The method of heating the expanding gas flow and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

To receive the stream expanded natural gas varying degrees of heat by heat exchange gas with the environment, you can use four devices. In the first embodiment miss the flow of expanded gas through the heat exchanger. In the second embodiment, the gas is passed through a double-flow vortex tube, and obtained after cold stream is sent to the heat exchanger. In the third embodiment, the gas to flow in a vortex tube is divided into two parts and one part is directed to a heat exchanger, then to the reactor and the heat exchanger, after which this part of the combine with a cold stream from the vortex tube and is directed to the heat exchanger, and then combine with the hot stream from the vortex tube. In the fourth embodiment, the gas after the heat exchanger and throttle unite with the cold stream from the vortex tube and is directed to the heat exchanger. The use of the invention will allow to refuse artificial heating. 5 C. and 4 h. p. F.-ly, 5 Il.

The invention relates to the field of processing technology of natural gas.

It is known that the distribution of natural gas to consumers of the main pipe high pressure pipe low pressure, the structure of gas hydrates on the inner surface in places narrow, as well as swelling soils, where such a chilled pipeline and even shifting to the foundations of buildings.

To avoid this expanding gas stream is heated.

The known method of heating the expanding flow of natural gas [1, S. 172], according to which the gas is heated:

or due to excess heat available in the heat, including in the exhaust gases of the gas turbine engine,

or by burning part of the gas transported in special furnaces, heat exchangers, where the whole is heated transported stream.

In the first case the heat source is tied to the place of its manufacture and cannot be transported significant distances. In the second case it is useless consumed (burned) part of the gas. All this is a disadvantage.

The objective of the proposed technical solution is to reduce this drawback.

This objective is achieved in that the heat introduced into the gas stream through the heat exchanger from the environment. The source of heat is in the form of a heat exchanger in the circuit passing the expanded and cooled gas, absorbing heat from the environment is SUB>1through the throttle extender 2 is connected with the heat exchanger 3. The outlet 4 of the heat exchanger 3 is connected to the backbone of the low pressure P2.

In the known construction the heat exchanger 3 specially heated from an external artificial source of heat (exhaust steam, exhaust gases of the engine or the flame from burning gas), so this heat exchanger has a complicated additional equipment. Despite the small dimensions of such a heat exchanger all equipment for heating take up much space and it is always built a special room - the building of the GDS (gas station).

In the proposed design, working on the proposed method, although the heat exchanger and has an increased size, but is mounted outdoors, do not use artificial heat source and has no additional equipment.

The proposed device is as follows. Through the inlet pipe 1 gas under high pressure P1through the reactor 2 is fed into the heat exchanger 3 through the pipe 4 is discharged into the line of low pressure. In reactor 2, the gas expands, wholived and reduces its pressure to P2and right outside, creates conditions for heat exchange with the environment. Therefore, at the outlet of the heat exchanger - pipe 4 - gas temperature increases a little. So in the summer when tOCD=+20oC a simple design, intense alegrias from the environment, and are able to exit (nozzle 4) to create the temperature of the gas stream toequal to the temperature of log tentrance.

Thus, the design according to Fig. 1 able in the summer without artificial heating to work in isothermal mode, and sometimes (in hot weather) even work with a small heating the outgoing gas, i.e., the mode of its operation totentrance.

However, at moderate temperatures (autumn and spring), and especially in winter at low temperatures, this design is already not working, because the temperature tonot able to rise above the ambient temperature tOCD.

This, along with a very large required heat exchange area of F1(for example, for differential pressure P1/P2=30/6 MPa and flow rate Q=1000 m3/h required heat transfer area F1= 170 m2), is a significant drawback, because of the lack of differential tempera the artificial heating of the expanding gas stream, i.e. again to return to the traditional scheme GDS.

As a result, this design can operate only in summer and only as a complement to the main standard equipment GDS and only in the southern regions, where it is always guaranteed a mild climate. This is a disadvantage.

In order to reduce the marked disadvantage it is proposed to increase the indicated temperature and pressure, which will reduce the required heat transfer area and to extend the temperature range of use.

This objective is achieved in that the gas stream with P1pass through a double-flow vortex tube [2], where it is throttled to P2and is divided into two streams - cold and hot. Cold stream from the vortex tube is passed through the heat exchanger, which, absorbing heat from the environment, is heated, after which it is mixed with the hot flow vortex tube. In the mixed output stream has a temperature higher than in the construction according to Fig. 1.

Fig. 2 explains the proposal. Inlet pipe 1 connected to the input of a double-flow vortex tube 2. Cold end 3 of the vortex tube is connected to the input 4 of the heat exchanger 5. Hot end 6 varietv.

The proposed device (Fig. 2) in the following way. Through the inlet pipe 1 and high-pressure gas (for example, P1=30 MPa) is input to double-flow vortex tube 2, where he choked and is divided into two streams. Cold flow under pressure 6 MPa and at a temperature of about -30oC of the branch pipe 3 is supplied to the input 4 of the heat exchanger 5, where it passes around the inner perimeter, is heated from the environment and through the pipe 9 enters the tee 8. Hot flow under the pressure of 9 MPa and at a temperature of about +50oC from the pipe 6 through the valve 7 is also supplied to the tee 8, where mixing with the cold stream enters the outlet 10 of the device.

