The recovery option in place of the contaminated heterogeneous soil

 

(57) Abstract:

The method is designed to restore the place of the contaminated heterogeneous soil. The method involves the introduction of material for removing pollutants in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, at least in one area, permeable to liquid. Through the area of soil of low permeability within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil between the first and second electrodes having opposite charges, pass a constant electric current. The first electrode is located on the first end area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and the second electrode is located at the opposite end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil. This leads to the emergence of electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode and/or electromigration movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge. Across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil applied hydraulic gradient for the occurrence of hydraulic flow from the high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under low pressure end of the ICDO and cost-effective means of restoring soil in place. 3 S. and 44 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to the recovery location of the contaminated heterogeneous soil. In one aspect this invention relates to a new method that combines the electroosmosis and/or electromigration, hydraulic flow and cleaning of pollutants in areas clean by using biological, physical and chemical or electrochemical means. In another aspect this invention relates to a new method of in-place restore soils contaminated with toxic organic compounds and/or toxic ionic contaminants, such as metals and radionuclides.

Generally, decomposition of toxic organic compounds into harmless products, such as CO2and water, you can spend either biological or physico-chemical by assuming that the cleanup is done in a controlled environment, and key operating parameters, such as temperature, pressure, mixing, adding chemicals or nutrients, etc. are optimized. Examples of these technologies include incineration and its variants, the oxidation of water subcritical pressure, oxidation using ultraviolet (UV) radiation/oxidation is agenie in the optimized bioreactor. The reactor accounts for the majority of the cost of these processes due to the extreme conditions required for thermal approaches, or long periods of incubation required for biological approaches. In order to solve these problems, the decomposition of pollutants needs to be done locally in order to avoid the costs and complexities associated with extraction and processing, and the method should be efficient and mild in terms of its implementation, to minimize capital and operating costs.

For the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater was proposed and developed many technologies in place. Since most of the subsurface soils are heterogeneous, i.e., consist of different zones of low permeability, for example, clay soils, and silty soils or crushed bedrock, in areas of high permeability, for example, sandy soil, or Vice versa, such technologies are usually not very effective.

Hydraulic, or driven pressure flow, for example, when pumping or flushing of the soil, causing preferential flow in areas of high permeability. Slow diffusion of contaminants from areas nor is the an unforgettable pollutants and poor long cleaning time. This is the main problem of the technology of pumping and purification, which is the main method used to restore groundwater if contamination. Technology pumping and purification, in which the water is first pumped from the contaminated aquifers, cleaned, and then drained, rather inefficient, since the cleaning time after the implementation of the project significantly exceeds the cleaning time corresponding to the initial estimates. In cases of immobile zones contaminated with significant quantities of absorbed contaminants, or the presence of a liquid non-aqueous phase, project cleaning time is hundreds of years.

Due to restrictions introduced by the technology of pumping and purification, were developed and evaluated various improvements pumping and purification. They include re-injection of treated ground water, surge and bioremediation at the site. However, these improved methods have not demonstrated significant improvements in obtaining permanent solutions or reducing costs. Found that the re-injection of treated ground water reduces cleaning time by up to 30%, but without any costs.polluting substances, but studies have found that cleaning time even more, although costs may be lower because cleared less water. Bioremediation at the site does not increase the rate of cleaning systems pumping and cleaning, where cleaning time is governed by the diffusion of the immobile zone. In addition, there has been only little to improve the situation over time, treatment and approach to recovery when a significant amount of pollutants present in zones of low permeability.

For use in the recovery processes in place contaminated soils of low permeability have been proposed various ways. An example of such a method is electroosmosis. However, the practice currently electroosmosis has limitations that make it commercially unviable.

For an in-place restore soils contaminated with soluble nonionic organic compounds was proposed electrokinetics, in particular electroosmosis. Electroosmosis causes the application of electric potential between two electrodes immersed in the soil to get water into the soil matrix to move from the anode to the cathode, when soils are charged tricatel the ka must be from the cathode to the anode. This method is used from the thirties of the twentieth century to remove water from clays, silts and fine Sands. The main advantage of electroosmosis as a recovery method in place trudnovospituemyh environments such as clay and silt sand, is inherent in this way possible to make the water flow evenly through the clay and silty sand in 100-1000 times faster than it is possible to carry out hydraulic means, and at very low energy cost. Electroosmosis as it is currently practiced, has two main limitations that make it impractical for recovery in real field conditions. First, the fluid flow driven by electroosmosis, extremely slow, i.e., running at a rate of approximately 2.5 cm/day (1 inch/day) for clay soils, which can lead to complicated and lengthy process for large-scale operations. Secondly, several laboratory studies (see Bruell, C. J. et al., "Electroosmotic Removal of Gasoline Hydrocarbons and TCE from Clay", J. Environ. Eng., Vol. 118, No. 1, pp. 68-83, January/February 1992, u Segall, B. A. et al., "Electroosmotic Contaminate-Removal Processes", J. Environ. Eng., Vol. 118, No. 1, pp. 84-100, January/February 1992 showed that part of the layer of soil becomes dry in about a month under VL is e one laboratory study (see Shapiro et al., "Removal of Contaminants From Saturated Clay by Electroosmosis", Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 283-91, 1993) showed that the acid formed at the anode moves through the soil layer in the direction of the cathode, resulting is reduced electroosmotic flow and eventually stops the process.

In addition, electroosmosis, usually ineffective for soils of relatively high permeability, for example, a relatively loosely Packed sandy soils. Usually for electric voltage gradient of 1 V/cm electroosmotic permeability is in the range (10-5-10-4) cm/sec. For comparison, the hydraulic conductivity of sandy soils usually exceed 10-3cm/sec. Thus, in the case of heterogeneous soils, as soon as the liquid comes out from the zone of low permeability, it is no longer under the effective control of electroosmotic efforts, and to determine the dominant direction of flow of the fluid is hydraulic force and/or gravity. This is the main reason why the electroosmosis consider having limited use - only for cleanup of soils of low permeability, having a hydraulic permeability in the range (10-8-10-4) cm/sec.

Electrokinetics, in particular, electromigration, includes the application of electrical potential between electrodes immersed in the soil to cause the dissolved elements, such as metal ions, migrate through the solution along the applied electric voltage gradient, i.e., to make electromigration movement. Charged isotopes of metals in the soil and migrate toward oppositely charged electrodes and accumulate these electrodes. In fact, as is done currently, electromigration has serious limitations that make it unsuitable for recovery in real field conditions. First, the pH of the solution near the cathode has a tendency to under the soil, making it difficult to remove contaminants, as well as blocking the flow of water through the contaminated soil. Secondly, electrokinetics itself is not very stable due process inherent in this process of concentration, pH and osmotic gradients in the soil between the electrodes, which has a negative impact on this process. Furthermore, the soil itself varies over time, for example, the soil will undergo negative changes due to drying and cracking.

Immobilization isolates contaminant in the solid soil matrix. Traditional options for immobilization of soil contaminated with heavy metals are crystallization/fastening (K/H) and vitrification. When traditional methods To/C provides the monolithic blocks of waste with high structural integrity. However, the presence of hydrocarbons prevents the creation of a K/W basis and may increase the leaching of heavy metals when the metals disperse the organic phase. Vitrification causes heating of the contaminated soil with the formation of chemically inert materials, such as glass. When the glass transition of large electrodes embedded in the soil, which contains significant amounts is TBA gradually developed down through the soil. Contaminants in the molten soil, probably not washed out. Still no immobilization or vitrification is not economically viable industrial process.

Soil contaminated with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals and/or radionuclides, creates additional problems because of the restoration schemes that are acceptable for one type of pollution, are often unacceptable for other types of contamination. For example, traditional methods of recovery in the case of organic compounds, such as bioremediation, incineration, and thermal desorption generally ineffective in the case of heavy metals. In addition, the presence of most heavy metals can have toxic effects on the microorganisms used for the decomposition of organic compounds. Cleaning dirt mixed wastewater typically requires a combination of different ways, which leads to higher costs, which are unacceptable.

It would therefore be highly desirable to develop a recovery method in place, which is industrially feasible and economical, but also solves all the above problems associated with currently known technologies. Found the polluting substances on site in areas clean by using biological, physico-chemical or electrochemical means solves the above problems.

