Elements walls to wooden buildings, the method of manufacture and method of erection of wooden buildings with such wall elements

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the construction, in particular to the construction of the walls of wooden buildings. Wall element for wooden building contains several wooden components of equal length, which are joined side by side by running the edges of the opposite sides of the elements interacting with the elements of the gearing, which provide between two adjacent elements in connection with labyrinth seal forming the channel to reduce the pressure of wind loads on the outer side of the element. Inside the wooden components are held transverse elements of the slats by means of screw connections passing through the elements of the slats in the rear side of the wooden components. In their upper and lower edges of the wall element is made with cooperating inclined surfaces for connection located one above the other elements of the wall in locking engagement. 3 C. and 15 C.p. f-crystals, 15 ill.

The invention relates to the field of construction, and more particularly, to a wall elements for wooden buildings, as well as to the method of manufacture and method of erection of wooden buildings with fašade, consisting of such elements of the wall.

The casing forms a so-called weather shield to protect the existing insulation and the walls behind it. On the inner side plank siding is usually a layer construction of wind-resistant cardboard or paper, and to provide good ventilation for this weather shield insulation is usually installed with a clearance relative to the wind-resistant cardboard or paper.

Board sheathing can be mounted vertically, horizontally or obliquely. In the skin with horizontal boards can be used boards with the structure of clinker or other specific profile. In the vertical sheathing of individual boards can be used for the locking type tongue - groove or can be placed in two layers in such a way that the parts of the edges of the Board in one layer are in contact with portions of the edges of two boards, mutually spaced at a distance from one another in the other layer.

Known wall element for wooden buildings, with a few wooden components of equal length, fastened side by side to the transverse elements slats isoclinic sides of the wooden components are made with interacting elements of engagement (see U.S. patent US-A-4115969).

Such wall elements in order to facilitate the erection of wooden buildings for different purposes, and to shorten the time period necessary for construction.

However, such wall elements shall be manufactured and assembled from the calculation of the size and weight that allow two men to carry them during transportation and installation on the building site.

An object of the invention is to create such a design wall, which would rule out the occurrence of stresses between the boards under the influence of changing the moisture content of building boards, and provide a tight seal regardless of humidity, exposure to heavy rains and wind gusts. Thus, it is possible to do without wind-resistant strip.

Another object of the invention is the creation of a wall element, which avoids the use of wooden structures, pressure treated with creosote, as a result take into account the environmental impact and at the same time reduces the cost.

This is achieved in that the wall element for wooden buildings, with a few wooden compo is Lisi them located mutually flush end edges, the edges of the opposite sides of the wooden elements are made with the cooperating engagement elements, the engagement elements between two adjacent wooden components form a labyrinth seal at least two series-connected cavities to reduce the pressure of wind loads on the outer side of the plank of the component and forms a labyrinth seal against the outer side of the component discharge slit to remove the water going from the cavity to reduce the pressure, which is most closely located to the specified external side.

In their upper and lower edges of the wall element can be performed by interacting with inclined surfaces for connection located one above the other elements of the wall in locking engagement.

Wooden components of the wall element can form vertically spaced bars, and the elements of the slats may contain upper element mounted flush with the upper end edges of the bars, and the bottom element, located at a distance above the lower edges of the bars, the inclined surface can be made from the bottom of the lower element of the strap and at the top is gearing for coupling with the engagement element at the bottom side of the strap Assembly and the casing, which, after installation, located above the wall element, is attached along its bottom element of the strap for fastening above the element with the specified gear.

The end edges of the top and bottom bars can also be placed at such a distance from the opposite vertical side edges of the wall element to provide a fastening element walls to the posts in the bearing frame of the building, with part of the outer bars, located on the outside of the elements of the laths are in direct mesh with these racks.

The labyrinth seal between the mutually abutting side edges of adjacent bars may be formed by the double connection type groove - tongue, the said cavity to reduce the pressure placed at the bottom of the slots.

Wooden components can form a horizontal elements essentially with a wedge-shaped cross-section of maximum width from the bottom side to give harvested wall of clinker and can be connected using a vertically-oriented elements of the laths.

The labyrinth seal between the two mutually stikoudi is fired up by the tongue, the exhaust from the upper side of the wooden component, and a groove on the lower side, and an external downward section of the ledge on the outside of the groove, when the discharge gap is formed between the section of the protrusion and a portion of the upper edge of the outer side below the boardwalk component, which it covers.

