The way to restore damaged by moisture fibrous materials of organic origin and products thereof

 

(57) Abstract:

The way to restore damaged by moisture fibrous materials of organic origin and products of them includes the installation of the restored object in the container with sawdust and gaseous drying agent in the drying volume. Thus the distinguishing feature of this method is that sawdust pre-condition to a moisture content corresponding to the value of the air-dry state at a temperature of stage drying in the range 30 - 65oSince, at this stage before drying conduct preliminary heating of the object being restored by raising the temperature of the heat carrier from the values established in the drying up of the temperature stage drying with the rate of temperature change of 0.1 to 2oWith the/including the restoration of the structural-mechanical properties of the product may be obtained by selecting the values of the mass relations of the object being restored to wood filings from expression (Pabout/Pand) of 0.5, where Randis the mass of wet fibrous material of organic origin; Pabout- mass air-conditioned sawdust. 1 C.p. f-crystals.

Izobreteniya organic materials, such as books, clothing, stuffed animals, furniture, etc.

A known method of drying of capillary-porous materials and products (1). The method includes drying in the drying volume with a pre-heating it at a rate of temperature change of 40 - 50oC/h

For solving the problem of uniform moisture through the thickness of the product use recirculated air with a partial ejection of the spent vapor mixture.

The disadvantage of this method is that heating the product in the chamber is carried out without the layer of sorbent and with a large rate of change of temperature (40 - 50oC/h). When this moist articles of materials of organic origin will experience internal stress, resulting in warping and deterioration in mechanical strength, especially in the border layer "solid air", due to extreme temperatures and humidity.

The closest in technical essence and the General signs to the present invention is a method of restoring damaged by moisture fibrous materials of organic origin (2). The method includes installing products in containers filled with sawdust and drying gas AG is the men, made of homogeneous materials, for example, the binder Newspapers, magazines, paperback, etc., by reducing the difference of humidity on the border of the object being restored and the drying agent by installing a layer of sorbent. This method does not give an opportunity to prevent warping of complex objects, such as books, clothing, stuffed animals, furniture, etc. and does not take into account the speed of the expiration of moisture by volume of the object.

However, the reduction of distortion, i.e., uneven changes in linear dimensions of the product to change its shape or its components, it is not possible to restore the mechanical properties of the product. Forming paper wood pulp fiber, the interaction between them was broken wedge action of the moisture in the drying mode is not restored. In addition, some products, such as paper glued with animal glue, when dried in sub-optimal conditions may be subjected to processes of redistribution sizing agent by volume of the sheet, which leads to local changes in the strength of the sheet.

Similar processes changes in mechanical properties occur in textile materials, impregnated reinforcing zabawkami and birds, etc. similarly suffer from shrinkage and mechanical properties.

The invention allows to prevent the process of warping when restoring damaged by moisture materials of organic origin and products from them, and restore their mechanical properties.

This is achieved in that in the method of restoring exposed to moisture fibrous organic material and articles thereof, including installation of the restored object in the container with sawdust and gaseous drying agent in the drying volume, a pre-condition to a moisture content corresponding to the value of the air-dry state at a temperature stage of drying is determined from the interval 30 - 65oC, at this stage before drying conduct preliminary heating of the object being restored by raising the temperature of the heat carrier from the values established in the drying up of the temperature stage drying with the rate of temperature change of 0.1 to 2oC/h

The best result on the restoration of the structural-mechanical properties of the product may be obtained by selecting the values of the mass ratio between the vos is of fibrous organic material, Pabout- mass air-conditioned sawdust.

The application of the method allows you to restore the original mechanical properties inherent in the materials from which made the product, such as breaking length, fracture resistance, fracture resistance, and to avoid uneven changes in linear dimensions with a change in the shape of a product or material in space.

The combination of techniques that represent preconditioning sawdust until the moisture content corresponding to the value of the air-dry state at a temperature of stage drying 30 - 65oC and preheating with a certain velocity of 0.1 to 2oC/h, the restored object provides a uniform outflow of water from the volume of the object, which excludes its spatial deformation and deterioration of mechanical properties.

The use of sorbent, not past the pre-conditioning, leads either to an excessive rate of removal of moisture extracted from the recovered product if the sorbent is too dry or speed drying, if the sorbent is too wet.

