The nozzle d. jahaeva

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to energy and can be used in the drying units and boilers operating on liquid fuel. In the housing 1 coaxially with a gap between a set of the outer 2 and inner 3 sleeve forming to allow the device with the annular tapered slot 4 fuel. On the outer 2 and inner 3 sleeves of the power device is made slits 5, forming the outer 6 and inner 7 adjacent rows, in which the slits 5 are directed towards each other at an angle not exceeding 90, and at least part of the gap of the slits in adjacent rows are located opposite each other. The inner sleeve 3 is installed with the possibility of axial movement relative to the sleeve 2. The movement is provided, for example, a threaded connection 8 of the sleeves 3 and 2. Annular tapered slot 4 has a length, comprising at least 10 of its caliber. The invention improves the efficiency of work and reduce the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. 3 Il.

The invention relates to energy and can be used in boiler and furnace technology for delivery of liquid fuel into the combustion chambers of boilers, furnaces and other topliva.ispolzovanie annular fuel cracks and internal and peripheral channels for supplying the atomizer, with the corresponding output nozzles in the form of an annular series of narrow slots that are offset in the circumferential direction in adjacent rows, wherein the longitudinal axis of the slots of the outer row are oriented towards the axis of the nozzle, and an internal number from the axis of the nozzle (see ed. St. USSR N 876179, CL F 23 D 11/12, 1977). When the specified nozzle raspylyaemye liquid is supplied under high pressure (several atmospheres) is approximately equal to the pressure sprayer) in the annular fuel gap, which provides the output ring fuel spray from the gap with great speed. Released for the outer section of the nozzle of the fuel jet is broken opposing jets of spray emerging from the slit of the slit nozzles, two independent flow having a twist in different directions around the axis of the nozzle, one of which is directed towards the axis of the nozzle, and the other from her. This separation of threads known in the nozzle it is necessary to reduce the effect of coagulation of droplets, caused by high concentration of droplets in the stream, which in turn is determined by the high pressure fuel supply.

A disadvantage of the known nozzle is the need for a high pressure fuel supply, which leads to the necessity of using visokonaponskim specific loads in their working bodies, leading to increased wear, especially when applying viscous or abrasive admixture of fuel. In addition, the high pressure fuel leads to overshoot part of the fuel through the zone partitioning opposing jets of the nozzles in the axial direction by two major streams, which affects the combustion efficiency, resulting in reduced efficiency and, as a consequence, the increase of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. When using the known nozzle into the drying plants asphalt plants such slippage of part of the fuel leads to lower quality products. The need to split the fuel stream into two streams and spin of these flows in different directions can significantly reduce the pressure on the cut nozzles around the perimeter of the fuel cracks did not provide a flow of clean air from the surrounding space to the nozzles and thereby affects the atomization of the fuel and leads to the appearance of built-up edge on the end of the nozzle. This impairs the efficiency and reliability of the injector. Known nozzle is unregulated fuel gauge slots, so obtaining the desired (from the point of view of quality spray) fluid flow is possible only at the expense regulirovat at its optimum level, this further reduces efficiency. In addition, unregulated fuel gauge cracks forces in the plants of various capacities to use a different injector, which complicates the production and maintenance of plants with such nozzles.

The closest technical solution is a nozzle, comprising a housing, sleeve, coaxially installed with the formation of the annular fuel cracks and internal and peripheral channels for supplying the nozzle with the corresponding output nozzles in the form of an annular series of narrow slots that are offset in the circumferential direction in adjacent rows, wherein the longitudinal axis of the slots of the outer row are oriented towards the axis of the nozzle, and an internal number from the axis of the nozzle, the longitudinal axis of the slots of the outer and inner rows inclined to each other at an angle not exceeding 90oand side walls of a larger area of these slots are located in planes intersecting the axis of the nozzle at one point (see RF patent N 2052719, CL F 23 D 11/12, publ. 1996). When the specified nozzle raspylyaemye liquid is supplied under high pressure (several atmospheres) is approximately equal to the pressure sprayer) in the annular fuel slit that provides the cast stream is broken opposing jets of spray, emerging from the slit of the slit nozzles, two independent flow having a twist in one direction around the axis of the nozzle, one of which is directed towards the axis of the nozzle, and the other from her. This separation of threads known in the nozzle it is necessary to reduce the effect of coagulation of droplets, caused by high concentration of droplets in the stream, which in turn is determined by the high pressure fuel supply.

