The way to restore damaged by moisture fibrous materials of organic origin and products thereof
(57) Abstract:The way to restore damaged by moisture fibrous materials of organic origin and products of them includes the installation of the restored object in the container with sawdust and gaseous drying agent in the drying volume. Thus the distinguishing feature of this method is that sawdust pre-condition to a moisture content corresponding to the value of the air-dry state at a temperature of stage drying in the range 30 - 65oSince, at this stage before drying conduct preliminary heating of the object being restored by raising the temperature of the heat carrier from the values established in the drying up of the temperature stage drying with the rate of temperature change of 0.1 to 2oWith the/including the restoration of the structural-mechanical properties of the product may be obtained by selecting the values of the mass relations of the object being restored to wood filings from expression (Pabout/Pand) of 0.5, where Randis the mass of wet fibrous material of organic origin; Pabout- mass air-conditioned sawdust. 1 C.p. f-crystals. Izobreteniya organic materials, such as books, clothing, stuffed animals, furniture, etc.A known method of drying of capillary-porous materials and products (1). The method includes drying in the drying volume with a pre-heating it at a rate of temperature change of 40 - 50oC/hFor solving the problem of uniform moisture through the thickness of the product use recirculated air with a partial ejection of the spent vapor mixture.The disadvantage of this method is that heating the product in the chamber is carried out without the layer of sorbent and with a large rate of change of temperature (40 - 50oC/h). When this moist articles of materials of organic origin will experience internal stress, resulting in warping and deterioration in mechanical strength, especially in the border layer "solid air", due to extreme temperatures and humidity.The closest in technical essence and the General signs to the present invention is a method of restoring damaged by moisture fibrous materials of organic origin (2). The method includes installing products in containers filled with sawdust and drying gas AG is the men, made of homogeneous materials, for example, the binder Newspapers, magazines, paperback, etc., by reducing the difference of humidity on the border of the object being restored and the drying agent by installing a layer of sorbent. This method does not give an opportunity to prevent warping of complex objects, such as books, clothing, stuffed animals, furniture, etc. and does not take into account the speed of the expiration of moisture by volume of the object.However, the reduction of distortion, i.e., uneven changes in linear dimensions of the product to change its shape or its components, it is not possible to restore the mechanical properties of the product. Forming paper wood pulp fiber, the interaction between them was broken wedge action of the moisture in the drying mode is not restored. In addition, some products, such as paper glued with animal glue, when dried in sub-optimal conditions may be subjected to processes of redistribution sizing agent by volume of the sheet, which leads to local changes in the strength of the sheet.Similar processes changes in mechanical properties occur in textile materials, impregnated reinforcing zabawkami and birds, etc. similarly suffer from shrinkage and mechanical properties.The invention allows to prevent the process of warping when restoring damaged by moisture materials of organic origin and products from them, and restore their mechanical properties.This is achieved in that in the method of restoring exposed to moisture fibrous organic material and articles thereof, including installation of the restored object in the container with sawdust and gaseous drying agent in the drying volume, a pre-condition to a moisture content corresponding to the value of the air-dry state at a temperature stage of drying is determined from the interval 30 - 65oC, at this stage before drying conduct preliminary heating of the object being restored by raising the temperature of the heat carrier from the values established in the drying up of the temperature stage drying with the rate of temperature change of 0.1 to 2oC/hThe best result on the restoration of the structural-mechanical properties of the product may be obtained by selecting the values of the mass ratio between the vos is of fibrous organic material, Pabout- mass air-conditioned sawdust.The application of the method allows you to restore the original mechanical properties inherent in the materials from which made the product, such as breaking length, fracture resistance, fracture resistance, and to avoid uneven changes in linear dimensions with a change in the shape of a product or material in space.The combination of techniques that represent preconditioning sawdust until the moisture content corresponding to the value of the air-dry state at a temperature of stage drying 30 - 65oC and preheating with a certain velocity of 0.1 to 2oC/h, the restored object provides a uniform outflow of water from the volume of the object, which excludes its spatial deformation and deterioration of mechanical properties.The use of sorbent, not past the pre-conditioning, leads either to an excessive rate of removal of moisture extracted from the recovered product if the sorbent is too dry or speed drying, if the sorbent is too wet.All above mentioned products from natural in niniwania fiber material and interrupt communication between the fibers. With the rapid removal of moisture these connections are not reversed. During the optimization process of moisture removal induces relaxation and restoration of broken relationships between the fibers. Slow removal of moisture oxygen destroys the fiber content more intensively, also violated, resulting in the mechanical strength of the product (material) decreases irreversibly.To prove the advantages of the method the authors conducted the following studies: in a container with sawdust, the weight of which amounted to 500 g of air in the drying chamber to a moisture content of 4% at a temperature of 60oC, was placed a wet book bound in leather, paper, made from 100% cotton cellulose. The original mass, i.e. the mass of dry books amounted to 350 g, and after moistening her weight was 750, Before moisturizing books were measured its linear dimensions, which were: length - 210 mm, height 297 mm, thickness of 10 mm is Installed in the container the product (book) pre-warmed up from the value established in the drying of 20oC, with a speed of 1.5oC per hour. After reaching a temperature of 60oC spent the drying process. To assess the impact of moisture on the product the guy, characterizing the strength of the paper (according to GOST 13525.1-79); fracture resistance (according to GOST 13525.2-80); resistance to tearing. The data are given in table. 