The method of supplying fuel into the chamber of the heat engine and the device for its realization

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for cooling the mixing head of the combustion chamber of a heat engine. The method of supplying fuel to the engine compartment is the fuel into the channel at an angle to its axis. With fuel initially served in the path of the cooling chamber of the heat engine, and then sent to the cooling jacket of the socket, the cylindrical part of the channel, reservoir and pipeline fuel and further into the accumulator-heat exchanger where it is heated in a gaseous state through the inner cavity of the piping, manifold and through the holes in the walls of the socket serves first in the channel, and then into the chamber of the engine. The device includes a housing with a channel, the walls of which are made of radial openings for the supply of fuel, and the cylindrical part of the channel goes into a conical socket connected to the engine chamber. Perpendicular to the forming of the socket holes for the supply of fuel in the channel area of the cylindrical part and his mouth covered by the fuel manifold with tubing that is connected to the heat exchanger. The path of the cooling chamber of the engine and the cooling jacket of the bell, silindrikujuline. The method of supplying fuel to the engine chamber and a device for its implementation provide cooling head is a heat engine as in the mode without afterburning, when is one fuel and mode with afterburning, when served two component fuel. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to engine, in particular, can be used to feed into the mixing device is a heat engine gaseous fuel, heated to a temperature exceeding the heat resistance used structural materials, such as stainless steel and Nickel alloys.

Known combustion chamber rocket engine, the efficiency of the internal walls of which at high temperatures is provided by external and / or internal cooling. The same method can be cooled nozzle and the fire face of the mixing head [1]. Organization of special cooling of the mixing elements and the internal cavities of the mixing heads LRE has not previously been used, because the temperature of the fuel components when working LRE even under the scheme with staged combustion cycle is usually not more than 800oC that does not exceed the limit geoprocessor in the air flow of the high temperature used in the WFD especially when flying aircraft with high velocities in the dense layers of the atmosphere. In particular, the famous cooled mixing elements for feeding the liquid fuel in high temperature gas stream. In a mixing element of the first type of cooling is due to the porous wall construction element located in the air stream. In a mixing element of the second type cooling film formed on its surface when the flow of fuel through holes with a diameter of 0.2...2 mm in the wall, angled 10...30oto the surface of the element [2].

The disadvantages of this design is the availability of energy associated with the creation of film cooling, fuel wastage. In addition, fabrication of porous walls or holes of small diameter at small angles to the surface may cause technological difficulties, especially for products of small size. In this case, resizing within the manufacturing tolerances can result in significant non-uniformity of cooling of the film and, therefore, instability cooling designs.

Known devices of the fuel used in the chemical and ohlazhdeniya. For example, the famous block nozzle for gasification of liquid fuels, in particular oil, miscible with water vapor and oxygen, followed by feeding them through a cone-shaped bell with tangential openings in the combustion zone. For protection of the mixing elements and the cavity of the oxygen from the heat flux is applied cooling flow cylindrical and end surfaces of the burner with water [3].

Known mnogozonovaya sectional burner for receiving process gas under pressure. When this fuel (hydrocarbon gas and oxygen) is fed into the reactor through coaxial tubes: the outer channel between them pass gas at the average oxygen, and Central channels circulates cooling water [4].

Known mnogozonovaya burner for the partial oxidation of a thin liquid flammable (gases, liquids and their mixtures) in oxygen atmosphere. Fuel in the combustion zone is supplied through the Central pipe and through the pipe grate falls in the two-component nozzle. The oxidant (or oxygen-containing vapor) is supplied to the nozzle through the annular space bounded by the casing and fuel pipes. To protect the cylindrical and end (fuel injectors) surfaces cor what Adami presents structures is significant overheating of their end surfaces in the work process, leading to the appearance of micro-cracks in the joints of the nozzle plate, padharo nozzles oxygen and breach of burners.

Known gas burner used in the chemical industry, for example for splitting natural gas with oxygen and steam. Oxygen passes through the Central pipe and through the pipe attached to the base plate, is fed into the combustion zone. Pairs of annular space between pipe oxidant and the fuel cavity is fed into a manifold through which pass the pipe oxidant, and then in steam pipes, coaxial pipes of the oxidant is fed into the combustion zone. The combustible gas is fed into the combustion zone through the annular gap between the housing and fixed therein distributive lattice and steam pipes. To protect the cylindrical surface of the burner from the effects of thermal radiation applied water-cooled jacket [6]. The end surface of the burner with out tubes of oxygen and steam is not cooled, which leads to overheating and failure.