A disadvantage of the known nozzle is the need for a high pressure fuel supply, which leads to the necessity of using high-pressure fuel pumps with greater energy consumption on their drive and low resource. In addition, the high pressure causes the overshoot part of the fuel through the zone partitioning opposing jets of spray in the axial direction by two major streams, which reduces efficiency and increases harmful emissions into the atmosphere. Spin flows in one direction creates conditions for formation of the end surface of the nozzle Central vortex flow associated with the free space that prevents built-up edge on the lid and the outer surfaces of the nozzle, however, the intensity of this movement Vikhrev the substantial reduction of pressure on the perimeter of the fuel gap, as a result of deteriorating atomization of the fuel and reduces the efficiency of the nozzle. When using the known nozzle into the drying plants asphalt plants reduces the quality of manufactured products. Known nozzle is unregulated fuel gauge gap that forces the use of nozzles with different caliber fuel slit and thereby complicates the production and maintenance of plants with such nozzles. In addition, adjustment of the fluid flow is only due to a change in pressure of the fuel pump further reduces efficiency. In the known nozzle, the velocity of liquid at the walls of the slit due to viscous friction may be relatively small, but high speed on the axis promotes turbulent mixing of fuel, in which abrasive particles hit the wall and lead to abrasive wear, which reduces the service life of the injector.

The purpose of the invention is to improve efficiency and reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere.

This objective is achieved in that the nozzle, comprising a housing and a sleeve coaxially mounted therein with the formation of the annular fuel cracks and internal and pereferiynogo, wherein the longitudinal axis of the slots of the outer row are oriented towards the axis of the nozzle, and an internal number from the axis of the nozzle, the longitudinal axis of the slots of the outer and inner rows inclined to each other at an angle not exceeding 90oand side walls of a larger area of these slots are located in planes intersecting the axis of the nozzle at one point, however, at least part of the gap of the slits in adjacent rows are located opposite each other, the annular fuel slit is provided with a tapered, at least one of the bushings installed with the possibility of axial movement relative to the other sleeve, and the length of the slit is at least 15 of its caliber.

From the prototype of the claimed technical solution is characterized by the fact that at least part of the gap of the slits in adjacent rows are located opposite each other, the annular fuel slit is provided with a tapered, at least one of the bushings installed with the possibility of axial movement relative to the other sleeve, and the length of the slit is at least 15 of its caliber. Each of these features is significant, and collectively solves the problem, namely the execution of at least part of the gap of the slits in adjacent rows opposite each other, for the provision of static pressure along the perimeter of the fuel gap. The reduction is so great that it is enough to ensure the "exhaustion" of the slit of the necessary quantity of fuel. This allows us to dramatically reduce the generated fuel pump pressure into the cracks, because his head is in this case used only for the transportation of fuel to the slit, and further spraying is provided mainly through the entraining effects of combined stream of spray. However, due to the low pressure fuel cannot be purchased at the exit slit high speed, which makes it directly from the nozzle to move in the direction of motion of the combined stream. This eliminates the possibility of leakage of part of the fuel through the zone of interaction of jets of spray. In addition, the low pressure does not cause a high concentration of droplets in the stream, which reduces the effect of coagulation of the droplets. All of this ensures complete combustion of the fuel, resulting in increased efficiency nozzles and reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere.