1, as well as visually determined pokeronline.According to the obtained results are not found to have significant reduction in the strength properties of paper and other products from natural hydrophilic fibrous materials. Wetting of these materials occur rasklinivanie fiber material products and interrupt communication between the fibers, and if in the process of drying quickly to remove moisture, then these links are not restored. Slow removal of moisture oxygen destroys the fiber content more intensively, also breaking the connection between the fibers products, resulting mechanical strength of the recovered materials and products falls irreversibly. Performing the same conditions the proposed method of restoring damaged by moisture materials of organic origin and products of them allows to optimize the process of removing the moisture, resulting in relaxation of elastic distortions and restore broken relationships between fibers.The method is as follows.Sawdust is placed in erator 30. . . 60oC until the moisture content corresponding to the value of the air-dry state. When this measure humidity in the chamber and after the establishment of its value constant filings are prepared to conduct subsequent operations. Air-conditioned sawdust fill maintenacne cavity of the container. The walls of the container are made of a moisture-air-permeable materials. They can be plastic, for example from fabrics and hard, for example of porous polymeric materials. The recovered organic material and products such as books, clothing, stuffed animals, furniture, etc., after exposure to moisture, or heat and moisture, for example when extinguishing fires, set in the container and placed in a drying chamber, and if you can not rush the organization of these works on the restoration of objects to their plunge freezing. When setting the object in the container, the mass of sawdust is selected from conditions (Psawdust/Pproducts) of 0.5, where Pproductsis the mass of wet fibrous material of organic origin, Psawdust- mass air-conditioned sawdust. In the drying chamber and the containers continuously control pre-heating temperature rise of the coolant from the values established in the drying volume (at room temperature) to a temperature stages of drying. The rate of change of temperature of the heat carrier is 0.1 to 2oC per hour. Upon reaching the required temperature stage of drying, selected from the interval 30 - 65oC, hold stage drying. Upon reaching the rated values of moisture content, the process ends. If moisture is present on the recovered objects, such as paper, cellulose fiber rasklinivanie under its influence, which leads to the change of physico-mechanical properties of the material.Similar processes of change in these properties occur in textile materials, impregnated reinforcing additives, as well as securities, glued with animal glue. Their fibers are similarly prone to wedging action of moisture. Products made of wood, papier-mache, stuffed animals and birds also suffer from shrinkage and mechanical properties. The combination of techniques of method provides a uniform outflow of water from the volume of the object being restored, which ensures the prevention of the occurrence, and also allows you to restore its mechanical properties.Sources of information:
1. USSR author's certificate N 1325269, F 26 B 3/347, 84.11.01.2. Proceedings of the Jubilee scientific conference. The Russian Member of the Enen moisture materials of organic origin and products thereof, including installation of the restored object in the container with sawdust and gaseous drying agent in the drying volume, characterized in that sawdust pre-condition to a moisture content corresponding to the value of the air-dry state at a temperature of stage drying 30 - 65oSince, at this stage before drying spend preheating temperature rise of the coolant from the value established in the drying volume to temperature stage drying with a speed of 0.1 to 2oS/h2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the mass ratio of the object being restored to wood filings selected from conditions (Psawdust/Pproducts) of 0.5, where Pproductsis the mass of wet fibrous material of organic origin, Psawdust- mass air-conditioned sawdust.
FIELD: food-processing industry; methods of drying food-stuffs.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes successive treatment of product in at least two zones; temperature and rate of motion of heat-transfer agent in first zone ensure initial heating of product and maintenance of constant rate of drying; temperature and rate of motion of heat-transfer agent in second zone ensure reduction of drying rate. Thermal conditions for each zone are created in separate drying ovens by transfer of product from oven to another.
EFFECT: possibility of maintaining constant drying mode in each zone; fast drying procedure.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering industry, particularly to dry heat-exchanging unit of heat exchanger, for instance of regenerative air heater type.
SUBSTANCE: drying stand comprises rack adapted to receive upper or intermediate or lower unit provided with standard supports. The lower unit has case extending along the full post height, heat-exchanging pipe bundle, air inlet and outlet heads. Drying stand also has a set of technological caps for temporary sealing ends of air inlet and outlet heads, device to supply drying agent in the heads and pipes of the bundle. The device comprises at least one fan and air duct communicated with the fan by the first end thereof. Another air duct end is mainly connected with upper end of air inlet and outlet heads so that the heads may be brought into communication with air duct though one technological cap having corresponding orifice. At least one more technological cap of the set has orifice and/or valve to open drying agent flow from air outlet head. The rack is made as three-dimensional supporting system consisted of at least one pair of longitudinal flat rod structures spaced a distance equal to unit width and at least two transversal ones. Each transversal structure is made as flat truss with upper horizontal support belt. The horizontal structures are spaced inside the rack and support the unit in points between intermediate posts of case thereof. The drying stand may also has technological caps to temporary seal ends of heads connected to upper or intermediate or lower unit provided with standard supports, device to supply drying agent, particularly air, in air inlet and outlet heads and pipes of heat-exchanging unit installed on laying-off floor and provided with case having intermediate posts, including lower unit of heat-exchanger additionally having standard supports. The unit rests upon the laying-off floor so that lower ends of air inlet and outlet heads are located above the laying-off floor to provide technological cap installation. Height of head location is not less than that of standard support connected to lower unit of heat-exchanger.