A brief statement of the substance of the invention

The technical problem of the invention is to develop a method of in-place restore contaminated heterogeneous soil. Another technical object of the invention is to develop industrially applicable and cost-effective method of in-place restore contaminated heterogeneous soil. Another technical object of the invention is to develop a method of in-place restore contaminated heterogeneous soil that does not have problems associated with the use of electro kinetics, hydraulic flow and biological or physico-chemical decomposition.

In accordance with the invention, a method of recovery in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, which comprises introducing the material for removing pollutants in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, at least in one area, permeable to fluids, within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil with the formation of at least one cleaning zones within the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, pcredemo the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil between the first electrode and the second electrode, having opposite charges, and (i) the first electrode is located on the first end area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and the second electrode is located at the opposite end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, or (ii) the first electrode is located on the first end of each of the areas of low soil permeability, and the second electrode is located at the opposite end of each of the areas of low soil permeability, (1) to cause an electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode, (2) to cause electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge, or (3) to cause electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode and electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge, and the application of a hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to cause hydraulic flow from the high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under low pressure end of the field zagryaznennoi heterogeneous soil.

Brief description of drawings

Fig. 1 - izobrazennogo electroosmotic element, used in example 2.

Detailed description of the invention

The first variant embodiment of the invention relates to a method for recovery on the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, including:

a) introducing material for removing pollutants in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil selected from the group consisting of microorganisms, nutrients, electron acceptors, catalysts, adsorbents, surfactants, electron donor, ametabolic, chelating additives, ion exchange resins, buffers, salts and combinations thereof, at least one region that is permeable to the fluid, within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil with the formation of at least one cleaning zones within the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil;

b) passing a constant electric current of at least one area of soils of low permeability within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil between the first electrode and the second electrode having opposite charge, and (i) the first electrode is located on the first end area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and the second electrode is located on the opposite of the regions soils of low permeability, and the second electrode is located at the opposite end of each of the areas of low soil permeability, 1) to cause an electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode, 2) to cause electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge, or (3) to cause an electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode and electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge; and C) the application of a hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, to cause hydraulic flow from the high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under low pressure to the end region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

In the first variant of the proposed method the invention additional includes: (g) 1) periodically reversing the polarity of the first and second electrodes to change to the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone; 2) the circulation of water from the electroosmotic flow from the first electrode to a second electric is on the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone and the recirculation of water from the electroosmotic flow in the direction the opposite of electroosmotic flow. In the first variant of the proposed method the invention additionally includes periodically reversing the hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, to reverse the direction of hydraulic flow through the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil. The reversing of the hydraulic gradient can be done separately or in conjunction with a change to the opposite polarity or with recirculation of electroosmotic flow.

The second variant embodiment of the invention relates to a method for recovery on the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, comprising: (a) forming at least one zone that is permeable to the fluid, within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, (b) introducing material for removing pollutants in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil selected from the group consisting of microorganisms, nutrients, electron acceptors, catalysts, adsorbents, surfactants, electron donor, ametabolic, chelating additives, ion exchange resins, buffers, the ow in heterogeneous soils with education, at least one cleaning zones within the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil; (C) passing a constant electric current of at least one area of soils of low permeability within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil between the first electrode and the second electrode having opposite charge, and (i) the first electrode is located on the first end area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and the second electrode is located at the opposite end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, or (ii) the first electrode is located on the first end of each of the areas of low soil permeability, and the second electrode is located at the opposite end of each of the areas of low soil permeability, 1) to cause an electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode, 2) to cause electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge, or (3) to cause an electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode and electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge; and (g) the application of a hydraulic gradient across the field for the CA region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under low pressure to the end region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

In the second variant of the proposed method, the invention further includes: (e) 1) periodically reversing the polarity of the first and second electrodes to change to the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone, 2) the circulation of water from the electroosmotic flow from the first electrode to the second electrode, or (3) periodically reversing the polarity of the first and second electrodes to change to the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone and the recirculation of water from the electroosmotic flow in the opposite direction of electroosmotic flow. In the second variant of the proposed method the invention additionally includes periodically reversing the hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, to reverse the direction of hydraulic flow through the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil. The reversing of the hydraulic gradient can be done separately or in conjunction with a change to the opposite polarity or with recirculation electroosmotic from under the low pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil and cleaned to remove the contained pollutants and purified hydraulic flow optional recycle in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under the high pressure end of the field of heterogeneous soil.

In one embodiment, the proposed method the hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil applied continuously. In yet another embodiment, the proposed method the hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil applied periodically, receiving a pulsating hydraulic flow. In another embodiment, the proposed methods of hydraulic flow and electroosmotic flow essentially flow in one direction. In yet another embodiment, the proposed methods of hydraulic flow and electroosmotic flow flowing in opposite directions. In the sense here meant, the term "opposite direction" includes all forms of hydraulic flow and electroosmotic flows, except for the threads on the merits of current in one direction, i.e. essentially the opposite direction, essentially perpendicular to and passing under opposite corners, different from gulabani, electroosmotic flow and/or electromigration flux can be sequentially or simultaneously. In addition, in accordance with the proposed methods, areas, permeable to fluids, within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil form to make material for removing contaminants or the use of existing areas, permeable to liquid.

In the sense in which it is used here, the term "area of contaminated heterogeneous soil" means the area of heterogeneous soils containing organic compounds and/or ionic contaminants, such as metals and/or radionuclides, which contains the region of such low permeability that it is impossible to uniformly pump the liquid through them hydraulic means. Examples of such areas of low permeability include (but are not limited to) clayey and silty soil.

In the sense in which it is used here, the term "electrokinetics" includes both electroosmosis and electromigration. The type of pollutants in the area of contaminated soil physical and chemical characteristics of the area of contaminated soil, for example, pH, etc. will determine whether the result of Pius soluble nonionic organic contaminants, electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants or both of these movements. The relative nature of electromigration compared to electroosmosis is the movement of ionic contaminants by electromigration in 3-10 times faster than the flow caused by electroosmosis. In cases when and electroosmosis and electromigration, you can use this difference to increase the efficiency of purification from organic and ionic contaminants through the implementation of the method and speed at which the cleanup of these substances in the zones of clearing.

In embodiments of the invention where the use of water recirculation in the opposite direction of the electroosmotic flow, alone or in combination with how changes to the opposite polarity of the electrodes, the water can be recycled by any conventional method known to specialists in this field of technology. Examples of such methods include, but are not limited to, pumping, using a connecting pipe or tube between the electrodes of opposite charge, and, in the case of vertical electrodes at the surface of the soil, flooding the surface between the electrodes. Currently before the polarity, to create a hydraulic pressure difference between the electrodes of opposite charge with a view to the transfer of water in the opposite direction of electroosmotic flow, in particular when such recirculation is used in combination with a change to the opposite polarity of the electrodes to eliminate the need for redundant hardware.

In the currently favored embodiments of the invention are used for a reversal of the electrical polarity of the electrodes to eliminate the problems associated with long electrokinetic treatment alone or in combination with changes to reverse the hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, to reverse the direction of hydraulic flow through the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

The area is permeable to liquid, in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil can be formed by any conventional method known to specialists in this field of technology. In addition, the area is permeable to fluids used in the invention can include areas, permeable to fluid existing within the region low region, permeable to liquids" means the area or zone within the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, or within the area of low permeability or high soil permeability, which is available for the ingress of fluid in the process of electroosmosis, and/or passage of hydraulic flow. The area is permeable to liquid, can be discrete areas or continuous domains, permeable to liquid. In the sense in which it is used here, the term "continuous region that is permeable to liquid" means a region formed within the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, which contains a mixture of soil and cleanable materials, in which the soil or the purified material may be a continuous phase. Examples of ways of forming discrete areas, permeable to liquids include, but are not limited to, hydraulic fracturing, pneumatic gap, pulse gap, the driving of sheet piles, forming a trench, directional drilling and combinations of these methods. In the sense in which it is used here, the term "forming the trenches includes the technology of creation of bridges of liquefied clay, in which the trench is filled cutback pisseuses substances, provided that the jumper from the liquefied clay permeable to liquids when electroosmosis and/or the passage of parts of the hydraulic flow in the framework of the proposed method. An example of continuous education area, permeable to the fluid is drilling/soil mix. In addition, used in the invention is permeable to the liquid region can include existing areas, permeable to fluids, within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil. Example of existing areas, permeable to fluids, are the sandy area in dense soils, i.e. areas of low soil permeability, commonly referred to as lenses. The currently favored methods of education of discrete areas, permeable to fluids are hydraulic and the driving of sheet piles. Preferred in the present method of education areas, permeable to fluids, in areas of low-contaminated soils is the formation of trenches.

