The method of finishing metal surfaces crest wheelset locomotives
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to railway transport. The method is characterized by applying an additional material on the surface of the comb, excluding metals contact crest rail. This is achieved by layering 5-7 µm total coating layer display roughness specially prepared or obtained in the process of grinding the surface of the comb. In the result, without overheating the crest is an opportunity to reduce wear of the ridge using the specified refining non-metallic materials or materials based on copper. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table. The invention relates to railway vehicles, and more narrowly to the wheelset locomotives /locomotives/.There is a method of finishing the surface of the crest wheelset locomotives by feeding on the surface of liquid lubricant.However, the method of refining liquid lubricant, it requires constant feeding, which leads to additional costs, due to its large consumption per kilometer, and, ultimately, the ridge remains without lubrication, which leads to rapid deterioration.The known method on the I surface hardness of the ridge, for example, using plasma or laser irradiation after repoint ridge to the repair size.However, elevation of plasma or laser requires heating the surface of the crest wheelset to high temperatures and because of its point of impact causes an uneven tension in a circle band and lead to its rupture.To avoid uneven stress on a circle crest wheelset and reduce wear ridge in the method of finishing metal surfaces crest wheelset, including preparation of the surface of the ridge and its strengthening, improvement is realized by means of detonation-gas to disperse the powder particles to the speed of 800-1000 m/s, the partial implementation of them into the surface of the crest and the layer of 5-10 μm formation enhancing layer on the surface of the comb showing the original surface or received in the process of reshaping the degree of roughness of her.The goal is to reach also by eliminating preheating the surface, but with the processing /preparation/ surface ridge with jet-abrasive treatment of her, creating a strong surface ridge of not less than 2.5 to Swedish standards.The purpose of the achievement of the ceramic powder particles of the metal of the cermet.Goal achieve that on the surface of the deposited layer of ceramics and cermets put a layer of solid lubricant coatings on the basis of copper, which in turn provides a low coefficient of friction pairs of comb-rail is two to five times compared to conventional hardened steel and rail. Reflected in the claims of the new quality of the received cohesive layers are confirmed experimentally on samples cut from steel 65, passed volumetric Kalka in the conditions of the factory.For tests on machine MI-1 was produced by the evaporation of various types of coatings with different values of surface hardness and the solid residue obtained by evaporation of the bronze powder company Castolin /Switzerland/ /see table below/.As the test showed, when the rotation speed of 340 rpm./min, load 600 H, the moment of friction force 450-400 NCM coefficient of friction was very low friction outer surface of the roller with a spray bronze plated and remained almost constant throughout the range of the test.We produced experimental spraying of the pair of wheels of the locomotive, CMA, which is being tested at the Kuibyshev railway at maneuvering on the station Samara.1. The method of finishing metal surfaces of the tongue of the pair of wheels of locomotives, including the preparation of the surface of the ridge and its hardening, characterized in that the hardening is carried out by detonation-gas acceleration of hardening particles or enhancing particles to a speed of 800 - 1000 m/s, the partial implementation of them into the surface and cohesive formation in layers 5 - 7 microns enhancing layer on the surface of the comb showing the original or obtained in the preparation process of the degree of surface roughness of the ridge.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that provide the surface roughness of the ridge is equal to the class of purity obtained after turning ridge or after use.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as ennobling particles using powders of ceramic materials, porcelain-fused-CI on the ridge put a layer of copper-based.5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that a hardening layer of metal powder is deposited a layer of uplifting material from an alloy based on copper, which provides a coefficient of friction of a pair of comb - rail 2 - 5 times lower than in case of direct contact of metals crest rail.
FIELD: portable apparatuses for applying coatings of powder materials by gasodynamic deposition.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes compressed gas source, powder meter, deposition unit in the form of portable manual tool with remote control having supersonic nozzle and gas heater rigidly connected with it. Gas heater includes metallic body inside which electric and heat insulation having through mutually parallel pneumatic ducts with inserted in them heating members. Apparatus also includes pneumatic duct for feeding powder from powder meter to supersonic nozzle, locking devices and unit for controlling deposition process, said units are mutually connected through flexible pneumatic ducts and electric connection wires. According to invention electric and heat insulation of gas heater includes inner and outer cylinders coaxially arranged one inside other. Inner cylinder has central through passage for placing pneumatic duct for feeding powder from meter to supersonic nozzle. Pneumatic ducts along its periphery are in the form of grooves. Inner and outer cylinders of electric heat insulation of gas heater are made of heat resistant material having electric and heat insulated coating on surfaces restricting pneumatic ducts.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities, simplified design, lowered mass, improved capability for repairing works, enhanced operational efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: finish treatment of precision friction pairs requiring high quality of treatment at retaining starting dimensions, for example, high-precision machines and tools and diesel engine supply equipment.
SUBSTANCE: friction surface is degreased, dried and technological medium is applied to it by means of brush, for example. Brass rod is fitted at angle of 45-60 deg. relative to surface being treated. When rod is pressed at simultaneous switching-on of electric machine, it forms shocks over surface being treated; energy of shock is equal to 0.5-0.7 J.
EFFECT: improved quality of coat at low porosity.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: machine engineering, other branches of industry, namely deposition of coatings of powder materials for imparting different properties to coated surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes deposition unit having electric heater of compressed gas and supersonic nozzle. The last is rigidly joined with outlet of electric heater and has member for introducing powder to nozzle. Apparatus also includes control unit connected with electric heater of compressed gas by means of flexible pipeline and electric cable; powder feeder whose outlet is connected with member for introducing powder to nozzle by means of flexible pipeline. In order to enhance operational safety of apparatus due to lowered temperature of outer members of electric heater of compressed gas, the last includes casing in which metallic housing is arranged with gap filled with heat insulator. Fuel member is arranged in metallic housing having openings for blowing non-heated gas through casing. Member for introducing powder to nozzle is provides powder feeding to supercritical portion of supersonic nozzle at inclination angle relative to its axis.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of apparatus due to uniform distribution of powder along nozzle.
