Method of dyeing fibers


(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to dyeing and finishing production of the textile industry and can be used for dyeing fibers. Charge specified areas of fibers to a predetermined value qassapplication of the unipolar charged droplets activating fluid of the same diameter with the charge drops qtoequal in number to the qass/qto. Then the fibers thus charged and uncharged areas are placed in the dye and get a different color. The method allows to manage, including from the microcomputer, intensity and hue of the resulting color in given areas of the fibers and provides automation of the dyeing process. 3 Il.

The invention relates to dyeing and finishing production of the textile industry and can be used for dyeing fibers.

Known methods of dyeing fibers, in which the dye is applied by spraying under pressure from the nozzle to the surface of the fibers (USSR Author's certificate N 667157 class. D 06 B 5/02, 1979). These methods of dyeing have little control over the intensity and hue of the resulting color and low degree Anisimova on the fibre, and quickly move on to another color shade (within the same color). Dye sprayed from the nozzle, is a torch particles of different diameters, which can be merged with each other in flight. Thus, the dye is applied to the fibers in a random way, which reduces the quality of the colour and makes it difficult to automate the process of dyeing.

There is also known a method of dyeing fibers, wherein the fibers are dyed by immersion in a bath with dye and stand there with the addition of an activating fluid to obtain the desired color, including multi-color (see the book: Androsov C. F. Dyeing synthetic fibres), Light and food industries, 1984, S. 75). Activating liquid (for example, when dyeing kubotani polyester fibers, and mixtures of polyester fibers and natural) in a dye-bath is injected to increase viviremos dye fiber, increasing the degree of staining of the whole beam of elementary fibers in the yarn and for more intense color. As the activating fluid use salicylic and benzoic acid, resorcinol, hydroquinone, etc. and for polyester fibers "Dacron" concentration in the dye bath is not balkovich fibers, as well as their mixtures with polyester fiber concentration is selected 1 g/l at dyeing kubotani bright-green, grey, Golden yellow LC, etc. To increase the rate of dyeing of polyester fibers and their blends with natural linen, cotton, etc) as the activating fluid is used, the electrolyte solution: usually NaCl concentration in the dye bath 15 g/l with kubotani, for example, Golden-yellow LC, bright green C, grey etc. Adding NaCl contributes to the suppression of electrokinetic potential of fibers, overcoming the forces of electrostatic repulsion of ions of the surface layer of the fiber and cubozoa.

The disadvantage of these methods of dyeing fibers with the addition of activating liquids in dye bath, which fully immerse the coated fiber, is that they do not give the opportunity to get the color of varying intensity in one of the dyeing solution. The coloration of the fibers in this case, the uniform, the activating fluid acts on the entire surface of the fiber, so sorbirovaniya dye is also on the entire surface. It is not possible to regulate the amount of dye on a given surface area fiber, sorbed data is required for painting and osteoclast for one color. In addition, the low efficiency of staining. Speed painting in the bath is increased by increasing the temperature of the dyeing solution, increasing its concentration and time of dyeing. This necessitates the use of heat-resistant dyes and increases their consumption.

The closest analogue is a method of dyeing fibers by use of charged dye and the activating fluid process in the cell (see USSR Author's certificate N 1305222, class D 06 P 5/20, 1987). These shortcomings also apply to this method.

The technical result of the invention is to control the intensity and hue of the resulting color in given areas fibers and automating the process of dyeing.

To achieve the technical result of the charge given to the areas of the fibers to a predetermined value of electric charge qassapplication of the unipolar charged droplets activating fluid of the same diameter dtocharge drops qtoequal in number to the qass/qtoand the fibers thus charged and uncharged areas are placed in the dye receiving different okra is o - electric constant. The number applied to a given area of the droplets is equal to qass/qtowhen this charged and uncharged so lots of fibers can be interleaved in any sequence and are determined by the master program, implemented by the microcomputer.

The proposed method of dyeing fibers allows the flexibility to control the intensity and hue (tint), we obtain the desired (specified) sections of the fiber coating and to automate the process of dyeing. During its implementation as working fluids using an activating liquid (for example, salicylic and benzoic acid and others), electrolyte solutions (e.g., NaCl) to obtain the strictly defined by the diameter of the droplets of activating liquid, it is also possible easily from the control of the microcomputer to change the diameter of the droplets, the magnitude and polarity to inform every drop of activating liquid electric charge, and also send the required number of drops given to the areas of the fibers. Thus, it is possible to control the intensity, tone and speed painting certain areas. On sections of the fibers treated with charged drops activating liquid (immersion in a bath Salcah. In addition, the same sections of the fibers simultaneously receive from charged droplets and electric charge with the polarity opposite to the polarity of the particles of the dye. That is, there is the attraction of ions of the dye to the oppositely charged areas of the surface of the fibers and coloring is given areas more intensively.

