The heat exchanger

 

(57) Abstract:

Approved for use in heat exchangers, in which it is necessary to maintain a clean heat transfer surfaces. The heat exchanger has the scraper elements to remove deposits. In one embodiment, the scraper element is formed of a spiral insert (15) having the same construction as the insert (9). Inserting (15) with a channel (16) for the second heat exchange medium. In the following embodiment, the Central tube (13) is provided with one or more scraper blades, which can be cooled by the liquid. The cleaning cycle is accomplished by axial displacement of the insert (15), which is mounted on the Central tube (13), in the direction of the fixed insert (9), which causes the heat transfer surfaces in contact with each other. Then rotated, for example, on the part of the turnover, while the surface are close to each other or in contact with each other, and this leads to soskrebaya deposits located on two surfaces, and thus to the cleaning of the channel (20). This embodiment of the heat exchanger does not require external cleaning equipment and provides the ability to clear during rabana in the form of a housing with one or more helical inserts the current through them, the heating medium (coolant) or a cooling medium (coolant) and with devices designed to maintain the cleanliness of heat transfer surfaces in the process.

The heat exchanger must maintain good heat transfer coefficient in the case when flowing through him-an environment that has a significant tendency to precipitate in the form of a coating on the walls of the channels. In the following description of this environment is called the "basic environment" or "process environment" (environment created as a result of some process). The primary environment can be a coming of a process flow of product in the form of gas with solid particles, the combustion gas with soot or in liquid form. On the other hand the heat transfer walls flowing the second environment, called "auxiliary medium" or "operational environment", the function of which consists in cooling or heating of the primary environment. Auxiliary medium may be a gas or liquid.

Spiral insert has internal channels through which flows the supporting environment. Cross-section of the insert can be made in the form of one or more rectangular tubes arranged next to each other, or in the form of several round tubes arranged next to each d is At one end of the cylindrical body has an inlet for the primary environment, which flows through passing through the spiral channels in the insert or inserts to the outlet located at the other end of the housing. For subsidiary protection may be a parallel flow or counterflow depending on what is most appropriate for the process.

The invention is a heat exchanger, which has a Central tube extending along the Central axis of the housing. The Central tube can be displaced in the axial direction and rotatable. The Central tube is mounted a device for removing deposits on the walls of the channel, which moves the primary environment.

On the heat exchange surfaces of the heat exchanger is often deposited particles that stick to surfaces and form a precipitate in the form of a coating that reduces heat transfer. The heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger largely depends on the purity of its surfaces. It is obvious that even a thin layer of particles or a thin coating of precipitated particles significantly reduces the heat transfer coefficient. If a thicker coating layer, it will also lead to a narrowing of the opening of the channel and, consequently, to the expansion of the environment.

In some cases, the temperature of the primary environment is so high that after a short period of time the coating is solidified, and thus, the necessity of maintaining the purity of the cooling surfaces effectively without the addition of extraneous substances, which pollute the stream of product.

A common problem for heat exchangers is that the removal of dirt (sludge) is a rather complicated process. There are many different designs of cleaning equipment and many ways to remove the dirt from the internal and external surfaces of pipes, plates, casing and casing.

The traditional method of cleaning heat exchangers is in the wash as tubing and casing fluid, which may be added a solvent to remove sediment. Another applicable method is that the entire heat exchanger disassemble and mechanically clean the entire tube bundle and the body by washing and cleaning brushes. However, both these methods require the output of the heat exchanger of the workflow, which is usually a costly and time-consuming operation.

In patent WO 88/01362 disclosed a heat exchanger with multiple spiral is defined one after another. Spiral pipe insert with the distribution head at each end mounted on the longitudinal center tube that provides the ability to extract the entire beam pipes with distributing heads out of the case. Thus, the disassembly process is facilitated, reducing cleaning time. However, the design of the heat exchanger is not intended for self-cleaning and is not equipped with a cleaning device.

A known heat exchanger housing and fixedly mounted insert, which forms a channel for one heat-exchange medium and which is made with one or more channels of the second heat exchange medium and a Central tube which is installed along the Central axis of the housing with the provision of the rotation and equipped with a scraper device (see U.S. Pat. USA N 4558733).

The disadvantage of such a heat exchanger is the impossibility of self in the process.