In another embodiment, the proposed method when organic and/or ionic contaminants do not decompose within zones of clearing, ie, when the pollutants are adsorbed or otherwise sod is swetnam specialists in a given field of technology and among these methods include (but are not limited to, extraction, washing with a jet of liquid and physical regeneration of the purifying material, for example, remove the cleaning material such as a porous material sheet piles. A specific method of recovery will depend on the type of cleaning material, method of education, permeable to liquid, and the type of contaminants present, and will be obvious to a person skilled in the art.

In yet another embodiment, the proposed methods perform intermittently. In the sense in which it is used here, the term "intermittent treatment" means (a) that the additional cleaning material (additional cleaning materials) is injected into the existing purification zone (existing zone of clearing) when restoring existing cleansing material (already cleaned materials) prior to the introduction of new cleaning material (new cleaning materials), as described above, with or without recovery of existing cleansing material (existing purifying materials), or (b) that a constant electric current, which provides the driving force during elektrokineticheskogo the treatment of wastewater biodegradable pollutants in the areas of cleaning, for example, by biodegradation, prior to the introduction of additional contaminants in the cleaning zones.

In yet another variant implementation of the proposed additional area, permeable to liquid, and then cleaning zones form in the time since the restoration in place to carry out additional cleaning areas contaminated soil. An example of the use zones of clearing, formed after the beginning of the recovery point is the situation in which the source zone cleanup is used to capture contaminants that must be toxic to the purifying material, for example, microorganisms, if the cleaning material is present from the beginning.

Hydraulic fracturing is a method of providing access to subsurface soil in order to restore. Gap subsurface formations provide by injection or injection tearing of the fluid through the hole with speed and pressure sufficient to cause the formation of a gap in education, for example, in the field of heterogeneous contamination of the soil. Viscosity tearing fluid usually increase with gel, for example, soluble in the will of straight hydroxypropanoic, methoxypropyl, methylcellulose and hydrocellulose.

Hydraulic fracturing can be obtained by any conventional method known to experts in the art, such as disclosed in U.S. patent N 4964466, N 4378845 and N 4067389. For example, after opening the bottom of the well jet water matrix, the guar gum with a granular material, preferably sand, suspended in it, fill under sufficient pressure up until no gap is formed of a flat shape. To break the matrix guar gum introduce the enzyme, which then can be pumped out, leaving the sand lens. These breaks can be at a distance from each other up to 20 cm (8 inches). Nutrients, microorganisms, oxidants, catalysts, adsorbents, surfactants, electron donors, ametabolic, gelatinous additives, ion-exchange resins, buffer solutions and/or salt can be served in these sand lenses, i.e., gaps, with the formation of zones of clearing for the decomposition of toxic materials present in the area, the contaminated heterogeneous soil, in accordance with the proposed method. Granular material is usually called the splitting agent, and it is necessary Dalen.

In an improved method of hydraulic fracturing of traditional tearing the fluid replace tearing fluid medium containing water transport environment and natural organic material as the splitting agent. In the sense in which it is used here, the term "natural organic material" refers to materials that give excellent surface for microbial sediments, and represent a long term source of replenishment of nutrients to stimulate the growth of microorganisms. Biodegradation of chlorinated organic compounds, which may require the presence of certain cometabolic for rapid decomposition, can contribute to a variety of organic composition of these materials. Examples of natural organic materials include, but are not limited to, sawdust, wood chips, mulch, compost, etc. and mixtures thereof.

The use of natural organic material as the splitting agent has significant advantages compared with the use of sand as the splitting agent. Among these benefits are: 1) elimination of the need for, giving a viscosity of ageo agent, and 2) eliminating the need to break the polymer matrix and to remove it from the gaps by injection of the enzyme or oxidizer, for example, of calcium hypochlorite or sodium and sodium persulfate or ammonium, which destroy the polymer matrix, or by thermal decomposition depending on the temperature in the gap. When the polymer matrix enzymes are usually used at a temperature of about 50oC, oxidants are usually used at a temperature of approximately 80oC, and only the heating is at temperatures above 135oC. in Addition, natural organic material acts as (a) a substrate material for microorganisms in the gaps, (b) an additional or alternative source of nutrients for microorganisms and (b) a reservoir for storing moisture, which is advantageous in the case of microbial activity, and in the case of the process of electroosmosis.

Gap subsurface formations using an improved tearing the fluid is carried out by injection or injection tearing fluid containing water transport environment and natural organic material through the well at a flow rate and pressure sufficient to rupture under the same transport medium and a sufficient amount of particles of natural, organic splitting agent, weighed in this environment. The required number of particles of natural, organic splitting agent is the amount needed for the formation of the gap and prevent its closure after its formation. The amount of tearing of the fluid and particulate natural organic splitting agent, which is necessary, it should be obvious to a person skilled in this technical field - the field of hydraulic fracturing by applying any of the traditional methods known in the art. Water transporting medium can contain any chemical substance used in traditional tearing fluids that are not related to water-soluble polymers used in quality which imparts viscosity agents. Specific chemicals used in tearing fluids include those which are disclosed in the source Chemicals in Petroleum Exploration and Production 11, North American Report and Forecasts to 1993, Colin A. Houston & Associates, Inc., Mamaroneck, N. Y. (1984). Water transporting medium may also contain cleaning materials used in the proposed methods.

Pneumatic gap is the way of access to subsurface soil in order to restore. Gap subsurface formations assescom for to create pressure, causing the gap formation, i.e., the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil. The method consists of input under high gas pressure at the bottom of the well through the injector. Compressed substances create channels for air flow emitted from the insertion point and form a region that is permeable to liquid or breaks, with the radius of influence of up to 12 metres (40 feet) from the well.

Pulse gap is another way to access subsurface soil in order to restore. Gap subsurface formations provide pulses of water generated by the hydraulic impulse device (SMI). SMI is a high-pressure power steering, which produces 0.5 liters of suspension fluid for a few tenths of a second. The fluid released through the nozzle, which can be introduced into the borehole and is directed into the surrounding formation. The injection pressure increases sharply to 58 MPa (8500 pound-forces/square inch/ 12 milliseconds, and then reduced to atmospheric over 275 milliseconds. The speed of the fluid at the leading edge of the pulse is of the order (inlet 150 up to 450 m/sec. In phase fluid injected sand and serves the gap created by the pulse. The total deformation of the generated pulse, including the additional pulses widen the gaps, creating scopes permeable to liquid.

Pulse gap can be done in an overly attached soils and normally secured soils (gaps created in normally fixed soils, usually extend vertically and intersect the earth's surface). In addition, the pulse breaks, you can create near underground stations and close to structures, which can have a damaging effect of ground deformation associated with hydraulic breaks.

The driving of sheet piles is the method which determines the depth of the segments of connected material sheet piles, for example, steel in the ground. The cut material sheet piles can be connected by any conventional means, such as lock coupling, ball and socket connection, or a tongue and groove connection. If the material spotboy piles should remain in the soil during the cleaning, the preferred means of connection is a sheet pile connection that includes a cavity that is filled with a sealant after connection to prevent leakage through the joints. Sheet piles can be sunk to 30 m (100 feet) or more in loose sediments without large pieces of inih hammers include suspended pile hammer, vapor pile hammer simple steps vapor pile hammer double-acting diesel pile hammer, vibratory pile hammer, hydraulic pile hammer. For each of the listed type hammer driving energy is supplied by falling mass that hits the top of the pile. Pile hammer to the desired depth, for example, to the point that the area below the contaminated soil, and the remaining above ground part (optional) cut off.