The proposed method of dyeing allows precise dosing unipolar electric charge and simultaneously activating liquid on specified areas of fibers. After keeping the fibers in a bath of dye they acquire different according to the intensity of the color on the pre-charged and uncharged areas.

The formation of charge drops activating fluid with a negative or positive charge), drawing them in the right place fibers, and obtaining the required diameters of droplets activating fluid is produced from the control of the microcomputer. This enables you to automate the process of dyeing to produce different (managed) intensity and osteoclast color. Is carried out in the proposed method, if necessary, operational reconfiguration algorithm processing the surface of the Institute of fibers in solutions of dyes on the boundary surface of the solid and liquid phases fiber - the dye solution arises electric double layer ions, in which the sorption of ions of the fiber surface ions of the dye. Further, the dyeing process is the interaction of ions of polymer fiber and dye. Surface fiber layer and the adjacent layer of dye acquire opposite charges. The higher the magnitude of these charges, the stronger the forces of mutual attraction of ions in the fiber and dye, the stronger sorption of dye by the fiber.

The higher the surface energy of the fiber and the same charge particles of the dye, the higher the potential barrier that must be overcome to dye sorption on the outer surface of the fiber. On the surface of synthetic fibres potential barrier reaches such a magnitude that in normal conditions the possibility of approximation of any ion of the dye to the fiber is eliminated. The presence in this area of the fiber surface charge changes the parameters of the electrical double layer in such a way that affects the process of sorbirovaniya dye fiber. Moreover, this phenomenon depends on the pre-deposited on the fiber unipolar charge. Therefore, the color of this surface area is llorenna the method is implemented using the message of the surface charge of the fibers in given areas through application of unipolar charged droplets activating fluid of the same diameter, which is managed may vary within 30-300 μm. The value of the total deposited charge is regulated by changing the amount of charge drops activating fluid in the range of 10-13-10-12CL, changes in the number of droplets and the diameter of the drops of the activating liquid. Application of unipolar charge on specified areas of the surface of the fibers is made by control from the control unit, which is a microcomputer that allows you to quickly and with precision to adjust the amount of dye sorbed by the fiber span, and to control its color.

As an example in Fig. 1 presents a device that implements the proposed method of dyeing fibers or filaments. Numerals in Fig. 1 mark: 1 - vibrator-Converter, in which, for example, uses a piezoelectric transducer; 2 - forming device drops the activating fluid of the same diameter from the nozzle 3; 4 - device messages unipolar charge drops activating liquid (charger); 5 - drops activating fluid in a linear monodisperse stream; 6 - deflecting device; 7 - moving fiber (thread); 8 - tank with dye; 9 - okalee device.

Method of dyeing fibers (threads) as follows. In the forming device 2 of monodisperse droplets under pressure from the pump 12, through the filter 13, enters the activating liquid. At the outlet of the nozzle 3 is formed of a laminar jet of activating liquid (e.g., salicylic acid, benzoic acid, etc. or electrolyte NaCl), which under the action of an overlay of high-frequency vibrations from the piezoelectric transducer 1 is crushed with a frequency f to 5 drops of the same diameter dtoflying one behind the other at the same distance, equal to the wavelength of the perturbation of the jet. To do this from the control device 14, which may be used to control the computer to the input of the piezoelectric transducer 1 is fed harmonic signal with frequency f and amplitude of the Un. At the point of drop detachment activating fluid from laminar jets placed the device messages unipolar charge drops 4. Under the action of the charging voltage UCcoming from the control unit 14 and the synchronization with the moment of separation of the droplets from the jet drop activating fluid acquires a charge proportional to the value of UC(or does not acquire at UTS is between a control device 14 deflecting voltage Uabout, charged drop the activating fluid is rejected just as the deflected electron in the cathode-ray tube, and is sent to a given point of a surface moving with constant speed (filament) fibers. When this charged droplets with a charge qtoone or another character tell their electrical charge of a given area (filament) fibers, and the number of drops in a given area is determined by the ratio qass/qtowhere qass- set the charge on this site, which is pre-defined terms and conditions of given intensity of colouring of this site and its tone depending on the type of coated fibers or filaments, type the activating fluid, the type of dye. That is, to determine the need to conduct preliminary experiments, taking into account operating modes and other initial conditions. Drops activating fluid are formed in the device 2 (up to 100,000 droplets per second) and the frequency drop is equal to the frequency f by a piezoelectric transducer with a diameter depending on the parameters of the fibers or filaments can vary from 30 μm to 300 μm. Therefore, the performance of the proposed method is sufficient for applying the necessary calisti, no charge (at the time of drop detachment from laminar flow, the voltage UCif this is zero), they are not deflected in the deflecting device 6, go straight to the catcher 10 and passing through the filter 11, again served by the pump 12 through the filter 13 in the forming device 2 drops.