39 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: equipment for plasma-powder fusing or deposition of powders.
SUBSTANCE: powder feeder comprises casing-chamber, powder hopper arranged in upper part of casing-chamber and equipped with discharge opening, which is aligned with annular charging channel of rotating disk provided within casing-chamber, and drive arranged in lower part of casing-chamber. Ejector is disposed on casing-chamber at opposite side of hopper and equipped with supersonic nozzle and intake branch pipe of intake chamber. Intake branch pipe is aligned with annular charging channel of rotating disk. Agitator mounted within powder hopper is equipped with drive.
EFFECT: improved quality of coating deposited.
FIELD: application of coat on rocket engine manifold.
SUBSTANCE: coat is formed on at least one backing by feeding particles of metal powder through sprayer nozzle; size of particles is sufficient for excluding blowing-off by front of shock wave up to 50 mcm. Particles are passed through sprayer nozzle at rate sufficient for arising of plastic deformation of metal powder particles on at least one surface of backing. Carrier gas is fed to nozzle at flow rate of 0.028 to 1415.84 dm3/min.
EFFECT: avoidance of swelling after soldering at high temperature.
17 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: application of anti-score coats on sections of oil well tubing.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in rotating the tube along its longitudinal axis and applying the coat on threaded section. Application of coat is performed by at least two air-powder jets. Jets are rectangular in cross-section and are directed in such way that axis of each jet lies in plane passing through axis of tube and is inclined to it at angle of 30-40°. Jets are inclined relative to tube axis to opposite sides. Wide sides of jets have length equal to 0.3-1.0 of length of threaded section; they are positioned along tube axis. Specification contains description of device for realization of this method.
EFFECT: improved quality of spraying due to smooth distribution of metal over thread surface.
9 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: processes for applying coatings by chemical deposition for obtaining hard wear resistant coatings.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of applying onto surface of steel containing carbon, at least 0.2 mass %, preferably 0.7 -1.2 mass % and chrome, 4 - 12 mass % at least one metal of 5-th Group with atomic number no more than 41. Chemical deposition is realized at rotating article in fluid-tight vessel at temperature 870 - 1110° C practically without air provided with source of powder mixture containing at least one metal of 5-th Group with atomic number no more than 41 and halogen catalyst. Said powder mixture contains up to 50 mass % of inert particles for the total mass of mixture. Such method is used for making rollers of chains with hard coating containing chrome carbide, 1 - 3%. Steel for making articles contains, mass %: carbon, 0.7 - 1.2; chrome, 4 - 8; manganese, 0.25 - 0.45; silicon, 0.25 - 0.55; molybdenum, 0.2 - 0.55; phosphorus, no more than 0.03; sulfur, no more than 0.03; aluminum, no more than 0.05; iron, the balance.
EFFECT: possibility for making article with coating highly resistant against shearing and exfoliation.
20 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: metalworking; mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: alloying agent in form of powder is applied to working surface of article by explosion. At explosion application of alloying agent, layer of this agent is placed directly on working surface of article and layer of explosive charge following the shape of working surface is laid over it. Explosive charge is initiated by excitation of sliding shock wave in alloying agent. If it is necessary to enhance wear resistance of working surfaces when increase of hardness is not required, inert gasket following the shape of surface being treated is laid in between alloying agent and explosive charge.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure of method at simultaneous increased service life of parts due to enhanced wear resistance of working surfaces.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: application of coats and production of materials of functional specific properties; application of coats protecting articles against aggressive action of outside medium.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes cold spraying of powders from two or more proportioners operating independently. Control of flow rate of powders from proportioners operating independently is performed according to definite dependence making it possible to obtain functional coats at high adhesive property.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; improved operating characteristics.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: application of anti-friction coats on inner cylindrical surfaces of parts formed by anode-cathode micro-arc oxidation.
SUBSTANCE: workpiece and device are rotated in opposite direction. Reciprocating oscillations are imparted to device along axis of surface being treated at swing and frequency determined by the following formula: Δ=(0.05-0.2)·b, f=(0.4-1.6)(ω1-ω2), where Δ is swing of oscillations of device in axial direction, mm; f is frequency of oscillations of device, Hz; b is width of rubbing member, mm; ω1 is angular velocity of rotation of workpiece, rad/s; ω2 is angular velocity of device, rad/s. Device proposed for realization of this method has body (1) with deforming member (5) and rubbing member (6) mounted on it. Rubbing member (6) is made in form of plate embracing deforming member (5). Body (1) is made in form of hollow cylinder provided with circular threaded bore (2) at the end where elastic member (4) and deforming member (5) are secured by means of thrust washer (3). Elastic member is rigidly connected with body (1) and deforming member (5) provided with oxide heat-insulating coat on its outer surface; it is also provided with circular groove for receiving rubbing member (6). Thickness of rubbing member (6) is equal to Δ=(1.3-2.0)·δ c(D/d)·(B/b), where δ is thickness of rubbing member, mm; δc is thickness of coat being formed, mm; D is diameter of cylindrical surface being treated, mm; d is diameter of outer surface of rubbing member, mm; B is width of cylindrical surface being treated, mm; b is width of rubbing member, mm. Through slot (7) made in body (1), elastic member (4) and deforming member (5) is used for securing the rubbing member to exclude its slippage. Proposed method extends functional capabilities of application of copper-based anti-friction coat on aluminum cylindrical surfaces.
EFFECT: extended functional capabilities; reduced contact pressure in zone of treatment.
3 cl, 2 dwg