It should be noted that in the prototype is also observed ejecting the impact spun around the axis of the nozzle rows of the nozzle spray jet fuel, but the magnitude of this impact may not be sufficient to supply eUSA twist in one direction around the axis of the nozzle, one of which is directed towards the axis of the nozzle, and the other from it (see Fig. 5 descriptions of invention to the patent of Russian Federation N 2052719), you must, on the one hand, the offset in the circumferential direction of the output nozzles in adjacent rows, on the other hand the distance between the output nozzles in each row must be significant, because only these two conditions will allow the jets of spray after crossing with the fuel jet to disperse to the multi-directional flows. However, the different flows leads to the fact that they podtormazhivaja each other (inhibition leads to an increase in static pressure, i.e., to decrease the effect of ejection), and the large distance between neighbouring jets in each row does not allow for the impact on the fuel jet simultaneously from two adjacent sides (i.e. the impact is on the perimeter of the fuel spray in a checkerboard pattern, on the one hand, for example, from the axis of the nozzle, on the other axis, and so on), which also reduces the effect of ejection. The proposed technical solution creates a single merged stream, which, thanks to the implementation gap of the slits in adjacent rows opposite each other provides simultaneous impact from the axis of the nozzle and to the axis of the fuel jet, around obstet and they themselves slotted openings in each row due to the absence of the need to ensure, as in the prototype, two threading may be performed as close as possible to each other, i.e. their number in the outer and inner rows may be limited only by the technological possibilities of production. Therefore, the claimed feature is essential to achieve the objectives and different from the prototype. Due to the difference of diameters in the outer row is always possible to place more slots than in the domestic, so not all cracks can be located opposite each other, but the more such combinations, the greater the effect ejection. In addition, more significant in comparison with the prototype, the reduction in static pressure along the perimeter of the fuel gap intensifies the movement of the center of a vortex flow associated with the free space, which improves the displacement of the spray with the environment, provides high quality spray and more reliably prevents the built-up edge on the outer surfaces and the nozzle cover.

The implementation of the annular fuel slit cone and setting at least one of the bushings with the possibility of axial movement relative to the other hub called the sowing direction leads to a change (increase or decrease, depending on the direction of movement toward or from each other) gap between them. Such adjustment provides, on the one hand, the desired fuel consumption without changing the pressure of the fuel pump that allows it to operate most efficiently, it additionally increases the efficiency, on the other hand at low pressure fuel into the cracks and achievable reduction of pressure between the slice nozzle adjustment gauge allows you to get such hydraulic resistance of the cracks, which have a hydraulic pressure difference between the slot channel and the pressure at the exit of the nozzle is sufficient for high quality spray that helps to ensure high efficiency operation of the injector.

Hallmark - cone fuel gap is known, for example, the description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation N 2054602 (CL F 23 D 11/12, publ. 1996 ), where the smaller base of the cone is located on the output slice nozzle, or the description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation N 2052719, where the output slice nozzle is larger base of the cone of the fuel gap, however, in the known technical solutions, as in the other, with this sign, cone execution of the fuel slit designed the AI, in addition to job exit angle of fuel spray from the nozzle, taper fuel spray is necessary in order to provide a varying caliber fuel cracks under axial movement of one of the sleeves that allows you to obtain the above-described positive effect.

Distinctive feature - set with the possibility of axial movement of the sleeve are known by the description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation N 2054602, where the sleeve is made in the form of axial nozzle, however, in the known technical solution, the axial displacement of the nozzle is necessary for adjusting the position of the slice output of the nozzles with respect to each other, thereby reducing the output of nitrogen oxides in such circuit dvuhshipovyh the injectors, and the regulation of the flow area of the fuel holes are not provided. In the claimed technical solution, the axial displacement of at least one of the sleeves in the axial direction in conjunction with the tapered performing fuel slit allows you to adjust the fuel gauge slots and due to this, to get at low upornosti fuel line quality spraying, resulting in increased efficiency of the nozzle.