Fiber (filament) with the thus charged surface, the charge which is determined by the number of charged drops activating liquid spilled on them, pass through the container 8 with the dye, if necessary, maintained it, and painted in various shades with different intensity depending on the amount of activating liquid and charge on these sites. The value of qasson sections of the fibers (threads} are the original (input) value when implementing the proposed method and depends on the type of fibers (threads), type impregnating liquid, the type of activating liquid, the conditions of impregnation, the desired intensity of color and set based on the previously conducted studies. The proposed method of dyeing does not involve heating of coated products (although they do not deny) and consists primarily in the fact that in specified areas of fibers (threads) is applied automatically at tensively and tone of the color. Unlike the prototype, where the charge sites of the fibers or filaments are not produced not produced a controlled application of an activating fluid to specified areas, and different color fibers (filaments) was carried out by changing the temperature of the dyeing solution and time-keeping fibers (threads) in it, in the proposed method at a constant temperature of the dyeing solution and time of dyeing different degree of dyeing fibers (threads) on a separate defined areas is determined by the managed computer parameters - number of activating fluid and the amount of electric charge on each individual given section. For example, when dyeing polyamide fibers with acid dyes fibers are negatively charged. Hence, given to the areas of polyamide fibers cause qass/qtodrops with a negative charge every drop of activating liquid. The accurate regulation in the proposed method, the amount of activating fluid and the electric charge on certain sections of the fibers (threads) allows you to quickly and flexibly control the dyeing process to produce different shades and colors.

Numerous experiments with active). Dosing charges on specified areas of fibers (threads) is carried out with a high degree of accuracy determined by the identity of the obtained liquid droplets and the ability to regulate their charge. As an example in Fig. 2 shows the experimentally taken according to the magnitude of the charge of the droplet qtofrom the voltage UCinput device messages charge 4 Fig. 1 when the frequency drop 33.4 thousand drops per second and the pressure pump 12 (Fig. 1), equal to 0.1 MPa. As can be seen from Fig. 2, the reported drop activating fluid electric charge depends linearly on the magnitude of the voltage UCwith a sign opposite to the sign of the potential of the voltage UCat the entrance of the charging device. In Fig. 3 presents experimental shot the dependence of the diameter of the droplets dtofrom the frequency of the alternating voltage f on a piezoelectric transducer 1 (see Fig. 1) at constant amplitude Up= 140 At a given voltage and from the pressure supply at the output of the pump 12 (see Fig. 1). As can be seen from Fig. 2, figs. 3, changing from the control unit 14 (see Fig. 1) voltage UCfrequency f and the amplitude of the voltage Upcan be in a wide range to change the charge of any of the more than thirty thousand drops per second and the color of certain areas of the fibers or filaments by directing these sites required number of drops. The deflection of charged drops in the deflecting device 6 (see Fig. 1) is directly proportional with Uabout=const charge level drops.

Technical appraisal and economic benefits of the claimed invention are to provide management, including computers, intensity and hue of the resulting color in given areas fibers (threads), increase flexibility as possible in the process by changing the amount of activating fluid and the magnitude of the charge on the individual defined areas fibers (threads) to change the amount of sorbed data plots of dye. Use as a control device of microcomputers allows quickly to meet changing technological process control dyeing.

Method of dyeing fibers by use of charged dye and an activating fluid, characterized in that the charge given to the areas of the fibers to a predetermined value qassapplication of the unipolar charged droplets activating fluid of the same diameter with the charge drops qtoequal in number to the qass/qtoand the fibers thus loaded and unloaded parts are placed in edge


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