The driving of sheet piles can in many cases be used for the formation of zones of clearing. There are two ways to use sheet piles: (a) pile walls can be left in the ground, and (b) pile wall can be removed after formation of the zone of treatment. Relative to the case when piling walls remain, it is noted that one method involves the use of a single wall with drifts containing materials for the cleaning, so that these drifts are the zones of clearing. Another way to use a single pile wall includes the use of porous materials of walls, impregnated cleaning materials or containing these materials, permeable to flow during electroosmosis and/or hydraulic flow. If the line is t to contain some of the tools, providing a flow passage between the walls, such as those described above. Relative to the case when the pile wall is removed after the formation of the zone of clearing, it is noted that the wall will be buried in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil at the desired depth essentially parallel to each other, and the soil between them is removed to form a region that is permeable to liquid, a suitable size. Then the area is permeable to liquid, fill the desired cleansing materials with the formation of zones of clearing and piling wall extracts from the soil.

The formation of trenches is the way that leads to the excavation of the soil in sufficient depth at least the depth of field contaminated soils, and excavation of the trench must be made so that it is stretched in the lateral direction as far as possible, ensuring coverage of the entire area of contaminated soil. If you use multiple tranches, each of them may extend in the lateral direction so that will cover the entire area with contaminated soil, or they may overlap so that the entire width of the area of contaminated soil is supplied by zones of clearing, sufficient for purification from contaminating the substances in the field of contaminated soil. In one embodiment, the trench can be filled liquefied clay, which contains material for removing pollutants in the area of contaminated soil, provided that the jumper from the liquefied clay permeable to fluid flow during electroosmosis and/or parts of hydraulic flow, corresponding to the proposed method.

Directional drilling is a method that makes use of compact system directional drilling, which is easy to reconfigure and which creates the well holes in the direction from vertical to horizontal. For information about the depth, tilt and roll of the drill head during drilling, use the locator system of the stepper type. Directional drilling can be used in most soils and can be used to create multiple channels, i.e., areas of permeable for liquids, having a considerable length, which can be submitted within the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil. In addition, directional drilling can be used in combination with other methods of education areas, permeable to liquids with the use of wells, for example, in combination with hydraulic razryvaetsya equipment for drilling of soil, which drills and simultaneously mixes the soil with cleansing materials with the formation of the purification zone containing a relatively homogeneous mixture of soil and cleansing material. Drilling/mixing the soil can be accomplished in any conventional way known to specialists in this field of technology. The method of drilling/mixing, which is preferred at the present time, causes the use of a drilling device, disclosed in U.S. patent N 5135058, which is mentioned here for reference. This drilling device is manufactured on an industrial scale company RUST Remedial Services under the trademark MecToo 1TM. Homogeneous mixing during the formation of the zone purification using the above devices implement due to the large torque applied to the mixing device from the drilling site. Purifying material in the form of a suspension, liquid or gas injected directly into the solid soil base under pressure to 1034 kPa (150 lbs/sq. inch) and mixed with the soil. This homogeneous mixing in combination with the rotational and vertical movements of the injection/mixing device ensures effective penetration and mixing cleansing materiae, you can choose from a group consisting of microorganisms, nutrients, electron acceptors, catalysts, surface-active substances, electron donor, ametabolic, chelating additives, ion exchange resins, buffers, salts and combinations thereof. When the proposed method uses more than one area, permeable to liquid cleansing material (cleaning materials) make (made) in each area, permeable to liquid, may be the(I) same(s) or other(s). If implementation of the proposed method using only a single region that is permeable to liquid, as a rule, at least one cleanser material will be used in addition to the surfactant, if in the field of contaminated soil was not present native microorganisms or pre-made cleansing materials. The choice of cleaning materials will depend on the specific areas contaminated heterogeneous soil and specific organic pollutants in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

The microorganisms used in the implementation of the proposed method will depend on the specific organic polluting substances which under aerobic conditions, anaerobic conditions or under conditions, which is a combination of aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Depending on the type and quantity of organic contaminants present in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, may require the use of one type of microorganism or mixture of microorganisms. Specific microorganisms required for treatment of each organic pollutants, known to specialists in this field of technology.

The electron acceptors, i.e., the oxidizing agents used in the implementation of the proposed method will depend on the specific contaminants in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to be treated, and used microorganisms. Examples of suitable oxidants include, but are not limited to, air, hydrogen peroxide, solid oxidants, etc. as well as mixtures of these substances. The type of oxidant easily identify skilled in the art, depending on the present specific pollutants.

The catalysts used in the implementation of the proposed method will depend on the specific contaminants present in the contaminated area heterogen the iron-based aluminum oxide, etc. as well as mixtures of these substances. The type of catalyst required is easily determined by a person skilled in the art depending on the present specific pollutants.

The absorbents used in the implementation of the proposed method will depend on the specific contaminants present in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to be treated. Examples of suitable adsorbents include, but are not limited to, activated carbon, alumina, polymer resin, etc. and combinations of these substances. The type of adsorbent is easy to identify skilled in the art, depending on the audience of specific pollutants. In addition to the binding of organic pollutants as they pass through the cleaning zones, adsorbents serve as substrate for the microorganisms. The benefit of using porous substrates in bioreactors known to experts in the field of purification of liquid effluents. You can also use adsorbents to adsorb contaminants as they pass through the cleaning zones, and adsorbents or adsorbed contaminants can then be decomposed into maslinovo time to complete decomposition.

Surfactants used in the implementation of the proposed method, will depend on the specific area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to be treated. Used in the implementation of the invention surfactants can be nonionic or anionic, preferably nonionic, because in this case they will not create interference to electroosmosis, and preferably surfactants were biodegradable. Examples of suitable surfactants include, but are not limited to, glycols, tert-opes, tert - Nonylphenol ethoxylates, primary linear alcohol having 16 to 20 carbon atoms, sodium dodecyl sulphate and mixtures of these substances.

The electron donors used in the proposed method, will depend on the specific contaminants in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to be treated, and used microorganisms. Examples of suitable electron donors include, but are not limited to, aqueous solutions of benzoate, aqueous solutions of sulfates and mixtures thereof. The type of electron donor to easily identify the person skilled in the art in zavisimost in combination with anaerobic biodegradation with the aim of restorative halogenation of chlorinated Atanov.

Cometabolic used in the implementation of the proposed method will depend on the specific contaminants to be cleaned in the field of contaminated heterogeneous soil and microorganisms used. Cometabolic are compounds that microorganisms such as methanotrophic bacteria can be used as a source of carbon and energy and decomposing in the process is another contaminant that is present in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, which cannot be effectively decomposed using a single microorganism. Cometabolic useful, in particular, the decomposition of chlorinated organic compounds. Examples of suitable cometabolic include, but are not limited to, phenol, methane, and mixtures thereof. Type the desired metabolite is easy to identify skilled in the art, depending on the present specific pollutants and specific microorganism.

Chelating additives used in the implementation of the proposed methods will depend on the specific area of contaminated soil to be treated. Chelating additives useful, particularly in cases where there are ion Zagray, such as citric acid, tartaric acid and gluconic acid, aminopropylmorpholine acids, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitryltriacetic acid (NTC), polyphosphates such as sodium tripolyphosphate (tpfn), polyamine, such as Triethylenetetramine, phosphonic acid, such as ethylenediaminetetra(methylenephosphonate acid) (EDTMP), as well as mixtures of these substances.

Ion-exchange resin used in the implementation of the proposed methods will depend on the specific area of contaminated soil to be treated. Ion exchange resins may be anion exchange resin or cation exchange resin, depending on the cleaned contaminants. Currently preferred are ion-exchange resin in the form of the free acid or free base. Examples of suitable ion exchange resins include, but are not limited to, Amberlyst A-21, Amberlyst-15, Amberlyst IRC-50 and Amberlite IRA-93 (products manufactured by The Rohm & Haas Co.), and Dowex (product manufactured by The Dow Chemical Co.).

The buffers used in the implementation of the proposed methods will depend on the specific area of contaminated soil to be treated. In the sense in which it is used here,their electro kinetics. Buffers can also be used to increase the conductivity of the solution subjected to the influence of electro kinetics. As such, the buffers contribute cleaned from contaminants by improving the characteristics of electroosmotic flow or by providing opportunities for effective functioning of the electro kinetics at lower voltage gradients. Examples of buffers include, but are not limited to, lime, calcium carbonate, phosphate, polyphosphate, etc., and also mixtures of these substances.