Hallmark - performance annular fuel slit of conuse N 301337 (CL F 23 D 11/12, publ. 03.12.1992 year). In the known technical solution bushing is a body of the nozzle, designed for self-ignition of the fuel in the pre-heated water vapor, so the adjustment (increase) of the caliber of the fuel channel by moving the sleeve is necessary at the moment of ignition of the steam boiler (transition from cold boiler to the desktop, stationary) for better heating of the fuel and bring it to a state of ignition. After ignition of the fuel sleeve returns to its original state, in which the caliber of the fuel channel remains constant during operation of the boiler at the stationary regime and its size is determined by the size of the swirler channels located in the fuel cone cracks and employees for the organization's quality process of mixing of the fuel spray. Thus, in the known technical solution, the implementation of the annular fuel slit cone and installation with the possibility of axial movement of the sleeve cannot (due to the presence of cracks in the fuel swirler channels, ensuring the quality of the process of mixing at the nozzle in a stationary mode) to adjust the fuel gauge slots, designed the efficiency of the nozzle. In the claimed technical solution moving at least one of the sleeves in the axial direction in conjunction with the tapered performing fuel slit allows you to adjust the fuel gauge slots, designed to work in a stationary mode, and due to this, to get at low upornosti fuel line quality spraying, resulting in increased efficiency of the nozzle.

A small pressure in the fuel gap leads to the fact that, in the case of the smaller of its length, it is possible uneven (with breaks) filling orifice slit fuel (as a result of deteriorating the dispersion and reduced efficiency). This phenomenon is completely eliminated, if the length of the annular fuel slit is not less than 15 of its size, which allows even at low fuel pressure evenly to fill the flow area of the fuel gap and to ensure that the quality and the caliber of the slit.

Thus, only the execution of at least part of the gap of the slits in adjacent rows opposite each other allows for maximum effect ejection to reduce the pressure in the annular fuel cracks and to improve the effectiveness and reliability of the RHS of the resistance of the gap with the available hydraulic gradient and eliminate the possibility of uneven distribution of fuel along the perimeter of the output of the fuel cut slit (to prevent the deterioration of spray, and therefore, reduce the efficiency of the nozzle), which is provided by the execution of the annular fuel slit cone and installing at least one of the bushings with the possibility of axial movement relative to the other sleeve, and running the length of the gap is not less than 10 of its caliber. So all together only listed the hallmarks achieve set goals and are essential for the proposed design of the nozzle.

The proposed device is new and meets the criterion of inventive step, because it has new properties.

In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the nozzle, a longitudinal section; Fig. 2 is a view of the top nozzle of Fig. 3 - schematic diagram of the spray, side view.

The nozzle includes a housing 1, which is coaxially aligned with a gap between a set of the outer 2 and inner 3 sleeve forming to allow the device with the annular tapered slot 4 fuel. On the outer 2 and inner 3 bushings nozzle of the device is made slits 5, forming the outer 6 and inner 7 adjacent rows, in which the slits 5 are directed towards each other at an angle not exceeding 90oand at least part of the slot of the PoWPA is moving relative to the sleeve 2. The movement is provided, for example, a threaded connection 8. Annular tapered slot 4 has a length L, comprising at least 10 of her caliber h (Fig. 1). The side walls of a larger area of the slits 5 are located in planes intersecting the axis of the nozzle at one point so that in free space the rows of jets arising out of the holes 6 and 7, form a twisted one side of the combined stream of atomized fuel 9. In the axial zone of the flow is formed twisted in the same direction of the Central vortex flow 10. At the rear of the nozzle holes 11 and 12 for the supply of spray in the internal and peripheral channels, respectively, and a hole 13 for fuel (e.g., oil) in the intermediate channel. The Central part of the nozzle is closed by the cover 14, on which is fixed a nut 15.

The nozzle operates as follows.

