known methods, and is supported by more accurately, because the time interval between the determination of the coordinates of the surface and conduct the measurement in this case is the lowest possible, which dramatically reduces the distance change caused by possible the ü removing the power curve again. It is enough to remember the values of the curve, to select a point above the surface at the required distance, and record the measured value in the appropriate file. It allows you to record values of magnetic or electrostatic interactions in the immediate vicinity of the surface, recording the value, as measured at a point preceding the point of adhesion, which is not possible in the known methods.Repeated removal of the power curve at the same point on the surface of the sample 1, but with a different electrical potential on the probe 9, which in this case made of a conductive material, allows to distinguish between electric charges, objects and the various phases of the surface according to their electrical properties. Differences in the interactions of the electric field probe 9 with surfaces with different electrical characteristics is particularly evident when registering the difference between the corresponding values obtained when removing the power curves at different potentials on the probe 9 or potential and without it. Can be compared to any points, segments, angles, or other parameters of the power curve, the choice of the operator, and if the probe is located on the surface (the contact is interaction, caused nepoverennye layers that the probe has passed, and if the probe is at a distance from the surface, then the interaction is included, the contribution nepoverennyh layers, which are located at the moment between the probe and the surface. To calculate the magnitude of the surface charge or the dielectric constant can be used in the following considerations.Consider the simplest case, when the conductive surface. When you first removing the power curve of the potential on the probe is equal to zero, while the second is equal to U. When the subtraction of the values of the ordinates of the points of the secondary lifting ordinates of the points of the initial withdrawal will receive power curve only the electrostatic component of the force. The strength of the electrostatic interaction F is determined by the expression:

F(U)=(K/Ee)U(U+Q)/(2R)

^{2}< / BR>

where K is a constant, It is the dielectric constant of the surface material and the layer (or layer, it depends on the point of measurement), Q is the charge on the surface of the sample, R is the coordinate of the measurement point relative to the surface.From this formula we derive Ee=(K/F(U))U(U+Q)/(2R)

^{2}.If the surface charge is not, then the values of the dielectric constant of the surface and subsurface layers the concept of the power curve to repeat or at another value of the potential, either at the same time, but the other polarity (in this case will be identified by the sign of the charge). The result will be another equation, and from these two equations we find two unknown - Its and qTo get some contrasting paintings reflecting the electrical properties of the surface and layers rather than one or two dimensions (see Fig. 15).Thus, unlike known methods, the proposed method allows to register a purely electrostatic interaction separately from intermolecular, to determine from these interactions, the values of dielectric constant and surface charges separately, and divide the deposits in these interactions introduced by the surface and nepoverennye layers separately.To identify differences in the electrical characteristics of different areas of the investigated area during a single measurement of the power curve at each point. This produces a modulation of the magnitude or polarity of the electric potential on the probe 9 harmonic or rectangular signal or on the entire curve, or in certain areas (points). The difference in the amplitudes of the measured signal at different points of the surface will be this probe 9 also gives the opportunity to observe the dependence of the tunneling current from the tip position 9 relative to the surface of the sample 1. I.e., each point of the power curve is associated with the value of the tunneling current measured by the probe at these points. This allows the scan to remove the card conductivity surface in characteristic information significant points of the power curve (see Fig. 12, 13).Similar to using a conducting probe you can use the probe, sensitive to any other physico-chemical characteristics of the surface. Thus, it is possible to apply magnetic, thermocouple, capacitive, optical, etc. probes.You can also measure the deflection of the cantilever is not only normal to the surface, but in the perpendicular direction.Depending on the properties, dimensions and surface characteristics, objects that are on it, the environment and probe 9 (cantilever 3, the microscope as a whole) type of power curve may change and not be the same as the curve shown in Fig. 5. The curve may appear kinks, steps, peaks, uneven areas, changes of angles and inclinations, rounding sharp corners, etc. All these features have certain information, and using the proposed method any feature you can select and get a map of its distribution Nari convergence and dilution of the sample 1 and the probe 9, on the axis S on the plot 3c4-4c-5c-5c1-5p1-5p-4p-6p can be interpreted as the amount of residual deformation at appropriate points. Of course, when determining the difference or comparison uses the same values, the same parameters that are related to the same anchor points.No need to use electronic feedback systems, interpretation systems and phase detection simplifies the implementation of the method, eliminates the presence of artifacts due to the finite speed testing of these systems and the relaxation processes in them, which increases the reliability of the received data.Considering the examples of the method, note that the number of possible algorithms or variants of the method is extremely large, however, each option can easily be implemented using well-known techniques as above were set to the measured value recorded at the anchor points, the expression for calculating the required values of (partly they just coincide with recorded), and set conditions for the choice of reference points, establishes rules for the interpretation of the distributions. In other words, each combination of these variables, expressions, and Prim (block diagram) step-by-step implementation of one of the possible variants of the proposed method. After installation of the probe 9 on the first point of the surface begins convergence of sample 1 and probe 9, followed by measuring the current values of Ft (St), Zt, dF/dZ (in the simplest case, the values of the derivative are taken equal to the difference between neighboring values Ft), d