Salt used in the proposed methods, will depend on the specific area of contaminated soil to be treated. In the sense it is used here, the term "salt" means a connection medium (neutral) salts, which act to increase the conductivity of the solution subjected to the influence of electro kinetics. As such, salt promote clean from contaminants by improving the characteristics of electroosmotic flow or by providing opportunities for effective functioning of the electro kinetics at lower voltage gradients. Examples of salts include, but are not limited to, calcium sulfate, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, etc., and cm is R, by preparing at least one area, permeable to fluids, or using at least one existing area, permeable to liquids, which includes having electronic conductivity material, such as graphite particles, so that the area is permeable to fluid, located between the first and second electrodes, forming a bipolar electrode in which there is direct or indirect iatrogenically decomposition. An example of such electrochemical decomposition is an electrochemical reductive dechlorination of chlorinated compounds, for example, dichloroethane and trichloroethane, on the cathode constituting the bipolar electrode of the field of purification, when the contaminants pass through the treatment area under the influence of electroosmosis or hydraulic flow.

Hydraulic flow, or driven pressure flow resulting from application of a hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, can be implemented by any conventional method known to specialists in this field of technology. Hydraulic gradients can be obtained by any conventional method known to experts in the UX into the ground or drilling at both ends of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil and the application of pressure in pipes or wells at one end of the field of heterogeneous soil, to cause the hydraulic gradient, which will result in the formation of hydraulic flow from the high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under low pressure to the end region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, 2) the introduction of perforated pipes in the ground or drilling at both ends of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil and the application of vacuum to the tubes or wells at one end region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, to cause the hydraulic gradient, which will result in the formation of hydraulic flow from the high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under low pressure to the end region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and 3) the introduction of perforated pipes in the ground or drilling at both ends of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil and the application of pressure to the tubes or wells at one end region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil and the application of vacuum at the opposite end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, to cause the hydraulic gradient, which will result in the formation of water is dasamuka low pressure end region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil. Under high pressure and low pressure ends may be located at opposite ends of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and each end can consist of one or many tubes or wells or cash equivalents, or one of the ends under high and low pressure, can be located within the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and the other end under high and low pressure, may consist of pipes, wells, or their equivalents, the surrounding area is contaminated heterogeneous soil.

The water used for the formation of the hydraulic flow in the implementation of the proposed method can be ground water, or may be rain water, supplied under high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil. In one embodiment, water can be removed from the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under low pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil and to clean out this area to remove any pollutant by any known method for the decomposition of pollutants. In another embodiment, the purified water can optionally be recycled in region C the th soil. In the case of a system with closed circuit, you can also rinse the soil by injecting solvents or surfactants in the soil under high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to increase the solubility of contaminants. After cleaning, soil recycled water flows through the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and water containing contaminants, solvent and surfactant, collect on under low pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, cleaned and re-injected at high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

Hydraulic flow used in the implementation of the proposed method may be continuous or pulsed. In the sense it is used here, the term "pulsating" means that the hydraulic flow exists in the intermittent mode, which is realized through a sequence of inclusions on/off. At present, it is preferable to use a pulsating hydraulic flow, because it increases the percentage allotted of pollutants compared to the in particular, occurs when the external cleaning of hydraulic flow.

In addition, the direction of hydraulic flow through the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil can periodically change to the opposite, changing on the opposite hydraulic gradient. Change to the opposite direction of hydraulic flow is expedient, in particular, if in areas of high permeability are cleaning zones, because the scheme reversible flow will allow the liquid to repeatedly pass through the contaminated soil, removing an additional amount of pollutants and feeding them into zones of clearing.

The electrokinetics, such as electroosmosis and electromigration, can be accomplished in any conventional manner known to experts in the art, such as methods disclosed in the works Bruell, C. J. et al. , Electroosmotic Removal of Gasoline Hydrocarbons and TCE from Clay", J. Environ. Eng., Vol. 118 No. 1, pp. 68-83, January/February, 1992, Segall, B. A. et al., "Elecroosmotic Contaminate-Removal Processes", J. Environ.Eng., Vol. 118, No. 1, pp. 84-100, January/February 1992, u Acar, Y. B., et al., "Phenol Removal From Kaolinite by Electrokinetics", J. Geotech.Eng.,Vol. 118, no 11, pp. 1835-52, November 1992.

Electroosmosis, i.e. the movement of water within the soil matrix from the anode to the cathode, occurs when El is the electric current. The first electrode is usually placed on the first end area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and the second electrode is usually placed on the opposite end region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, or the first electrode is disposed on the first end of each field soils of low permeability, and the second electrode is disposed on the opposite end of each of the areas of low soil permeability to cause electroosmotic flow from one electrode to the other. In the sense in which they are used here, the terms "first electrode" and "second electrode" can mean a single electrode or multiple electrodes positioned across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil approximately on a horizontal or vertical level in this field, depending on whether horizontal or vertical are cleaning zones. Electrical connections and dimensions of the electrodes, and the materials will vary depending on each specific situation. The choice of electrodes should be obvious to a person skilled in the art. When pollutants in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil are organic compounds, presently preferably, what is the influence on pH throughout the electrokinetic process. Currently, it is also preferred that the electrodes were exposed electrodes, allowing you to let in or let the fluid; an open electrode may be an electrode, which in itself is not porous or perforated, and is located in a perforated container or directly behind the area or zone that is permeable to liquid. In addition, the electrode can also perform the function of cleaning zones, for example, the adsorption zone, and the carbon or graphite is also used as adsorbent.

When cleaning zones horizontal, for example, when the hydraulic gap or air gap, the first electrode can be positioned at a level near the level or above the level of the surface area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and the second electrode can be positioned under the first electrode, preferably in the lower part of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil or under it. When the first electrode is located on the ground level, it may simply be a metal screen, lying on the surface of the earth. The first or the second electrode, for example, may be a gap containing having electronic conductivity material, such as graphite particles or a mixture of the graphite particles and sand formed poorest and under sufficient pressure to form a gap. Instead, the first electrode can be positioned in or above each of the areas of low soil permeability, and the second electrode can be positioned under the first electrode, preferably at the bottom or under each of the areas of low soil permeability.

When cleaning zones vertical, for example, during the formation of trenches or the driving of sheet piles, the first electrode can be positioned at one end region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and the second electrode can be positioned at the opposite end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, or the first electrode can be positioned at the first end of each of the areas of low permeability, and the second electrode can be positioned at the opposite end of each of the areas of low soil permeability. Suitable electrodes for use in areas of vertical clearance can, for example, be having electronic conductivity rod, pipe or possessing electronic conductivity environment, for example, graphite or a mixture of graphite and sand in the hole in the ground.

During electroosmosis cleansing materials, for example, microorganisms and/or oxidizing agents can move from zones of clearing in the area of contaminated soil, so Razlog and in the zones of clearing.

In cases of the proposed method, when water does not enter or not recycle in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, water used for electroosmosis will be ground water or rain water, i.e. water supplied in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil may be water from a source located above the ground or from a source located in the ground outside be cleaned in the field of contaminated soil. If one ground water is not enough, you can also make surface-active substances in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to decarbonate or dissolve the contaminants from the soil. Water from the outside is not required when the proposed method is carried out using periodic changes to the opposite polarity of the electrodes to reverse the direction of fluid flow, driven by electroosmosis, recirculation of hydraulic flow, or using ground water outside the area of contaminated soil to be treated. At present, however, it is preferable to use a periodic change to the opposite polarity of the electrodes, because discovered that Perry is installed with a long holding of electroosmosis. A simple scheme of the reversible flow also leads to multiple passage of fluid through the contaminated soil, and every time is the removal of additional quantities of pollutants from the soil and feed them into the purification zone. When using this method of changing the direction of flow on the opposite advantageous, in particular, the presence of the adsorbent in the zones of clearing. The use of adsorbent enables effective separation of the mass transferred from the sphere of reaction or bioremediation. When the liquid passes through the treatment zone, the contaminant adsorbed and held on the surface of the adsorbent, where the microorganisms can decompose them with their own speed or during electroosmosis, or after electroosmosis, if necessary, for more effective cleaning. Also found that recirculation of electroosmotic flow and even minimizes drying of the soil and the influence of pH associated with prolonged holding of electroosmosis.