The aim of the present invention is to develop a heat exchanger, which is self-cleaning or requires no external cleaning equipment, thus allowing cleaning of the heat exchanger in the process.

This goal is in accordance with the invention is achieved is by signs, disclosed in the claims.

In one embodiment, the heat exchanger consists of two spiral pipe inserts, one of which (still) attached to the housing and the other mounted on a movable Central tube. By shifting the two spiral pipe inserts in the axial direction to enter them into contact with each other, and by subsequent rotation ("screwing" them relative to each other along their length to provide odklepanje sludge from the cooling surfaces. The movable spiral pipe insert is a part of the heat exchanger, thus, no need to add additional elements to remove deposits, and this is one of the advantages of the invention.

In the following embodiment of the invention one of the spiral pipe inserts, which is mounted on the Central tube, replaced by the scraper elements. They are preferably made in the form of blades which move in the direction of the fixed spiral pipe insert and which soskrebajut deposits with chilled surfaces, cleaning them. The scraper blades can be made considerably narrower than the channel teeboy blades always cleaned of any deposits, and this gives stability to their size in height (the height does not increase), which is another advantage of the invention.

Below the invention will be described with reference to the drawings, which show examples of embodiments of the heat exchanger, and illustrated the principles of the invention.

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of the heat exchanger with permanently fixed spiral insert and a spiral insert, mounted on the movable Central tube.

Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of the heat exchanger with permanently fixed spiral insert and with the scraper elements in the form of blades mounted on the movable Central tube.

In Fig. 1 and 2, the same parts have the same item numbers.

In Fig.1, the heat exchanger is marked POS. 1. It consists of a body 2, which is constructed with the inner wall 3. The housing 2 can also be performed with the outer wall 4 so as to form a channel 5. Channel 5 has an inlet 6 and outlet 7 for the environment. Through the channel 5 can be skipped supporting environment, thus, the inner wall 3 of the housing 2 promotes heat transfer. Case 2 can b the ical equipment, for example reaction chamber.

Spiral insert in the form of a spiral tubular insert 9 is attached to the inner wall 3. Spiral pipe box 9 preferably has a greater width, i.e. the length in the radial direction, as compared with the height, which represents the length of the insert in the axial direction. Spiral tubular insert 9 can have a rectangular, trapezoidal or triangular cross section. The distance between the coils in the spiral tubular insert 9 can be compared with the pitch of the screw, and the number of turns can be selected in accordance with the requirements of heat transfer, etc.

Spiral tubular insert 9 is usually constructed from plates, and the walls are the heat transfer surface. In some cases, for the auxiliary medium need high pressure, for example, when the steam by using exhaust (vent) heat from the process. In this case, the spiral tubular insert 9 may consist of several tubes arranged one after the other, or spiral tubular insert 9 may be reinforced with welded racks. Auxiliary medium is passed through the channel 10 in the spiral tube box 9, is a pressing tube 13, located along the Central axis of the housing 2. The Central tube 13 can be displaced in the axial direction and rotatable. The Central tube 13 passes through the housing 2, and a communicating sleeve may be sealed using a sealing sleeve 14 in the usual way.

On the Central tube 13 is fixed spiral insert in the form of a spiral tubular insert 15, which has the same distance between the coils, as the spiral tubular insert 9. Therefore, the spiral tubular insert 15 can be submitted in the housing between (coils) is permanently fixed spiral tubular insert 9.

Auxiliary medium is passed through the channel 16 in the helical tubular insert 15. Spiral tubular insert 15 may be rectangular, trapezoidal or triangular cross-section and may consist of several tubes arranged one after the other. The Central tube 13 is constructed with an inner tube 17, thus formed channels that transport and distribute supporting environment in a spiral tubular insert 15 and remove it from the spiral tubular insert 15. The Central tube 13 is made with inlet 18 and outlet 19 for supporting the environment.

The main medium passes from the inlet 21 through the spiral channel 20 formed by the walls of two spiral pipe inserts 9 and 15, the inner wall 3 of the housing 2 and the Central tube 13, and further to the outlet 22.

The width of the spiral pipe inserts 9 and 15 is such that between the Central tube 13 and the inner wall 3 of the housing 2 and the spiral pipe inserts 9 and 15 there is a certain gap.