Due to the fact that with the help of the vortex tube can significantly lower the temperature of the gas stream (up to -30oC) passing through the heat exchanger, it is possible to increase it temperature lift up to 50 K in the summer (when tOCD+20oC) and not less than 15 K in winter (when tOCD-15oC), and due to this (when Q=1000 m3/h) it is possible to reduce the area of such a heat exchanger with F1=170 m2to F1=75 m2and to extend the temperature range of use of such device, because it does not lose its robotosaurus ambient below -20oC this device is not able to maintain isothermal mode. Therefore, in such conditions, the device begins to produce at the output of the gas already with a negative temperature, i.e., ceases to perform its functions.

Therefore, the considered device could fully perform the functions of the GDS, but in areas where there is always guaranteed moderately mild climate, i.e. in the middle belt of the country. In more Northern areas, where the environment temperature can fall below -20oC, GDS, built to work on the basis of the considered device (Fig. 2) need to be supplemented by artificial heating devices.

This is a disadvantage.

In addition, this design still high the required area of the heat exchanger F1. In order to reduce the mentioned drawbacks are proposed to further increase the specified temperature and pressure, it will allow to reduce the required heat transfer area and to extend the temperature range of use.

This objective is achieved in that the gas flow in the beginning (before applying the vortex tube is divided into two streams: the first serves to the input of the direct channel recuperative heat exchanger, the second n the reactor and the heat exchanger outdoor heat exchanger, mix with cold-flow vortex tube and fed to the input of the backward channel recuperative heat exchanger, after which the stream is mixed with a hot flow vortex tube.

Fig. 3 explains the proposal. Inlet pipe 1 through t-joint 2 is connected with inlet pipe 3 direct flow regenerative heat exchanger 4 and input 5 double-flow vortex tube 6. The outlet 7 of the direct flow regenerative heat exchanger 4 through the orifice 8 and the heat exchanger outdoor heat exchange 9 is connected to the tee 10, is connected to the cold end 11 of the vortex tube 6 and to the inlet pipe 12 reverse flow regenerative heat exchanger 4, the output of which 13 through the tee 14 connecting with the hot end 15 of the vortex tube 6 connected to the outlet nozzle 16.

The proposed device is as follows. Entering through the inlet 1 into the high-pressure gas in the tee 2 is divided into two streams, the first of which forms a direct 3-7 flow heat exchanger 4, and forms a second input stream 5 double-flow vortex tube 6. In the vortex tube, the gas stream is again divided into two, which already differ in temperature, while cold enters the pipe 11 and the hot - peoplenike 9, through the mixer (tee) 10 is fed to the input 12, the reverse flow heat exchanger 4. Mixed cold return flow 12-13 in the heat exchanger 4 wholived warm live stream 3-7 and enters the pipe 13, the comfort of which the tee 14 is mixed with the hot stream emerging from the nozzle 15, which comes to the outlet nozzle 16. Chilled live stream 3-7 of the heat exchanger 4 flows into the orifice 8, which is choked - expanding and additionally douglasdale until the temperature of appearance of the liquid phase. Passing through the heat exchanger 9 so subcooled two-phase flow, with average temperatures ranging from -130oC to -160oC, very intensively absorbs heat from the environment. The average temperature lift of the summer will be up to 155 K, and in the winter - not less than 100 K. that is, the working temperature in the elements of the proposed device are shifted in the cryogenic region.

With the heat exchanger 9 is such a great thermal head, it is possible to further reduce the required area of heat transfer up to F1=14 m2(for Q= 1000 m3/h), but it is necessary to have a recuperative heat exchanger 4 with an area of about F2=25 m2. However, this disadvantage is compensated the situations even for winter in Northern areas, for example, up to -50oC, without the use of additional artificial heat sources.

Thus the mode of operation of such a device (Fig.3) to> tentranceat any ambient temperature.

To configure the device for operation in different modes (winter/summer) to the nozzles 12 and 13 reverse flow heat exchanger 4 to connect the bypass 17 with adjusting valves (see Fig. 4), which will allow you to choose the optimal magnitude of the reverse flow 12-13 at different ambient temperatures.

However, for the successful operation of the device according to Fig. 3 must, as already noted, to have the effective area of expensive recuperative heat exchanger is not less than F2=25 m2(for Q=1000 m3/h), which is a disadvantage.

In order to reduce this drawback, i.e., to reduce the area of regenerative heat exchanger, offered a cold stream from the vortex tube to direct it in the output stream of the heat exchanger external heat exchange, and in its input stream.

Fig. 5 explains the proposal. Cold end 11 of the vortex tube 6 by a valve 17 and a tee-mixer 18 is connected to the input of the inductor 8, and by means of valve 19 and tee-see what. Coming in from the cold end 11 of the vortex tube 6 cold gas is mixed in the mixer (tee) 17 with other cold flow 3-7 coming from the regenerative heat exchanger 4 through the orifice 8 is supplied to the heat exchanger 9.