In the implementation of the proposed method, when the liquid from the outside, containing water, is injected or recycle in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, the liquid can enter through the open electrode, pipes or SLE is e within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil. An outdoor is such an electrode, which allows you to pass a flow of fluid, such as water. Outdoor may be the electrode itself is porous or perforated, such as having electronic conductivity rods, tubes or pellets environment in which to admit and release the liquid; open may also be an electrode, which in itself is not perforated and is located inside the perforated container. The liquid coming from the outside, may also contain surface-active substances for the desorption of contaminants from soil. How to change the thread on the opposite way or recirculation of electroosmotic flow, described here, can also be used in the implementation of the proposed method, when the liquid is served in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

You should periodically take samples from the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, for example, by coring, and analyze the soil to determine reduce pollutants to acceptable levels. When the sample analysis indicates that the contaminant level has dropped below an acceptable level, it is possible to suspend the execution of the proposed method.

about and evenly to remove contaminants from a very heterogeneous soil matrix.

Electroosmotic element used in the studies shown in Fig. 1. The element is a cylindrical tube made of transparent plastic, the inner diameter of which is 10 cm (4"), and the outer diameter of 21.6 cm (8.5"). Inside has a length of 6.3 cm (2.5-inch) secondary plot element (50) signed a piece of kaolinite clay occurs, surrounded by fine sand, simulating heterogeneous soil basis. Hydraulic conductivity used clay is of the order of 10-8cm/sec, and the hydraulic conductivity of the sand is of the order of 10-2cm/sec. The piece of clay were uniformly contaminated aqueous solution containing paranitrophenol (PNP) as simulated organic pollutants. 300 g of dry kaolinite clay occurs mixed with 179,5 g of an aqueous solution containing 1062 mg PNP/l, resulting received a paste of clay with a moisture content of 37.5 wt.% with a hinge 0,398 mg PNP per gram of wet clay. 222,6 g of a mixture of clay with PNF made in the item, receiving a common hinge PNF in a piece of clay in the number of 88.6 mg PNP. This site PNF-containing clay was surrounded by fine sand in an amount of about 500 g (dry weight). The sand was uniformly contaminated solution PNF to obtain the total is the first (of a thickness of 1.27 cm) layer of particles of sand and coal, (40) and (70) having a content of coal 2.4 wt. %. Used supplied by the coal industry, which showed the good quality of the adsorbent PP. Thus, Postanovlenie layers represented the adsorption zone is permeable for liquids or cleaning zones. For each postanovochnym layer was Packed uncontaminated Kalinicheva clay (30) (moisture content of about 38 wt.%, and a thickness of 3.8 cm (1,5")) simulating clean soil. After areas of clean clay were Packed half inch thick (1.27 cm) layers of granulated activated carbon, performing the functions of the electrodes. Connection electrodes were implemented in the form of graphite rods (80), introduced in the Packed layers of coal. Layers of uncontaminated clay (10) of a thickness of 1.27 cm ( " ) (moisture content of about 38 wt.%) were Packed outside of each electrode. During the experiment with electroosmosis water was applied to the element and led me through the layers of the electrodes. During the whole experiment used well water to simulate ground water.

The experiment was carried out at room temperature and constant gradient of the electrical potential of about 1 V/cm) across a mass of soil between the electrodes. The first experiment provedenii plectropomus was from electrode (60) to the electrode (20). Then the electrical polarity is changed to the opposite, forcing the water to flow in the direction from the electrode (20) to the electrode (60). After about two days of the electrode (60) collected fluid in the volume, constituting 1.4 pore volume. To stop electroosmosis applied to the element, the electric current was cut off. Then the water was pumped through the site (40) to wash PNF remaining in the sandy area surrounding clay. 1.5 hours the liquid, the volume of which amounted to 1.5 pore volume (determined on the basis of the amount of sand contained on the site (50)) was pumped through the area with sand, restoring of 2.34 mg PNP, which is equivalent to only 2 wt.% original number PNF introduced in section (50) of sand. Then, the element was taken for analysis. Each clay sample was analyzed by separating PNF from the sample of clay with the help of 0.1 normal NaOH solution and determine the level PNP in solution by spectrophotometric adsorption on the wave length of 400 nm using a spectrophotometer Beckman DV-7. To remove all PNP clay was only one extraction. Samples of sand were analyzed as samples of clay. As for coal samples, which is much denser links PNF used to ehkstragiruyemosti recovery PNF.

Found that removing PDF from a piece of clay on the plot (50) was quite uniform with an average value of about 97 wt.%. In the sand plot (50) PNP gone. About 93 wt.% the initial sample PDF on plot (50) was recovered from the carbon parts (40) and (70). Not detected PNP on the sections (30) of pure clay. Was obtained, the total mass balance PNF 95%.

Example 2

The following example shows that the electroosmosis can be effective in the removal of the contaminants from the isolated zones of low permeability, and that the combination of electroosmosis and hydraulic flow can lead to very rapid clearance of areas contaminated heterogeneous soil.

The experimental arrangement is similar to that used in example 1, except that (a) a large piece of clay on the plot (50) is divided into six smaller pieces, separated from each other, and surrounded by fine sand and (b) the sand on the plot (60) not contaminated PP. Because the sand on the plot (50) was not dirty PNF, moving PNF of the pieces of clay was very easy to determine. The original linkage PNF in lumps of clay on the plot (50) was 40.1 mg, i.e., 402 g GNP per gram of wet clay. In addition, the experiment intentionally approvedly for 10 hours when the gradient of the electric potential of 1 V/cm, and during this time of the cathode (20) were collected volume of liquid, equivalent to 0.37 pore volume of the sand on Pesochnoye plot (50), i.e., it was 72.8 g of water. Then electroosmosis was stopped, and the water washed away for about 2 hours through the area (50), so that the direction of hydraulic flow was essentially perpendicular to the direction of electroosmotic flow. The total number of the washed water was 463,8 kg, which is equivalent to 3.2 pore volume sandy part of the site (50). This leaching was restored to 22.7 mg PNP (about 57 wt.%) from the original sample PDF in lumps of clay. Further analysis to identify PNF carried out as in example 1, shows that in the sandy part remained PNF after washout water and that pieces of clay was obtained mean delete PNF 70 wt.%, i.e. pieces of clay on the plot (50) left 12 mg PNP. Interestingly, as shown at 50 in Fig. 2 that the pieces of clay near the anode (60) had a lower mean delete PNF (about 60 wt. %) than lumps of clay near the cathode (20) (80 wt%). Without intending to build the following in rank theory, we note that this phenomenon could be due to unequal gradient of electric potential along the element in question in the works Setics", J. Geotechnical Eng., Vol. 118, No. 11, pp. 1837 - 52 (Nov. 1992), causing the formation of non-uniform water flow in the axial direction, even if the distribution of radial flow was completely homogeneous. And again found no PP on the sections (30) of pure clay, and the remainder PNF removed from the plot (50) was found on postanovochnyh plots (40) and (70). From PNF, restored plots (40) and (70), 4,8 mg was recovered at the site (40), which amounted to 12 wt.% the initial sample PNF, and 0.3 mg was recovered at the site (70), which amounted to 0.75 wt.% the initial sample PDF. The overall mass balance regional nonprofit Foundation was received in the amount of 103%.

Example 3

This example repeats example 2 and is designed to monitor how effectively could the electroosmosis move PNF of small pieces of clay in sand-based modeling of heterogeneous surrounding soil. In this example, introduced two differences: 1) the experiment lasted longer, in order to demonstrate significant destruction PNF from pieces of clay, and 2) the length of the area of contaminated soil increased from 6.3 cm (2.5 inches) to 10 cm (4 inches) to increase the axial distance between the two rows of pieces of clay, thus minimizing the cross-Zahra 14 g) contained 410 g PNP per gram of wet clay in the original sample 36,1 mg PNP. The pieces were placed at a distance from each other in element, to give PP the ability to go from one piece, not flowing in the other. Pieces oriented at an angle of 120oto each other at the top, the front and rear parts of the module near anola and at the bottom of the front and rear parts of the near cathode. Lumps of clay were surrounded by a continuous sandy base. Pore volume Postanovlenie plot was approximately 301 cm3(254 cm3had to sand and 47 cm3- on lumps of clay).