Cavity to reduce the pressure that most closely located to the outer side of the wall element may be limited by the staggered part of the lower side plank component, which is between the groove and land of the ledge.

Vertically elements of strips can be installed at a distance spaced mutually flush with the end edges of the wooden components, which provide a fastening element walls to the posts in the bearing frame of the building, while the end sections of the wooden components are in direct mesh with these racks.

The upper and lower end edges of the vertically-oriented elements of the slats can be made with parallel inclined surfaces corresponding to the inclined surface at the upper edge of the bars in the item, made with cooperating inclined powerhorn ends of the vertically-oriented elements of the slats with their inner sides can be attached to the horizontal element of the strap for fastening the element beams in the load carrying frame of the building, made in its upper side with an element of the engagement Assembly to engage the bottom side of the strap Assembly and the casing, which, after installation, located above the wall element, is attached along its bottom plank of the component.

The specified connection tongue - groove can be made of such size tongue and groove, which allow you to get free from stress connection when a predetermined maximum moisture content.

In addition, the specified discharge gap may have a wedge-shaped mouth on the outside of the wall element, and the mouth may have a wedge shape due to the fact that the specified portion of the upper edge is made in the form of a recess with a beveled lower surface.

Technical objectives are achieved due to the fact that in the method of manufacture of the wall element, as described above, the wooden components are cut so that the fibers are essentially parallel to the external and internal sides, then determine the moisture content of the wood and the connection Board components with elements of laths perform the adaptation of the engagement between the engagement elements in accordance with controlled so humid conditions.

It is advisable specified screw connection at the vertical side edges to close through the installation of external cladding boards.

Hereinafter the invention will be explained with reference to a schematic drawing, in which:

Fig. 1 depicts an example of a wooden building with a wall, built of wall elements according to examples of implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 2 and 3 depict a vertical view in section of the wall element according to the invention, with vertically and horizontally placed wooden components, respectively;

Fig. 4 depicts a plot of the horizontal view in the context of the example of implementation shown in Fig. 2;

Fig. 5 shows in an enlarged scale with the 7 depict a preferred implementation examples for vertical and horizontal respectively wooden component;

Fig. 8 to 10 show three examples of the mutual connection of the wall elements located one above the other, in the implementation examples shown in Fig. 2 and 3;

Fig. 11 and 12 show two examples are located side by side elements of the wall of the example of implementation shown in Fig. 2;

Fig. 13 and 14 show examples of the mutual connection of the example of implementation shown in Fig. 3; and

Fig. 15 depicts the connection Board components with a wall with changing moisture content in the wood.

Fig. 1 shows an example of mostly wooden buildings such as granaries, where the fašade, under the roof 1, constructed from elements of the wall according to the invention, these elements contain the waste from Foundation 2 three bays 3, 4 and 5 arranged one above the other and consisting of a wall element with a covering of vertically spaced rails with inlaid two spans 6 and 7, arranged one above the other and formed of a wall element with a covering of horizontal elements.

All wall elements are preferably made of such dimensions that allow them to transfer as during transportation and on the construction site with ispolzovano for each wall element.

To provide the necessary balance of manufacturing tolerances, it is necessary to perform flexible coupling 8 between the wall elements arranged side by side, installed in each span at the appropriate distances. In three spans 3, 4 and 5 with vertically spaced bars is usually enough to have such a flexible coupling at a distance of, for example, 480 cm, and in spans 6 and 7 with a horizontally placed wooden components should be flexible coupling between each pair of superimposed one upon the other elements of the wall, for example, at a distance of 240 see

In the section of the wall shown in Fig. 1, may be provided, for example, the opening for the gate 10 by using a special stiffening elements 9. Accordingly doors and Windows can be made of special items, the sizes of which differ from the above-mentioned modular size.

Fig. 2 and 4 show the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the example implementation of the element where the wall cladding is formed by vertical bars 11, which are mounted inside the upper element of the strap 12 and the lower element of the strap 13.

Board components 11, of which all have the same length, soedinaytes the s form a labyrinth seal at least two series-connected cavities to reduce the pressure of wind loads on the outer side of the component. In the example shown the implementation of the labyrinth seal formed by the double compounds tongue - groove on one edge of each element on the one hand, there are two parallel grooves 14, and the edge on the opposite side made two respective parallel groove 15.

Board components 11 mounted on the elements of the slats 12 and 13 by a screw connection 16, which are inserted through the elements of the slats 12 and 13 in the rear part of the plank elements 11.