However, mixing in a tee-mixer 18 two threads thread 3-7 high pressure (30 MPa) and low pressure 11-18 (6 MPa) reduces the working pressure of the flow orifice 8, which reduces the efficiency of throttling. This is a disadvantage.

To eliminate such a drawback, you need a cold stream of low pressure from the vortex tube through the tee-mixer 20 bypassing the throttle immediately be sent to the heat exchanger 9. For this purpose it is necessary to close the valve 17 to open the valve 19.

As a result, if the cold gas from the vortex tube is directed into the heat exchanger 9 through the orifice 8, or directly into the heat exchanger 9), bypassing the heat exchanger 4, the amount of cold gas into the heat exchanger 9, in comparison with the circuit of Fig. 3) increases.

Therefore, to provide the desired mode of heat transfer will increase the area of F1heat exchanger 9. So for the mode with Q=1000 m3/h this area should be already not 14 m2>the more expensive regenerative heat exchanger 4 with 25 m2up to 15 m2.

Although thermodynamic efficiency of the device according to Fig. 5 is somewhat lower device according to Fig. 3, however, given that the unit cost of recuperative heat exchanger at a higher unit cost of heat exchanger outdoor heat exchange, then this solution (Fig. 5) promises substantial economic gains.

Sources of information:

1. A. A. Jonas. The gas supply. - M.: stroiizdat, 1989, S. 172, section 8.4. "Heating gas distribution station".

2. A. P. Merkulov. Vortex effect and its application in engineering. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1969, S. 7.

1. The method of heating the expanding gas stream, which includes the process of input of heat into the gas stream, characterized in that the heat introduced from the environment through the heat exchanger outdoor heat exchanger, through which pass the gas stream.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the gas stream initially served in the double-flow vortex tube, a cold stream from the vortex tube is passed through the heat exchanger outdoor heat exchanger, after which it is mixed with the hot stream of the vortex tube and serves on the output device.

3. The method according to p. 1, wherein tormenta, the second input bi-flow vortex tube, live stream emerging from the recuperative heat exchanger through the reactor and the heat exchanger outdoor heat exchanger, mixed with cold-flow vortex tube and fed to the input of the backward channel recuperative heat exchanger, after which the stream is mixed with the hot stream of the vortex tube and serves on the output device.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the gas stream is first divided into two streams, the first serves to the input of the direct channel recuperative heat exchanger, the second - input two-flow vortex tube, live stream emerging from the recuperative heat exchanger is first mixed with cold-flow vortex tube, then drossellied, passed through a heat exchanger external heat exchange and serves on the input back channel recuperative heat exchanger, and then is mixed with the hot stream of the vortex tube and serves on the output device.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the gas stream is first divided into two streams, the first serves to the input of the direct channel recuperative heat exchanger, the second - input two-flow vortex tube, live stream emerging from the recuperative heat exchanger, first drossellied, represent the input of the reverse channel recuperative heat exchanger, then mix with the hot stream of the vortex tube and serves on the output device.

6. The device for implementing the method according to p. 1 containing extender, inlet and outlet, and a heat source, characterized in that the extender is made in the form of a double-flow vortex tube cold end of which is connected to the input of the heat exchanger external heat exchange, the heat exchanger output through tee-mixer is connected to the hot end of the vortex tube and the outlet nozzle of the device.

7. The device for implementing the method according to p. 1 containing extender, inlet and outlet, and a heat source, characterized in that the inlet device through the tee-separator is connected to the inlet side of the direct flow regenerative heat exchanger and the input of the two-flow vortex tube, the outlet of the direct flow regenerative heat exchanger through the reactor and the heat exchanger outdoor heat exchange connected to the tee-mixer, connected to the cold end of the vortex tube and the inlet pipe reverse flow regenerative heat exchanger, the output of which through the tee-mixer, connecting with the hot end of the vortex tube connected to the, the initial and outlet, and a heat source, characterized in that the inlet device through the tee-separator is connected to the inlet side of the direct flow regenerative heat exchanger and the input of the two-flow vortex tube cold end of the vortex tube through the tee-mixer connected to the output socket of the direct flow regenerative heat exchanger and throttle, which through the heat exchanger outdoor heat exchanger, inlet and outlet of the recuperative heat exchanger, as well as with the tee-mixer attached to the hot end of the vortex tube and the outlet nozzle of the device.

9. The device for implementing the method according to p. 1 containing extender, inlet and outlet, and a heat source, characterized in that the inlet device through the tee-separator is connected to the inlet side of the direct flow regenerative heat exchanger and the input of the two-flow vortex tube, the outlet of the direct flow regenerative heat exchanger connected to the input of the inductor, the output of which through the tee-mixer attached to the inlet pipe of the heat exchanger outdoor heat exchanger, the outlet of the outdoor heat exchanger-mixer attached to the hot end of the vortex tube and the outlet nozzle of the device.

 

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