Structural elements of the heat exchanger can be made of various materials depending on the operating temperatures used primary and secondary environments.

In addition, the flow direction of the primary environment and supporting environment can be selected in accordance with the existing requirements for heat exchange, and thereby in a known manner can be provided with heat transfer in parallel flow or in owani scraper blades. Otherwise, the heat exchanger is constructed as a heat exchanger according to Fig. 1, and similar parts have the same item numbers.

Heat exchanger with spiral insert in the form of a spiral tubular insert 9. Between the turns of the spiral tubular insert 9 is formed a spiral channel 20, and the main medium passes through this channel from the inlet 21 to the outlet 22. Auxiliary medium passes through the channel 10 from the inlet 11 to the outlet 12.

On the Central tube 13, which can be moved in the axial direction and rotatable, fixed scraper elements are in the form of scraper blades 23. For one turn of the spiral tubular insert 9 is preferably set two scraper blades 23, and in this case, the scraper blades 23 are diametrically. The number of scraper blades 23 can be increased, and consequently decreases the value of the desired angle of rotation.

The scraper blade 23 is preferably in the form of a cylinder with greater length, i.e. the length in the radial direction, as compared with the diameter, which represents the length in the axial direction. The length of the scraper lopas the control of the scraper blade and the inner wall 3 of the housing 2 there is a certain gap. Thus, the scraper blade will clear the internal wall 3 of the housing 2. The scraper blade 23 is made substantially narrower than the width of the channel 20, thereby it is guaranteed that for the free flow of the primary environment in the channel 20 no significant obstacles. The number of scraper blades 23 in the channel 20 also chosen as low as possible, thereby ensuring that creates only a minimal barrier to the free flow of the primary environment.

If necessary, the Central tube 13 and the scraper blade 23 is cooled. In this case, the scraper blades are made with an inner tube 24, thereby formed channels for the cooling medium. Tube 24 attached to the inner tube 17 located in the Central tube 13. Thus in the Central tube 13 is formed by the channels through which passes a cooling medium and which are distributed on the scraper blades 23. The cooling medium, which may be an auxiliary medium, is introduced through the inlet 18 and is output through the output hole 19 in the center tube 13.

The following describes the operation of the device and give an example of a cleaning cycle. Can be used and other cycles. Cleaning teploproc insert 15 in the axial direction, for example in the direction of the inlet 21, as long as the wall spiral pipe insert 15 will not come into contact with the walls of the spiral tubular insert 9, or up until these walls both spiral tubes are at a predetermined distance from each other, or up until the deposits will not touch each other. The cooling surfaces preferably move closer to each other, but so that they do not come into direct contact with each other. This prevents wear of the surfaces, which in itself is a disadvantage. In addition, this prevents contamination of the primary environment materials that can be removed by the scraper elements with heat transfer surfaces.

Then the Central tube 13 is turned one-half turn, for example, in the clockwise direction, while the wall spiral pipe inserts 9 and 15 hold at the same distance from each other. Thereby the movable spiral tubular insert 15 "screwed" along a stationary spiral tubular insert 9, and is removing deposits from surfaces of the walls by Sobrevivencia around the opening of the canal.

The next step in the cleaning process is that centralnyj inserts 9, 15 will not come into contact with each other. Then the Central tube 13 is turned one-half turn in a counterclockwise direction, thus causing sediments to sciatica from surfaces by Sobrevivencia.

At the end of the Central tube 13 is shifted so that the spiral tubular insert 15 is set in the neutral position.

To both sides of both ends of the inserts overlapped each other due to the force of friction inserts from each other, these inserts should be rotated at least one revolution relative to each other. At the point where the surface overlap, abrasive movement, i.e. a movement in which the surface "davinciaudio" along the length of each other and come into contact with each other, can be short (short), in order to destroy fat. At desire it is possible to reduce the magnitude of the rotation, but it will reduce the treatment efficiency at part of the end surfaces of the insert.

The cleaning cycle may be performed with the same stages and in the case when the Central tube 13 mounted scraper blades 23. However, you may need to turn the Central tube 13 on one or more of the 13.

Through a cleaning cycle of this type is cleaned by Sobrevivencia sediments from all chilled surfaces in the channel 20 with both walls of the spiral pipe inserts 9 and 15, with the inner wall 3 of the housing 2 and the outer surface of the Central tube 13. This is one of the advantages of the invention.