As a result of this construction the connection between adjacent plank components forms a labyrinth seal 17, which provides between the outer side 18 and the inner side 19 of the casing reducing the pressure channel with three series-connected cavities 20-22 to reduce pressure and to receive wind loads on the outer side of the wall element.

The labyrinth seal 17 is also designed so that the opposite outer side 18 of the element 11, it forms a drain slit 17A to remove the water collecting in the cavity 20 to reduce the pressure that most closely located to the outside.

For this purpose, the opposite side edges of the bars 11 is preferably, Noah cavity 20 to reduce the pressure, beveled and forms a wedge-shaped slit 17A together with the relevant part of the neighboring element with which it is connected.

An example implementation of the wall element shown in Fig. 3 and 5 with horizontal paneling, built according to the same basic principle and contains one above the other Board components 23 of equal length and rear-mounted on vertically arranged elements of the bars 24 by means of screw connections (not shown) made in the same manner as explained above in the example implementation of Fig. 2 and 4.

In the example implementation of the invention of Fig. 3 and 5 individual wooden components for giving harvested wall of clinker are essentially wedge-shaped cross section maximum width from the bottom edge. The connection between adjacent elements here as well made as the connection type, tongue - groove, with each element in the top edge has a tongue 25 and the lower edge of the corresponding groove 26. To obtain a labyrinth seal 23a constituting an essential part of the invention relating to the compounds, each wooden component 23 in its lower part is also made with an external speaker output section 27, cotana side of the element underneath.

Two cavity 23b and 23c to reduce pressure, located in the labyrinth connection 23a, thus partially formed between the protruding outward section 27 and the tongue 25, partially at the bottom of the groove 26, and the drain slot 23d is formed between the lip 27 and a part of the cutting edge 28, which he closes.

As shown in Fig.7, the horizontal wooden components 23 are preferably made so that a portion 23c of the lower side of the element, located between the groove 26 and the area of the ledge 27 to form a cavity 23b to reduce pressure is staggered with respect to part 23f, located against the inner side of the component. In addition, a portion of the upper edge 23 of the recess with bevelled below side 28a.

To ensure the interconnection of the elements of the wall, located one above the other in construction, essentially free from tension, the elements of the wall at its upper edge and the bottom edge, according to the invention, made with cooperating inclined surfaces so that in fact the fastening screw and bolt connections to the supporting frame of the building is required only at the top edge. In the example implementation of Fig. 2 and 4 such Makkah bars 11. In addition, it may be made inclined surface 32A in the lower edges of the bars 11. In all of these inclined surfaces inclined angle to the horizontal may be 30o.

Accordingly, in the example implementation of Fig. 3 and 5 the upper and lower end edges of the elements of the slats 24 are made parallel with the inclined surfaces 31 and 32, which to link below wall element of the example of implementation shown in Fig. 2 and 4, should have a slope adapted to the inclined surface 30 in this example implementation of the invention.

The connection between the wall elements arranged one above the other, can be performed, as shown in Fig. 8 - 10.

Fig. 8 thus shows the interconnection of the two wall elements located one above the other, the example implementation of the invention in Fig. 3 and 5. Mutual connecting is opposite the horizontal plank of the component 33, which is fastened to the posts 34 in the bearing frame of the building. To the rear of the elements of the slats 24, the upper edge is attached to the horizontal element of the strap 35, which is attached with a screw or bolts 36 to the element of the beam 33. Inclined surfaces 31 and 32 as such, the wall element.

To further improve the fastening elements and at the same time to save essentially free from stress design, with the rear side of the elements of the slats 24, after installation, located above the wall, you can attach the strap element 37, which is designed for mounting and casing, the lower side of which are executed with the engagement element, for example, with a groove 38 for mutual connection with a corresponding engagement element, for example, a groove 39 in the upper side of the strap 35.

In Fig. 9 accordingly shows the interconnection above the wall element of the example implementation of the invention, shown in Fig. 3 and 5, and the wall below, the example implementation of the invention, shown in Fig. 2 and 4. In this case, the interconnection is made opposite horizontal beam 33, which is attached to the rack 34 in the bearing frame of the building. Below the wall element is attached to the beam 33 by a screw connection 40 through the upper element of the strap 12.