Known feeder fuel without pre-mixing, in which the fuel is fed into the combustion zone through the Central tube, the oxidant - circular passage, coaxial holes of the Central pipe. The coolant passes through coaxially with the Central pipe annular channels: internal, located between the Central pipe and the annular oxidant passage (in the direction of the end surface of the burner), and the outer positioned between the passage of the oxidant and the outer wall of the housing (from the end surface of the burner exit). Channels for cooling fluid passage interconnected grooves parallel to the end surface of the burner between the oxidant nozzles [7].

During operation of the device was observed cases of massive overheating of the front wall of the burner caused by the failure of its cooling.

Known burner for the partial oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons in gases containing CO and H2working in the following way. Flammable gases pass through the Central pipe, terminating in a distributor tube sheets, and further along the pipes which are attached at the base of the burner, fed to the reaction zone. The oxidant passes through the annular space between the casing and the cavity of the water used for cooling of the burner, and through pipes oxidant, secured by one end in the bottom of the casing and the other at the base of the burner is fed into the zone d is tin plate mounted on it with water pipes, coaxial pipes fuel cools the base of the burner and the outer jacket is directed to the output [8].

However, the workflow in the above inventions [3-8] takes place at significantly lower temperatures and pressures than are required for the operation of heat engines, in particular LRE. Level dimensions and mass properties, and use as a water cooler does not meet the requirements for products that are installed on aircraft.

As a prototype of the invention adopted inkjet-inkjet-liquid nozzle rocket engine and the way it works. The nozzle consists of a tubular housing with a channel, which may be supplied gaseous oxidant. In the walls of the channel at an angle to the gas flow a radial holes for injection into the flow of liquid fuel. In the channel holes for fuel at a supply of oxidant formed a plot of mixing, which is the atomization and mixing of the fuel components, and directly behind the jets of fuel can cause burning of the mixture, as evidenced by the frequently observed discoloration on the inside of holes for fuel [9].

Technical the La LRE, design-cooled feeder fuel, the temperature of which exceeds the limits of the heat resistance of stainless steel and Nickel alloys are commonly used as structural materials in the LRE as mode without afterburning, when is one fuel and mode with afterburning, when served two components of the fuel - oxidizer and fuel.

This task is solved in that in the method of operation of the feeder fuel into the chamber of a heat engine, which consists in the radial at an angle to the axis of the channel feeding it fuel, according to the invention the fuel is first fed into the path of the cooling chamber of the heat engine, and then sent to the cooling jacket of the socket, the cylindrical part of the channel, reservoir and pipeline fuel. Thereafter, the fuel flows into the accumulator-heat exchanger where it is heated to a high temperature in a gaseous state through the inner cavity of the piping, manifold and through the holes in the walls of the socket serves first in the channel, and then into the chamber of the heat engine.

The proposed method is implemented so that the feeder of fuel into the chamber of a heat engine, comprising a housing indicesa part of the channel goes into a conical socket, connected with the chamber of the heat engine. Perpendicular to the forming of the socket holes for the supply of fuel in the channel area of the cylindrical part of the channel and the socket covered by a manifold fuel pipe. The pipeline is connected to the accumulator-heat exchanger. The path of the cooling chamber of the heat engine and the cooling jacket of the socket, the cylindrical part of the channel of the oxidant manifold and pipeline fuel interconnected and accumulator-heat exchanger in series.

In that case, if the temperature of one or more components of fuel is so high that only the regenerative cooling of the structural elements is not enough, the inner walls of the manifold and pipeline fuel can be made from heat-resistant structural material, for example molybdenum.

The proposed device can operate on mode with afterburning (served fuel and oxidizer), and the mode without afterburning (served one fuel).