Electroosmotic element was driven at a constant voltage (corresponding to the potential gradient of 1 V/cm, just -17,5) for four days in one direction; at the end of the experiment, the current was gradually reduced from 7 mA to 1 mA. The total flow of fluid in the number 163 g H2O collected from the cathode, which is the equivalent of 0.54 volume of pores Postanovlenie plot. Upon completion of electroosmosis connected the high-pressure pump for liquid chromatography to the lower hole in the sandy area near the anode. Output connected with the upper hole near the cathode. Acidified (pH 3.0) mili-Q water was passed at a flow rate of 4 ml/min for 1 hour and then reduced the flow rate to 2 ml/min in techeniya of pores in the sand). The collected solutions were analyzed to identify PNF. Then the item was dismantled, separating each plot and analysed to identify PNF using a spectrophotometer. It turned out that during the initial leaching at a flow rate of 4 ml/min of the fluid flowed from the anode area. Obviously, the resulting liquid can pass around the thin region of pure clay between the area of contaminated soils and anode, and then go through the anode of activated charcoal. Part PNF in the sandy area was not taken into account, since the anode of the activated carbon after the experience was extracted.

The total number PNP, remote from pieces of clay, exceeded 99%, with variation in the range to 98.6-99.9% of individual pieces of clay. The adsorption zone near the cathode contained 2.6 mg PNP or 7.2% of the original total sample. Because of electroosmotic flow in this direction was not, the presence PNF in this area is the result of reverse diffusion PNF in a sandy area or, more likely, caused by overflow during leaching. The leaching was the restoration of approximately 9,8 mg PNP (27% of the original total sample) from the sandy area. Was obtained, the total mass balance PNF only 70%, possibly due to loss PNF while isdu from pollution in soils of low permeability in a heterogeneous basis.

1. The recovery option in place of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, characterized in that it comprises (a) introducing material for removing pollutants in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil selected from the group consisting of microorganisms, nutrients, electron acceptors, catalysts, adsorbents, electron donor, ametabolic, chelating additives, ion exchange resins, salts and combinations thereof, at least one region that is permeable to the fluid, within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil with the formation of at least one cleaning zones within the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil; (b) passing a constant electric current of at least one area of soils of low permeability within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil between the first and second electrodes having opposite charges, and (i) the first electrode is located on the first end area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and the second electrode is located at the opposite end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, or (ii) the first electrode is located on the first end of each of the areas of low soil permeability, and the second electrode is located on motionscope flow from the second electrode to the first electrode, 2) for the occurrence of electromigration movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge, or (3) occurrence of electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode and electromigration movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge, and (C) the application of a hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil for the emergence of the hydraulic flow from the high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under low pressure to the end region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that it further includes (g) 1) periodically reversing the polarity of the first and second electrodes to change to the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone, 2) the circulation of water from the electroosmotic flow from the first electrode to the second electrode, or (3) periodically reversing the polarity of the first and second electrodes to change to the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone and recirculate

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that it further includes (d) periodically reversing the hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to change to the opposite direction of hydraulic flow through the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that it further includes (g) periodically reversing the hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to change to the opposite direction of hydraulic flow through the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

5. The method according to p. 1, wherein the DC electric current flowing on the phase (b), causing electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode.

6. The method according to p. 1, wherein the DC electric current flowing on the phase (b), causes electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge.

7. The method according to p. 1, wherein the DC electric current flowing on the phase (b), causing electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first is mportant charge.

8. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the polarity of the first and second electrodes are periodically changed to the opposite for a change in the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the zones of clearing.

9. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the water of the electroosmotic flow recycle from the first electrode to the second electrode.

10. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the polarity of the first and second electrodes are periodically changed to the opposite for a change in the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone, and the water of the electroosmotic flow recycle in the opposite direction of electroosmotic flow.

11. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the hydraulic gradient is applied continuously.

12. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the hydraulic gradient is applied periodically.

13. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at least one of the zones of clearing is within the area of soils of low permeability.

14. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at least one area that is permeable to liquid, is within the scope zagrai, formed by a method selected from the group including hydraulic fracturing, pneumatic gap, pulse gap, the driving of sheet piles, education trenching, directional drilling, drilling and simultaneous mixing of soil and combinations of these methods.

16. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at least one of the zones of clearing includes having electronic conductivity material.

17. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the hydraulic flow away from under the low pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil and cleaned to remove the contained contaminants.

18. The method according to p. 17, characterized in that the purified hydraulic flow recycle in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

19. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the hydraulic flow and electroosmotic flow essentially flow in one direction.

20. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the hydraulic flow and electroosmotic flow flowing in opposite directions.

21. The method according to p. 1, wherein steps (b) and (C) oregano.

23. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at least one of the zones of clearing continuous.

24. The recovery option in place of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, characterized in that it includes (a) formation of at least one region that is permeable to the fluid, within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil; (b) introducing material for removing pollutants in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil selected from the group consisting of microorganisms, nutrients, electron acceptors, catalysts, surface-active substances, electron donor, ametabolic, chelating additives, ion exchange resins, buffers, salts and combinations thereof, in a region that is permeable to liquid, within the area of contaminated soil with the formation of at least one cleaning zones within the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil; (C) passing a constant electric current of at least one area of soils of low permeability within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil between the first and second electrodes having opposite charges, and (i) the first electrode is located on the first end area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and the second e is false on the first end of each of the areas of low soil permeability, and the second electrode is located at the opposite end of each of the areas of low soil permeability 1) to ensure the occurrence of electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode, 2) for the occurrence of electromigration movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge, or (3) occurrence of electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode and electromigration movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge, and (g) the application of a hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to ensure the occurrence of hydraulic flow from the high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under low pressure to the end region of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

25. The method according to p. 24, characterized in that region, permeable to liquid, formed by a method selected from the group including hydraulic fracturing, pneumatic gap, pulse gap, the driving of sheet piles, education trenching, directional drilling, drilling and simultaneous mixing of soil and combinations of these ways, syvaet electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode.

27. The method according to p. 24, wherein the DC electric current flowing on the phase (b), causes electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge.

28. The method according to p. 24, wherein the DC electric current flowing on the phase (b), causing electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode and electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge.

29. The method according to p. 24, characterized in that it further includes (d) 1) periodically reversing the polarity of the first and second electrodes to change to the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone, 2) the circulation of water from the electroosmotic flow from the first electrode to the second electrode, or (3) periodically reversing the polarity of the first and second electrodes to change to the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone and the recirculation of water from the electroosmotic flow in the additional includes (e) periodic reversing of the hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to change to the opposite direction of hydraulic flow through the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to change to the opposite direction of hydraulic flow through the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

31. The method according to p. 29, characterized in that the polarity of the first and second electrodes are periodically changed to the opposite for a change in the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the zones of clearing.

32. The method according to p. 29, wherein the electroosmotic water from the recycle stream from the first electrode to the second electrode.

33. The method according to p. 29, characterized in that the polarity of the first and second electrodes are periodically changed to the opposite for a change in the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone, and the water of the electroosmotic flow recycle in the opposite direction of electroosmotic flow.

34. The method according to p. 24, characterized in that it further includes (d) periodically reversing the hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to change to the opposite direction of hydraulic flow through the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

35. The method according to p. 24, characterized in that the hydraulic flow away from under the low pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil and atsisiusti hydraulic flow recycle in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

37. The method according to p. 24, characterized in that at least one of the zones of clearing continuous.

38. The recovery option in place of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, characterized in that it comprises (a) introducing material for removing pollutants in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil selected from the group consisting of microorganisms, nutrients, electron acceptors, catalysts, adsorbents, surfactants, electron donor, ametabolic, chelating additives, ion exchange resins, buffers, salts and combinations thereof, at least one region that is permeable to the fluid, within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil with the formation of at least one cleaning zones within the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, (b) passing a constant electric current of at least one area of soils of low permeability within the scope of the contaminated heterogeneous soil between the first and second electrodes having opposite charges, and (i) the first electrode is located on the first end area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil, and the second electrode is located at the opposite end of the area contaminated heterogeneous p. the first electrode is located at the opposite end of each of the areas of low soil permeability, 1) to ensure the occurrence of electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode, 2) for the occurrence of electromigration movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge, or (3) occurrence of electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode and electromigration movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge, (in) 1) periodically reversing the polarity of the first and second electrodes to change to the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone, 2) the circulation of water from the electroosmotic flow from the first electrode to the second electrode or 3) periodic change to the opposite polarity of the first and second electrodes to change to the opposite direction of the movement of contaminants through treatment zones and recirculation of water from the electroosmotic flow in the opposite direction of electroosmotic flow, and (d) the application of a hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil for the emergence of hydraulic flow under high pressure is Noah heterogeneous soil.