The locking engagement provided by the inclined surfaces 31 and 32, as such, can be improved similarly as in Fig. 6, the engagement element 37 installation and siding with the groove 39, you the top part of the element underneath the wall, as shown, may be provided with an additional coating in the form of a horizontal element of clinker 42 inserted into the bottom Board part 23 located above the wall element. This additional element 42 can be attached to the bars 11 located below the wall element.

Finally, in Fig. 10 shows the interconnection of the two above elements of the wall of the example implementation of Fig. 2 and 4, i.e., vertically spaced bars, and a connection between below the wall and stand mounting wall 43, which is attached to the base 2 in a bearing frame of the building. To the rack mounting wall 43 is attached a special element of the strap 44, which, on the one hand, has on its upper side outer inclined surface 45 to stop the inclined surface 29 of the bottom of the lower element of the strap 13 of the wall element, and on the other hand, the inside has a groove 46 to provide connection tongue - groove with strap element 47 of the Assembly and the casing, which is attached to the lower strap element 13 after the installation of the wall element with mutual engagement of the inclined surfaces 29 and 45.

Below the wall element is then attached to the beam 33 by a screw connection (not shown), passing is by ensuring the engagement between the inclined surface 29 of the bottom of the lower element of the strap 13 of the wall element and the inclined surface 30 at the upper edges of the bars 11 to the lower element of the wall, then in the same way as described above, is provided by the interconnection element of the strap 47 installation and plating.

Fig. 11 and 12 show examples of the mutual connection of the wall elements of the example implementation of the invention, shown in Fig. 2 and 4, in the horizontal direction. In places where you need a flexible connection, as shown in Fig. 1, the two outer beams 11 in two wall elements attached to the rack element 48, which is attached to the supporting frame of the building, i.e. outside of the beams 33, shown in Fig. 8 - 10 so that the rack element 48 will occupy a position flush with the elements of the strips 12, 13 wall. To provide such an attachment, the end edges of the top and bottom bars 12, 13 are at a distance from the opposite vertical side edges 49 and 50 of the outer bars 11.

If the fixing of the outer beam 11 to the element 48 hours, as shown in Fig. 11, performed by means of a screw connection 51, which is inserted from the outside, such a screw connection, you can close set exterior sheathing Board 52.

In the same places where there is no need for flexible mutual connection of the wall elements located side by side, can soed Fig. 12.

Based on the same principles, respectively flexible and rigid connection of the wall elements of Fig. 3 and 5 may be performed, as shown in Fig. 13 and 14.

As shown in Fig. 13, a vertical elements of the strips 24 on the opposite vertical side edges of the wall elements can defend at a distance spaced mutually flush with the end edges of the wooden components 23, to enable them to mount to the rack element 53, which may be fastened to the supporting frame of the building in the same way as the rack element 48 in Fig. 11. Mount, thus, may be a screw connection 54, with wooden components 23 are in direct engagement with the rack element 53.

Exactly the same as in Fig. 11, can be installed exterior siding planks covering open outside screw connection.

In rigid mutual connection, which is shown in Fig.14, the wall elements located side by side, can be screwed by means of screw connections 55 directly in a separate element of the strap 56, which is located between the elements of the slats 24 in the wall elements arranged side by side relative to each other.

According to the invention, it is important that the connection Board components arranged side by side in separate elements of the wall occurred in the controlled conditions of moisture content, so that between the individual wooden components remained space for connections tongue - groove, sufficient for their expansion or compression depending on the moisture content of the tree without causing deformation of the wall element as a whole.

An essential part of the manufacturing elements of the wall, therefore, is that the wooden components, as shown in Fig. 15, for elements 11 in the example of the invention shown in Fig. 2 and 4, are cut the same length so that the fibers are essentially parallel to the outer and inner sides, and that the connection elements 11 is the adaptation of the mesh, in compounds of the type tongue - groove in accordance with the moisture content determined in the process of their connection (dock).

In Fig. 15 a, b and C shows the typical connection of the moisture content in wood, constituting 23%, 9% and 16% respectively.

1. Wall element for wooden buildings, with a few wooden components (11, 23) of the same length, attached side by side to cross sempre this edge opposite sides of the wooden elements are made with interacting elements of the gearing, characterized in that the engagement elements between two adjacent wooden components form a labyrinth seal (17, 23a) at least two series-connected cavities (20 - 22, 23b - 23C) to reduce the pressure of wind loads on the outer side of the plank of the component and forms a labyrinth seal opposite the outer side of the component, the drain slot (17A, 23d) to remove the water collecting in the cavity (20, 23b), to reduce pressure, which is most closely located to the specified external side.