All above mentioned products from natural in niniwania fiber material and interrupt communication between the fibers. With the rapid removal of moisture these connections are not reversed. During the optimization process of moisture removal induces relaxation and restoration of broken relationships between the fibers. Slow removal of moisture oxygen destroys the fiber content more intensively, also violated, resulting in the mechanical strength of the product (material) decreases irreversibly.

To prove the advantages of the method the authors conducted the following studies: in a container with sawdust, the weight of which amounted to 500 g of air in the drying chamber to a moisture content of 4% at a temperature of 60oC, was placed a wet book bound in leather, paper, made from 100% cotton cellulose. The original mass, i.e. the mass of dry books amounted to 350 g, and after moistening her weight was 750, Before moisturizing books were measured its linear dimensions, which were: length - 210 mm, height 297 mm, thickness of 10 mm is Installed in the container the product (book) pre-warmed up from the value established in the drying of 20oC, with a speed of 1.5oC per hour. After reaching a temperature of 60oC spent the drying process. To assess the impact of moisture on the product the guy, characterizing the strength of the paper (according to GOST 13525.1-79); fracture resistance (according to GOST 13525.2-80); resistance to tearing. The data are given in table. 1, as well as visually determined pokeronline.

According to the obtained results are not found to have significant reduction in the strength properties of paper and other products from natural hydrophilic fibrous materials. Wetting of these materials occur rasklinivanie fiber material products and interrupt communication between the fibers, and if in the process of drying quickly to remove moisture, then these links are not restored. Slow removal of moisture oxygen destroys the fiber content more intensively, also breaking the connection between the fibers products, resulting mechanical strength of the recovered materials and products falls irreversibly. Performing the same conditions the proposed method of restoring damaged by moisture materials of organic origin and products of them allows to optimize the process of removing the moisture, resulting in relaxation of elastic distortions and restore broken relationships between fibers.

The method is as follows.

Sawdust is placed in erator 30. . . 60oC until the moisture content corresponding to the value of the air-dry state. When this measure humidity in the chamber and after the establishment of its value constant filings are prepared to conduct subsequent operations. Air-conditioned sawdust fill maintenacne cavity of the container. The walls of the container are made of a moisture-air-permeable materials. They can be plastic, for example from fabrics and hard, for example of porous polymeric materials. The recovered organic material and products such as books, clothing, stuffed animals, furniture, etc., after exposure to moisture, or heat and moisture, for example when extinguishing fires, set in the container and placed in a drying chamber, and if you can not rush the organization of these works on the restoration of objects to their plunge freezing. When setting the object in the container, the mass of sawdust is selected from conditions (Psawdust/Pproducts) of 0.5, where Pproductsis the mass of wet fibrous material of organic origin, Psawdust- mass air-conditioned sawdust. In the drying chamber and the containers continuously control pre-heating temperature rise of the coolant from the values established in the drying volume (at room temperature) to a temperature stages of drying. The rate of change of temperature of the heat carrier is 0.1 to 2oC per hour. Upon reaching the required temperature stage of drying, selected from the interval 30 - 65oC, hold stage drying. Upon reaching the rated values of moisture content, the process ends. If moisture is present on the recovered objects, such as paper, cellulose fiber rasklinivanie under its influence, which leads to the change of physico-mechanical properties of the material.

Similar processes of change in these properties occur in textile materials, impregnated reinforcing additives, as well as securities, glued with animal glue. Their fibers are similarly prone to wedging action of moisture. Products made of wood, papier-mache, stuffed animals and birds also suffer from shrinkage and mechanical properties. The combination of techniques of method provides a uniform outflow of water from the volume of the object being restored, which ensures the prevention of the occurrence, and also allows you to restore its mechanical properties.

Sources of information:

1. USSR author's certificate N 1325269, F 26 B 3/347, 84.11.01.

2. Proceedings of the Jubilee scientific conference. The Russian Member of the Enen moisture materials of organic origin and products thereof, including installation of the restored object in the container with sawdust and gaseous drying agent in the drying volume, characterized in that sawdust pre-condition to a moisture content corresponding to the value of the air-dry state at a temperature of stage drying 30 - 65oSince, at this stage before drying spend preheating temperature rise of the coolant from the value established in the drying volume to temperature stage drying with a speed of 0.1 to 2oS/h

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the mass ratio of the object being restored to wood filings selected from conditions (Psawdust/Pproducts) of 0.5, where Pproductsis the mass of wet fibrous material of organic origin, Psawdust- mass air-conditioned sawdust.

 

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