39. The method according to p. 38, characterized in that it further includes venting the hydraulic flow from the low pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil and cleaning of hydraulic flow to remove the contained pollutants.

40. The method according to p. 39, characterized in that the purified hydraulic flow recycle in the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil under high pressure end of the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

41. The method according to p. 38, wherein the DC electric current flowing on the phase (b), causing electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode.

42. The method according to p. 38, wherein the DC electric current flowing on the phase (b), causes electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge.

43. The method according to p. 38, wherein the DC electric current flowing on the phase (b), causing electroosmotic flow from the second electrode to the first electrode and electromigration is the movement of ionic contaminants in a direction toward the electrode of opposite charge which are complementary to the opposite for a change in the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the zones of clearing.

45. The method according to p. 38, wherein the electroosmotic water from the recycle stream from the first electrode to the second electrode.

46. The method according to p. 38, characterized in that the polarity of the first and second electrodes are periodically changed to the opposite for a change in the opposite direction of the movement of pollutants through the purification zone, and the water of the electroosmotic flow recycle in the opposite direction of the electroosmotic flow.

47. The method according to p. 38, characterized in that it further includes (d) periodically reversing the hydraulic gradient across the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil to change to the opposite direction of hydraulic flow through the area of the contaminated heterogeneous soil.

 

Same patents:
The invention relates to the field of environmental protection and is intended for elimination of consequences of accidents related to the pollution of surface oil and oil products

The invention relates to the protection of the environment

The invention relates to the restoration of fertility of soils contaminated with pesticides and other xenobiotics, and can be used in agriculture and forestry, as well as to solve problems of protection of the lithosphere

The invention relates to the field of environmental protection in port and is designed for cleaning a ground port hydraulic structures from petroleum products falling within the period of their operation in the ground due to leakage netpodium pipelines and local oil spills during the loading of ships

The invention relates to means for cleaning soils from organic contaminants

The invention relates to means for cleaning soils from organic contaminants

Cleaning device // 2108174
The invention relates to the field of engineering and is aimed at the design of the apparatus for cleaning contaminated soil

The invention relates to applied Microbiology and can be used to clean the surface of the water and soil from spilled oil and petroleum products

FIELD: soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants in oil recovery and transportation regions.

SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %): chemical ameliorant 3.5-5.7; organic fertilizer 15.7-29.0; adsorbent 67.5-78.6. Method for sectioning soil treatment includes application of composition onto soil layer with 30 cm of depth. Then treated layer is shifted out of spot boundary. Opened surface is covered with composition of present invention. Then mole drainage of 60-65 cm in depth is made in soil by using mole plow or chisel plow, followed by plowing of 58-51 cm in depth and returning of sheared soil into spot.

EFFECT: effective soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: methods for phytomediation (phytorecultivation) of soil contaminated with petroleum.

SUBSTANCE: method involves planting perennial grasses into soil contaminated with petroleum, said perennial grasses being preliminarily grown for at least one growing period in non-contaminated soil and then replanted in soil contaminated with petroleum with their rootstocks and/or stolons and/or seedlings. Phytocultivation method may be used at earlier stages of soil contamination with petroleum to allow recultivation time to be reduced.

EFFECT: increased survival rate and yield of plants and reduced recultivation time.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises land ploughing, sowing of perennial herbs, which are natural accumulators of heavy metals and naturally growing on given area or in given locality, and finally cutting and utilization of overground part of plants. Preferred perennial herb is Austrian absinth (Artemisia austriaca). In case of iron salt pollution, cutting is executed during the end of vegetation period and, in case of other heavy metal pollution, in the beginning of vegetation period.

EFFECT: enabled biological protection of land from heavy metal pollution.

2 ex

FIELD: environmental protection; oil and gas producing industry; methods of purification of subterranean water beds and soils from industrial pollution.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of environmental protection, in particular, to purification of the subterranean water beds and soils from industrial pollution by liquid hydrocarbons. In the polluted zone they drill a borehole, create and maintain in it a negative pressure within the limits of 2 kgf/cm2 up to 0.8 kgf/cm2. At that they simultaneously exercise extraction of the product of impurity from the borehole. The technical result of the invention is an increased amount of the pollution product extracted from the borehole per a unit of time.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased amount of the pollution product extracted from the borehole and its purification per a unit of time.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: disposal of solid waste.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises removing the contaminated layer of soil, separating the large impurities and biomass, grinding the contaminated layer by dispersing in water environment to produce pulp which is treated by ultrasound for disintegration of water-resistant agents, and supplying the pulp for separating the destructed agents into density and sizes of the particles by gravity to produce and separate the rectified coarse mineral and organo-mineral fraction, and draining contaminated fine dispersed mineral, organo-mineral, and organic fractions. The deposit containing radionuclides and heavy metals are separated, dried, and fed to the processing and burying. The purified water solution is returned for the repeatable use.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and quality of cleaning.

22 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, environment protection, more particular, reduction of 137Cs level in soil.

SUBSTANCE: method involves growing accumulating plants such as lentils and Jerusalem artichoke on contaminated soil during three vegetation periods; alienating the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period; determining soil cleaning extent from formula: Cη=(Ca-Cs/Ca)*100(%), where Cη is extent of cleaning soil; Ca is level of 137Cs in soil before planting of said accumulating plants; Cs is level of 137Cs in soil after withdrawal of the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period.

EFFECT: reduced specific activity of 137Cs in soil, increased efficiency in removal of radio nuclides and obtaining of ecologically clean plant products, reduced possibility of external and internal radiation of people.

2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of ecologically pure farm products on soil contaminated with radio nuclides.

SUBSTANCE: method involves practicing steps enabling reduction in accumulation of radio nuclides within various crops, said steps including utilizing mineral and organic fertilizers; introducing mineral fertilizers for cultivation of the following crops: winter rye, winter wheat, oats, and potato, with nitrogen to potash ratio making 1:1.5; applying organic fertilizers for cultivation of lupine and serradella, and additionally providing liming of soil for barley cultivation.

EFFECT: reduced content of radio nuclides in main rotation crops.

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises applying mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers simultaneously with the natural high-porosity mineral draining agent made of an aluminosilicate and subsequent loosening down to a depth of 25-30 cm. The ratios of the components are presented.

EFFECT: reduced cost.

6 ex

FIELD: disposal of solid waste.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises vehicle provided with the tank filled with coolant, collector that is used for supplying coolant and is connected with the tank though a T-shaped hose having detachable branch pipes connected with the appropriate cooling chambers. The cooling chamber is made of a box whose open section faces the surface to be frozen and receives the collector for spraying the coolant. The outer walls of the chamber are provided with face and side flanges that form a closed space for circulating coolant. The chamber walls are provided with means for interconnecting the chambers.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reduced coolant consumption.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: restoration of soil contaminated with oil.

SUBSTANCE: at first stage, upper layer of oil sludge is collected and refuse is separated on vibrating screen; then oil sludge is subjected to centrifuging for separation of water, remaining refuse and mechanical admixtures. At second stage, middle layer of oil sludge is collected; this layer contains substratum water which is first cleaned from refuse by passing it through vibrating screen; then, water is subjected to centrifuging for separation of oil sludge, remaining refuse and mechanical admixtures from it; they are washed in surfactant solution. At third stage, bottom sediment is collected and is washed in surfactant solution for separation of oil sludge; then, refuse is separated from oil sludge in vibrating screen, after which oil sludge is subjected to centrifuging for separation of remaining water, refuse and mechanical admixtures.

EFFECT: increased degree of separation of oil sludge into cleaned oil sludge, water, refuse and mechanical admixtures.

3 dwg

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