^{2}F/dZ. If the condition dF/dZ const or d

^{2}F/dZ 0 (> C, where C is some threshold value), i.e. the achievement of a reference point, the signal through the block selection element And enters a count of the number of layers. This counter is reset to zero after installation on another controlled surface point and its readings are displayed (stored) in the reverse torque (corresponding connection in Fig. 6 is not shown). The unit selection cuts off the signals related to the quasi-vertical portions of the power curve, so that the starting point of the quasi-vertical sections when counting the number of layers is not taken into account.Simultaneously with recording the fact of passage of the layer are fixed values Zj and Sj, then calculates and displays Rj = Zj-Sj, where Rj is the coordinate of the boundary of the j-th layer.When the conditions S = -A fixed coordinate of the sample surface 1 and is the reverse direction, the convergence of the sample 1 and zo is altnoy from the sample surface. The probe 9 is installed on the new surface point and the scanning continues until the condition n=N, i.e., until completion of all monitored points. The result can be obtained a map showing the number of layers on the surface map of the surface layers (each separately) and the surface topography shown in Fig. 9. On the return leg of the power curve in this example is fixed point only absolute maximum, the force deflection of the cantilever 3 in which is equal to the total force of adhesion of the Fac, the distribution of which is shown in Fig. 11.In the example shown in Fig. 7, the measured power deviation of the cantilever 3 and the coordinate of its fixed end are entered into RAM, where it is stored and continuously updated the plot of the power curve. This allows you to select quasipermanent areas, the boundary points which are recorded as a reference. In addition, in contrast to the variant shown in Fig. 6, the reverse occurs at zero deflection of the cantilever 3 after passing the absolute maximum force deviation in the approximation process, and re-attainment of zero deflection after passing the absolute maximum force deviation in the process of breeding Abrego, the value of Fac is used to generate corrections to the coordinate surface, which, in turn, serves as a reference point for the boundary layers. The result of this algorithm is a map of the surface topography (Fig. 9), bump maps of the surface layers relative to the surface (Fig. 10) and power distribution map of adhesion (Fig. 11).And finally, a feature of the flowchart of Fig. 8 (a, b) is the additional definition of the thickness of the surface layers, their elastic properties and elastic properties of the surface, as well as comparison (determination of the difference, indicating the presence of inelastic deformation or computing the average to reduce the random component of the error) data obtained in the convergence process and the dilution of the sample 1 and the probe 9.Of course, the algorithms should not be considered as electrical circuits or programs, as well as options for implementation, giving the greatest effect. However, examples being the block diagram, gives a clear idea about the rules and techniques of building schemes and programmes with the use of this description.Thus, the proposed method provides a wider functiononly while improving the accuracy and reliability of measurement data. The method is also characterized by high performance and ease of implementation, because the amount of measured information are minimized and all of it is obtained in a single removal of the power curve. 1. The method of collecting and processing information about the sample surface, comprising the sequential removal in specific points of the test surface at least plot the power curve in the convergence process and/or following the reverse dilution of the sample and located on the cantilever probe and determine it parameters of the sample, followed by building the corresponding spatial distributions, characterized in that when removing the at least plot the power curve produce the selection of reference points and record the power value of the cantilever deflection, and/or coordinates to the fixed end, and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end at least at the points of support of the power curve, the parameters of the model, characterizing the topography and/or surface properties of the sample, and/or the number and properties of surface layers is determined by the number of reference points, and/or fixed values forces the cantilever deflection, the fixed end in the respective reference points.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as the parameters characterizing the topography and/or surface properties of the sample, and/or the number and properties of surface layers, use the coordinates of the sample surface, and/or boundaries of the surface layers or the thickness of the surface layer, or adhesion force of the sample surface and/or surface layers, or the coefficient of elasticity of the sample surface and/or surface layers.3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the value of the force of the cantilever deflection, and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end in at least reference points form a set of arguments, and the definition of the parameters produced by the formation of many features from the received arguments and determine their value.4. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that as a reference choose a point limiting quasipermanent parts of the power curve, and/or the point at which the power curve abruptly changes slope.5. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that as a reference to choose the point at which the coordinate of the fixed con is the end of the cantilever reach threshold values, obtained, for example, the results of the previous scan or measurement.6. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the construction of spatial distributions produce relative coordinates of the sample surface.7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the selection of reference points, and/or the fixation strength of the cantilever deflection, and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end is performed after filtering sets the current values of the strength of the cantilever deflection and the coordinates of its fixed end.8. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the determination of the parameters at fixed values of the force of the cantilever deflection, and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end in this subset of control points is produced based on the values of these quantities in other subsets of the control points.9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the determination of the parameters produced by fixed values of the force of the cantilever deflection, and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or pnih before and after or before and after the absolute maximum force of the cantilever deflection in the process of convergence or dilution with the sample, respectively.10. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the number of surface layers of a sample is defined as the number of anchor points, limiting quasipermanent parts of the power curve, and/or points, at which the power curve abruptly changes slope in the process of convergence or dilution of the sample and probe without units and reverse, if it is included in the reference.11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that when determining the number of surface layers of the sample does not take into account the starting point of the quasi-vertical sections.12. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the coordinate of the surface of the sample is determined from the ratio