For optimum mixing of fuel and oxidant to the mode with afterburning of the ratio of the geometric dimensions of the chamber diameter (Dtoand the diameter of the feed opening is 2o-0,2)0,35,

whereg,o- according to the density of fuel and oxidant in the place of interaction of jet fuel components;

Wg, Waboutrespectively the velocity of the fuel and oxidizer in the place of interaction of jet fuel components.

The drawing shows a diagram of a cooled feeder components of the fuel in the chamber of the heat engine.

The device consists of a housing with channel 1, which can be fed to the oxidizer, the cylindrical part of the channel goes into a conical socket 2, perpendicular to the forming of which there are 3 holes for feeding fuel into the channel. The cylindrical part of the channel and the socket have inner and outer walls forming a cooling jacket of the channel and the socket 4, 5, respectively. The inner and outer walls of the socket are connected respectively with the inner wall 6 and the external wall 7 of the combustion chamber 8. Walls 6 and 7 form a cooling channel of the camera 9. On the outer walls of the socket and the area of the cylindrical part of the channel is fixed collector 10 for supplying heated fuel pipe 11. The collector and piping have double walls, between which are located the cooling jacket 12 and 13. Kaka 16.

The feeder operates as follows. Fuel, for example hydrogen, passes through the cooling channel 9 camera 8, the cooling jacket of the socket 5, the area of the cylindrical part of the channel 4, the collector 12 and the fuel pipeline 13, respectively, and enters the accumulator-heat exchanger 17, where it is heated using an external heat source such as solar energy to a high temperature. Then the heated fuel through the inner cavity of the pipe 11, the collector 10 and the holes 3 located on the cone-shaped socket 2, is fed into the channel, and then into the chamber 8 of the heat engine. Thus implements the mode of operation of the engine without afterburning.

The proposed device can operate in the mode with afterburning, with an oxidant, such as oxygen, through the channel 1 with the alignment grating 14 and a tapered socket 2 into the chamber 8, and the fuel enters the chamber of the engine as stated above. In the interaction of the jets of fuel flow oxidant mixing of components of the fuel and the ignition of the mixture due to its high bulk temperature. At the end of the combustion products from the chamber of the heat engine is implemented mode with afterburning.

Using the principles of the present invention was designed, structurally designed and manufactured the combustion chamber, successfully passed fire tests with confirmation of the efficiency and high power characteristics.

Sources of information

1. Chinarev, B., Dobrovolsky, M. C. Liquid-propellant rocket engines. M: Barongis, 1955. S. 261, 272, 291, Fig. 86, 91, 104.

2. U.S. patent N 3699773, MKI class. F 02 G 1/00; NCI class. 60-39.74 R, 1972.

3. USSR author's certificate N 186065, CL F 23 D 11/12, 1966.

4. USSR author's certificate N 330306, CL F 23 D 14/32, 1972.

5. Patent GDR N 146765, CL F 23 D 17/00, 1981.

6. Patent GDR N 214912, CL F 23 D 15/00, 1984.

7. Patent EPO N 0151683, CL F 23 D 14/78, 1989.

8. Patent Germany N 3726875, CL F 23 D 14/78, 1989.

9. Andreev, A. C., Bazaars, C. G., Grigoriev, S. C., A. Dushkin L., Moses L. chamber of the heat engine, consisting of fuel into the channel at an angle to its axis, characterized in that the fuel is sequentially directed into the path of the cooling chamber of the heat engine, the cooling jacket of the socket, the cylindrical part of the channel, reservoir, pipeline, and accumulator-heat exchanger where it is heated to a high temperature in a gaseous state through the inner cavity of the piping and manifold, and through the holes in the walls of the socket are served in the channel, and then into the chamber of the heat engine.

2. Feeder fuel into the chamber of a heat engine, comprising a housing with a channel, the walls of which are at an angle to the axis of the channel holes for feeding fuel, characterized in that the cylindrical part of the channel goes into a conical socket, connected to a chamber of a heat engine, perpendicular to the forming of the socket holes for the supply of fuel in the channel area of the cylindrical part of the channel and the socket covered by a manifold fuel pipe connected to the accumulator-heat exchanger, and the cooling channel chamber of the heat engine and the cooling jacket of the socket and the cylindrical part of the channel, and reservoir and pipeline fuel Causesa fact, the inner wall of the collector pipe made of heat-resistant material, for example molybdenum.

 

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