2. The wall element under item 1, characterized in that its upper and lower edges of the wall element is made with cooperating inclined surfaces (29 - 32) for connection located one above the other elements of the wall in locking engagement.

3. Wall element according to p. 2, characterized in that the wooden components form a vertically arranged bars (11) and the fact that the elements of laths contain the top element (12) mounted flush with the upper end edges of the bars (11) and the bottom element (13), located at a distance above the lower edges of the bars (11), while the inclined surface (29 - 30) is made from the bottom of the lower element of the strap (13) and in the upper KROHNE side is made with the engagement element (41) to connect with element of the gearing in the lower side of the strap element (37) mounting and casing, after installation located above the wall element is attached along its bottom element of the strap for fastening above the element with the specified gear.

5. The wall element under item 3 or 4, characterized in that the end edges of the top and bottom bars (12, 13) are located at such a distance from the opposite vertical side edges of the wall element to provide a fastening element walls to the posts (48) in the bearing frame of the building, with part of the outer beams (11) located outside elements strips (12, 13), are in direct mesh with these racks.

6. The wall element under item 3 or 4 or 5, characterized in that the labyrinth seal (17) between the mutually abutting side edges of adjacent bars (11) is formed by a double connection type groove - tongue, with a cavity (20 - 22) to reduce pressure are located at the bottom of the slots.

7. The wall element under item 1, characterized in that the wooden components form a horizontal elements (23), essentially with a wedge-shaped cross-section of maximum width from the bottom side to give harvested wall of clinker and connected when p is a labyrinth seal (23a) between two mutually abutting side edges of adjacent wooden components (23) contains the connection type groove - the tongue with an upward groove (25) extending from the upper side of the wooden component, and a groove (26) from the bottom side and the outer downward section of the protrusion (27) on the outside of the groove (26), while the drain slot (23d) is formed between the section of the protrusion (27) and a portion of the upper edge of the outer side below the boardwalk component, which it covers.

9. The wall element under item 8, characterized in that the cavity (23b) to reduce pressure, most closely located to the outer side of the wall element is limited by the staggered part (23rd), the bottom side plank component (23), which is located between the groove and land of the ledge.

10. The wall element under item 8 or 9, characterized in that the vertically elements slats (24) installed at a distance spaced mutually flush with the end edges of the wooden components, which provide a fastening element walls to the posts (53) in the bearing frame of the building, with the ends of a Board components (23) are in direct mesh with these racks.

11. Wall element according to p. 7 or 10, characterized in that the upper and lower end edges of the vertically-oriented elements of slats (24) V edge beams in the wall element according to p. 2.

12. Wall element according to any one of paragraphs.7 to 11, characterized in that the upper ends of the vertically-oriented elements of slats (24) with their inner side is attached to the horizontal element bars (35) for the fastening element beams (33) in the raw skeleton of a building in its upper side with an element of the engagement Assembly to engage the bottom side of the strap element (37) Assembly and plating, after which the installation is located above the wall element is attached along its bottom plank of the component (23).

13. Wall element according to p. 6 or 8, characterized in that the specified connection tongue - groove is made of such size tongue and groove, which allow you to get free from stress connection when a predetermined maximum moisture content.

14. Wall element according to any one of paragraphs.1 - 13, characterized in that the drain slot (17, 23d) has a wedge-shaped mouth on the outside of the wall element (11, 23).

15. The wall on the PP.8 or 9 and 14, characterized in that the mouth has a wedge shape due to the fact that the specified portion of the upper edge (28) is made in the form of a recess with a beveled bottom surface (28a).

16. The method of manufacture of a wall element according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, Esna and internal parties next, determine the moisture content of the wood and the connection Board components with elements of laths perform the adaptation of the engagement between the engagement elements in accordance with controlled so humid conditions.

17. The method of construction of a wooden building with a facade consisting of elements of the wall under item 4 or 11, characterized in that its vertical side edges and the upper edge of each wall element is fixed by a screw connection to the vertical posts and the horizontal element beams respectively in the bearing frame of the building, while its lower edge, it only keep on the underlying element or rack mounting wall in the building frame by means of inclined surfaces (29 - 30) and element (37) of the installation.

18. The method according to p. 17, characterized in that the screw connection (51, 54) in the vertical side edges of the cover through the installation of external cladding boards (52).

 

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