R

_{about}= Z

_{o}- S

_{o},

where R

_{about}- coordinate the surface of the sample;

Z

_{o}, S

_{o}- coordinate the fixed end of the cantilever and the deviation of its free end at the moment of achievement by the power of the cantilever deflection value equal to 0 or when the convergence of the sample and the probe, and 0 or +A at a dilution of the sample and the probe, respectively;

And is a positive constant.13. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the coordinate of the sample surface is determined by the condition

Z

_{t}- S

_{t}= const,

where Z

_{t}and S

_{t14. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the coordinates of the boundaries of the surface layers of the sample is defined as the coordinates of the fixed end of the cantilever at the anchor points, not including the initial points of quasi-vertical sections at the convergence of the sample and probe and end points of quasi-vertical sections at a dilution of sample and probe.15. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the coordinates of the boundaries of the surface layers of the sample and their thickness is determined from the ratios of the formRi= Zi- SiDi= [R(i+1)- Ri],where Riand Di- coordinate boundaries of the i-th layer and its thickness, respectively, i = (0,1,2...);Zi, Si- coordinate the fixed end of the cantilever and the deviation of its free end in an appropriate anchor point, not including the initial points of quasi-vertical sections at the convergence of the sample and probe and end points of quasi-vertical sections at a dilution of sample and probe.16. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the coordinates of the boundaries of the surface layers of the sample relative to the sample surface and its thickness is determined from the ratios of the formR'i= Zi- Si- RoDi= [R'(i+1)- R'i],Zi, Si- coordinate the fixed end of the cantilever and the deviation of its free end, respectively, in the corresponding anchor point, not including the initial points of quasi-vertical sections at the convergence of the sample and probe and end points of quasi-vertical sections at a dilution of sample and probe.17. The method according to any of paragraphs.14 to 16, characterized in that the coordinates of the boundaries of the surface layers of the sample, measured at a dilution or convergence, determine the relative coordinates of the surface, measured also when breeding or convergence, respectively.18. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the adhesion force of the surface layers of the sample is determined by the strength of the cantilever deflection at the points of support, not including the end point of the quasi-vertical sections at a dilution of sample and probe.19. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the total adhesion force of the surface and the surface layers of the sample is defined as the absolute maximum force of the cantilever deflection in the process of dilution of the sample and the probe.20. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the surface coordinate of the sample determine the adjusted current between zondo the de ROA- coordinate the surface of the sample, adjusted for the current between the probe and the surface, the total adhesion force;FAC- the total force of adhesion of the surface of the sample;Kp= Kk*tg/(1-tg),Kkthe coefficient of elasticity of the cantilever bending,tg - the tangent of the slope of the power curve in a neighbourhood of a point Zabout.21. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the coordinate of the sample surface is determined with the amendment on the elastic properties of a surface ratioROS= Ro+ Sabout(Kk/Kp) when Ro= Zabout- Sabout,ROS= Zt- St+ St(Kk/Kp) when Zt- St= const,where ROS- coordinate surface.22. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the coefficient of elasticity of the surface layers of the sample is determined from the ratioKi= B*Kk*tgi(1-tgi) where Kithe coefficient of elasticity of the i-th layer;tgithe tangent of the slope of the plot of the power curve located between the respective reference points;In - proportionality coefficient.23. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the coefficient of elasticity of poverhnosti the sample surface.24. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the convergence and/or dilution of the sample and the probe is carried out until reaching the force of cantilever deflection threshold.25. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the removal of the power curve in the set points of the controlled sample surface produces more than once, defining the difference between the obtained values of the degree of impact of the tip on the surface or the surface layers of the sample, respectively.26. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the removal of the power curve at the given points of the test surface of the sample produced under the convergence and dilution of the sample and the probe, and the difference between the obtained values of the parameters that determine the magnitude of residual strain.27. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the process of removal of the power curve on the conductive probe serves modulated electric potential, and the total signal by demodulation determining the magnitude of the force of electrostatic interaction between the probe and the surface and/or surface layers of the sample.28. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the removal of the power curve in the set points of the controlled sample surface produces more than once is snasti obtained values forces the cantilever deflection the force of electrostatic interaction between the probe and the surface and/or surface layers of the sample.29. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the removal of the power curve in the set points of the controlled sample surface produces more than once under different electric potential of the probe relative to the sample surface, defining the difference between the obtained values of derivative forces of the cantilever deflection coordinate of the fixed end of the gradient magnitude of the electrostatic force of interaction between the probe and the surface and/or surface layers of the sample.30. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that instead of withdrawing the power curve or plot registration magnitude of the tunneling current between a conductive probe and the sample surface, using the obtained set of values to plot the distribution of electrical conductivity of the surface and/or surface layers of the sample. }

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2 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, in particular, to devices for measurement of profile of surfaces of low-modular viscoelastic sheet materials of light industry, namely, man-made and natural leathers, etc. A device to detect profile of materials in deformed condition, comprising a base, a counting unit, a locating element, installed as capable of rotation around its axis, differing by the fact that the locating element is made in the form of a semi-cylinder with a hollow semi-cone and two limiting plates to fix a sample; the device comprises an additional counting unit fixed on the semi-cylinder, to detect bending radius of the investigated sample, arranged in parallel to the semi-cone guide, at the same time the main counting unit is made as combined, capable of displacement along the axis of rotation of the locating element and comprises a strain gauge motion sensor and a digital optical microscope.

EFFECT: device makes it possible to study hidden defects of natural leather and man-made materials, to determine variation of material relief under bending deformation.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: device for measuring macro roughnesses surfaces can be used in hydropower control macro roughnesses, taper and deviation from the horizontal plane mirror surfaces disc thrust bearings of hydroelectric. Device for measuring macro roughnesses surfaces, comprising mounted horizontally and in parallel above one another rigid rectangular plates fixed together by vertical uprights disposed on the outer side of each plate at the corners three support adjustable legs installed at the inner side of the bottom plate two sensor inclination angle, the axes sensitivity are mutually perpendicular and parallel to the adjacent side of the plate and fixed by means of removable alignment ring on one of the plates with its outer side magnet, the center of which is located inside the right-angled triangle formed by the three bearing adjustable feet at the median from the vertex of the right angle.

EFFECT: technical result is to increase the accuracy of measurement macro roughnesses by measuring the angular displacement in the coordinate system associated with the survey surface, expanding the functionality of the device.

1 cl, 1 dwg