EFFECT: increased economy and reduced labor inputs and material consumption.
20 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, food-processing industry and bakery industry, in particular drying of high-moisture content materials.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drying seed and grain in high-density layer rotating around vertical axis, said method being provided by blowing seed with drying agent; discharging insufficiently dried lower part of layer; providing softening and cooling in high-density layer by means of gaseous component until moisture content is higher than conditioned moisture content; after temporary storage and/or termination of harvesting season, returning material for drying process, with specific feeding of gaseous component being defined so that its temperature at the outlet differs from temperature within material layer by no more than 1-2 C. Frequency of returning insufficiently dried grain for drying process is defined by achieving conditioned moisture content of grain. Softening of grain having moisture content of 19.5-23% is provided for 6-4 hours. Batches of material delivered for drying, are moistened for 1-2 days.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption and improved keeping and preservation of wet seeds and grain.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: engineering of equipment for recycling thermo-plastic polymer wastes for repeated sue, in particular, engineering of devices for drying washed milled thermo-plastic polymers, immediately after discharge from washing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: continuous effect drier is made in form of centrifuge, containing body with rotating perforated drum mounted on it, centrifuge is combined with centrifugal wheel, provided with blades. On the axis of perforated drum, immobile shaft passes with rectangular blades mounted on it with an angle to its axis, and one-two screw coils. Screw is mounted on output from drum prior to centrifugal wheel, and blades are positioned at an angle to shaft axis so, that input edge of a blade is positioned on same line with output edge of previous blade.
EFFECT: simplified construction, decreased energy consumption, increased efficiency.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises drying at least one diaphragm module mounted downstream of the pressure source and connected with the supplying gas pipeline and discharging pipeline. Prior to the stop of the diaphragm module, the gas entering the diaphragm module is expanded down to a level between the ambient pressure and pressure of the gas of the pressure source. The low-pressure gas is then supplied to the diaphragm module.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: drying of wet sapropel mass after preliminary dehydration and reduction of moisture content by at least half the total moisture content.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying wet sapropel mass onto rectangular grates; positioning grates in sealed chamber and blowing grates with heated air until sapropel is dried to needed moisture content; cleaning grates by means of brushes from dried sapropel and feeding the latter into receptacle device. Grates are united into cassettes. Grates are filled with wet sapropel mass by dipping grates of each cassette into tank with continuously or periodically replenished sapropel mass. Each of cassettes is, thereafter, into row in closely abutting relationship with respect to one another within channel, said grates being oriented along said channel, wherein heated air is fed.
EFFECT: reduced costs for sapropel drying process, when required capacity is not great.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the methods of grain crop drying and can be used in the agriculture at the enterprises engaged with seed grain laying-in. The grain crop seed drying method implies blowing of a fixed bed of the grain crop seeds under the load of 300 kg/m2 during 10 minutes by the heat carrier 60-65°C hot and with the heat carrier speed at the seed bed entry equal to 0.4 m/s, the following aeration of the seed bed by the air 18-20°C hot during 10 minutes with the speed equal to 0.8 of the heat carrier speed at the seed bed entry. The cycle is repeated until the required humidity of the seeds is achieved.
EFFECT: beneficial result of the invention consists in the reduction of the seed material cost price.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: several stages of drying are successively installed one after another in the moving flow of the heat carrier as flat oblique oscillating sieves or conic sieves rotating with a constant speed through which a drying object is directed as a flow with a constant or variable speed, constant or variable density and with a capability of controlling the speed and density of the drying object and the heat carrier and the heat carrier temperature is elevated from stage to stage at an equal value. To do that it is passed successively through each stage of heating. It is controlled by means of sensors installed one at a time on the first stages of drying, on the one before the last - two at a time, on the last one - four at a time in equal increments evenly in the volume of the drying stage and on the last three drying stages automatic samplers are installed one at a time on each stage and that supply the electric drive and the automatic control system whose operation is programmed input into the on-board computer and the openings of all the sieves are oval of the same or different sizes and place them on the sieves in parallel rows in equal increments equal to 2-3 lengths of the biggest faction of the drying mixture and the openings of every following row by height is shifted relatively to the previous one at half the increment between rows which is equal 3-4 lengths of the opening and the length of the opening is 2-3 times the size of the longest length of the longest component of the drying mixture.
EFFECT: improved quality of grain drying.