In addition, the spiral tubular insert 15 or scraper blade 23 makes cleaning a cylindrical inner wall 3 at a distance above the entrance of the spiral channel 20. The length of the cleaning surface can be set by choosing the design of the Central tube 13 and its axial displacement. The scraper blade 23 can be mounted on the outside of the spiral tubular insert 9.

At the outlet of the reactor, boiler, or etc., usually there is some narrowing of the cross-sectional flow that, in turn, can cause a greater concentration of particles or sediments. When installing the heat exchanger under reaction chamber or boiler spiral tubular insert 15, or one or more scraper blades 23 make the movement of the lifting and rotation, thereby causing the unconsolidated material above the heat exchanger, to fall down and follow the flow of product coming out of the system the La is sufficient to to allow exit of the heat exchanger deposits with the flow, and mean loose sediments that are cleared by Sobrevivencia. In addition, due to the correct direction Sobrevivencia relative gravity of the scraper blade 23 can contribute to the gradual submission to the exit of the heat exchanger loose deposits, which were cleared by Sobrevivencia.

Heat transfer surfaces in the heat exchanger preferably have a smooth surface. In order to improve the cleaning efficiency, one surface or both surfaces that are in contact with each other during the various stages of purification, can be equipped with brushes, run rough or grainy, with grooves or protrusions with a specific profile or with knives, scraping edges or cutting edges. This is not shown.

In one embodiment, the surface may have an uneven profile, such as corrugated profile. In this case, deposits are exposed to changing loads, when surfaces RUB against each other, and more easily broken.

In the following embodiment, the surface may be made with grooves on gnome direction. When the surfaces are rotated relative to each other, deposits are shifted sideways and pushing them out of the grooves.

The Central tube 13 may be connected to a device that can be accomplished with a motor, for example with a hydraulic actuator, thereby the Central tube will perform the offset in the axial direction in one side and make a rotational motion, which is required for the cleaning cycle.

The cleaning cycle can be carried out continuously or intermittently, and the cleaning rate can be controlled, for example, by using the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet for one of the environments or by using the temperature of one media outlet when the inlet temperature and the flow rate constant.

The sensors 25 temperature, such as thermocouples, can be installed at the inlet 21 and the outlet 22. Reducing the temperature difference between the primary environment between the two measurement points indicates that the heat transfer is decreased due to the formation of deposits, and this can cause the command to start a cleaning cycle or speed up the cleanup process.

When using deploy process, or for to flush the heat exchanger, or to disassemble it for cleaning.

1. The heat exchanger housing (2) and continuously (steady) fixed by inserting (9), which forms a channel (20) for a heat transfer medium and which is made with one or more channels (10) for the second heat exchange medium, and a Central tube (13), which is installed along the Central axis of the housing (2) with the provision of rotation and equipped with a scraper device, characterized in that the Central tube (13) with scraper devices (15, 23) can be moved in the axial direction, and the insert is made of a spiral.

2. The heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that the scraper device consists of a spiral insert (15) of the same type as permanently fixed spiral insert (9) and the channel (16) provided in the spiral insert (15), is connected downstream from the second heat exchange medium through the Central tube (13).

3. The heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that the scraper device is constructed in the form of one or more scraper blades (23), preferably having a tubular shape and a length greater than the diameter.

4. Heat exchanger according to p. 3, characterized in that the scraper blades (23) wypadaj.

5. Heat exchanger according to PP. 1, 3 and 4, characterized in that it includes one or more scraper blades (23), which are located symmetrically around the Central tube (13) at each point in the spiral insert.

6. Heat exchanger according to PP.1 to 5, characterized in that one or more surfaces of the scraper device, executed or in the form of a spiral insert (15), or in the form of scraper blades (23), provided with brushes, knives, scraping edges or cutting edges, attached to the surface, or the surface is made rough or grainy, or with grooves or protrusions, preferably with a certain profile and arranged in a certain way.

7. Heat exchanger according to p. 6, characterized in that when the scraper device is made in the form of a spiral insert (15), one or more surfaces continuously (steady) fixed insert (9) may be provided with brushes, knives, scraping edges or cutting edges, attached to the surface, or with grooves or protrusions, preferably with a certain profile and arranged in a certain way.

 

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