The holes 11 and 12 are served under the pressure of the air or steam which enters through the peripheral and internal channels respectively in the slots 5 of the outer 2 and inner 3 sleeves and flows through a series of outlet openings 6 and 7, the fuel is fed through a hole 13 in the intermediate channel, through which it enters the annular tapered slot 4. The jet of steam flowing out of the outlet from the second flow 9, due to the implementation of the slot of the slots 5 in the adjacent rows opposite each other provides simultaneous impact from the axis of the nozzle and to the axis of the fuel jet, around its perimeter, the stream of spray that provides the effect ejection of fuel from the annular tapered slit 4 due to a significant decrease in static pressure along the perimeter of the fuel gap. To enhance this effect by running the slot of the slot 5 in each row as close as possible to each other, i.e. their number in the outer 6 and 7 internal rows should be the maximum, limited only by the technological possibilities of production. Due to the achieved in such a way to reduce the static pressure at the exit of the nozzle becomes possible to reduce the pressure of fuel supplied by the fuel pump into the hole 13 and the slit 4, which reduces the rate of release of fuel from the slit 4, and thereby causes it directly from the nozzle to move in the direction of motion of the combined stream 9 and eliminates the possibility of leakage of the fuel particles through a zone of interaction of jets of spray. In addition, the low pressure does not cause a high concentration of droplets in the stream 9, which reduces the effect of coagulation of the droplets. All of this ensures complete combustion of fuel, prevoditelj decrease in static pressure along the perimeter of the fuel gap intensifies the movement of the center of a vortex flow 10, associated with free space (Fig. 3), which improves the mixing of the spray with the environment, provides high atomization quality and prevents built-up edge on the lid 14 of the nozzle and other exterior surfaces. Fine atomization is achieved by exposure to jet fuel centrifugal force of the swirling flow 9 spray.

Using the nut 15 through the cover 14 to provide, in the process of adjustment of the nozzle, the axial displacement of the sleeve 3 due to the threaded connection 8 relative to the sleeve 2, which in combination with the tapered performing slit 4 allows you to adjust the fuel gauge slots 4 and due to this, to get at low pressure in the fuel line quality spraying, resulting in increased efficiency of the nozzle. Adjustable gauge fuel slit allows the plants of various capacities to use one size of nozzle, which simplifies the production and maintenance of plants with such nozzles.

Running the length L of the annular fuel slit 4 at least 10 of her caliber h allows even at low fuel pressure evenly to fill the flow area of the fuel slit 4 and after the operation of the injector.

Changing the flow rate of air (vapor) through external 6 or 7 internal rows of holes, you can adjust the opening angle in the range of 30-170 degrees, and the length of the torch.

Test injector in an industrial environment showed that when the pressure of the spray agent is 0.2 to 0.75 MPa pressure fuel supply should be 5-7,5 times less, while ensuring maximum performance and quality spraying, resulting in reduced fuel consumption by 30%, the most complete combustion and, as a consequence, a sharp reduction of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The use of low-pressure fuel pumps with low energy consumption on their drive and high capacity, can further increase the efficiency and reliability of installations with the proposed injector.

Low speed fuel jet in the channel 4 provides almost laminar mode of fuel movement in which there is no significant mixing of the stream, accompanied by the garbage abrasive particles to the walls of the annular gap, which eliminates abrasion and increases the service life of the injector.

Using the stated nozzle into the drying plants asphalt plants tion of manufactured products.

Nozzle, comprising a housing and a sleeve coaxially mounted therein with the formation of the annular fuel cracks and internal and peripheral channels for supplying the sprayer with the appropriate output nozzles in the form of an annular series of narrow slits, wherein the longitudinal axis of the slots of the outer row are oriented towards the axis of the nozzle, and an internal number from the axis of the nozzle, the longitudinal axis of the slots of the outer and inner rows inclined to each other at an angle not exceeding 90oand side walls of a larger area of these slots are located in planes intersecting the axis of the nozzle at one point, characterized in that at least part of the gap of the slits in adjacent rows are located opposite each other, the annular fuel slit is provided with a tapered, at least one of the bushings installed with the possibility of axial movement relative to the other sleeve, and the length of the slit is at least 10 of its caliber.

 

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