The way to protect the shores of the artificial reservoirs from abrasion

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is used to protect lands from destruction by volnoboi (abrasion), in particular the banks of ponds and reservoirs. In the process create a protective herbaceous and shrub wood strip along the banks in 2-4 years after the maximum filling of the reservoir water. During this time the blows of the waves creates the optimal slope of the shoreline. The water level lower in width, is equal to the maximum wavelength, developed in the reservoir, and on the Nude beach planted aquatic and semi-aquatic herbaceous plants. At the top of the cliff propihivayut the ditch so that the formed shaft on the same side of the pond. In the ditch planted soboliferous shrubs, and on the shaft - climbing, creeping and climbing plants (hops, wild grape, BlackBerry) in equal proportions. The method allows to create multi-tiered powerful in thickness vegetation, absorbing the force of impact waves, as well as creating conditions for water purification, zhizneobitanija birds and animals. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of hydraulic structures, in particular to the field of protection of lands from destruction by abrasion (volnoboi) banks of ponds and vodohrescha for 20 years 115 -149 m [1])

Known methods of partial Bank stabilization device of various kinds of hydraulic structures on the beach (breakwaters, scaffoldings and other). [1]

The disadvantage of them is a great complexity, high cost and limited use, as it is fixed only part of the coast near valuable objects.

There is also known a method of protection of water bodies by creating along coastlines forest stands [2]. But this method is not reliable, because the abrasion process is not terminated, resulting in the destruction of forests and the further destruction of valuable land.

There is a method of coastal protection from damage by waves, including landing strip aquatic and semi-aquatic plants, tree and shrub plantings on the beach and on the higher beach [3, 4].

For the prototype accepted method [3] , including preparation for planting by mechanical means (bulldozers, alignment and so on). This process is expensive and also difficult to achieve equilibrium profile (slope, in which moving water does not wash away the soil). In the case of a rapid raise of water level polojennaya coastal strip can be washed into the pond.

The purpose of this the image is Denmark protective herbaceous and shrub strip.

The solution to this problem is that the creation of protective shoreline spend 2 to 4 years after the maximum filling of the reservoir with water, when the Bank made volnoboi. To do this, the water level in the reservoir to reduce the exposure of beach width is equal to the maximum wavelength develop in the reservoir. On the Nude beach are planted sequentially from the water's edge aquatic and semi-aquatic herbaceous plants. And on top of the cliff shrub and herbaceous plant with creeping and climbing stems. And shrubs are planted in pre-propagandy the ditch, and herbaceous twining and climbing plants on the shaft formed by the ploughing of the ditch.

Distinctive features of the proposed method is that the creation of a protective strip is conducted through 2 - 4 years after the maximum filling of the reservoir water in the Nude after lowering the water level of the beach when a natural way by the action of the waves will be created profile of equilibrium.

Moreover, the water level decreases in width, is equal to the maximum wavelength develop in the reservoir. On the Nude beach are planted sequentially from the water's edge aquatic and semi-aquatic herbaceous and ditch so, to the resulting shaft was located on the side of the pond.

The proposed method is illustrated by a drawing.

An example of a specific implementation.

After the maximum filling of pond 1 and drawdown of banks after 2 to 4 years lower the water level in the pond to outcrops of the beach, is equal to the maximum wavelength (set experimentally). Then using a tree-planting machines across the entire width of the beach 2 is planting green cuttings, roots and whole plants, such as reed or cattail 3.

Then on top of steep banks 4 safe from breakage deleting multiple passes plow propihivayut shaft 5 and the drain 6. Moreover, the shaft aphiwat side of the reservoir at the upper line of the steep walls of the shore. On the shaft 5 are planted climbing, creeping and climbing plants 7 in equal proportions, in the ditch 6 - soboliferous shrubs 8.

Cutting ditches and shaft necessary to create favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants, safe landing and powerful cover the steep walls of the banks at the expense of climbing, creeping and climbing plants (hops, wild grape, BlackBerry) and offspring of blackthorn, hawthorn and other Part of the offspring of thorns "Braz, will create a powerful on the thickness of the vegetation on the steep wall of the shore. All this together with semi-aquatic and aquatic plants is an effective coastal protection from erosion. The shock wave mostly extinguished by a strip of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants. At some part of the wave is steep walls coast its remaining energy will be repaid vegetation from hanging down from the top of Bank of the plants.

Under cover of hanging plants will create favorable conditions for the growth of other plants, which will complement the protective function planted.

After full development of the plants, the water level can be increased by 20-30 cm flooding the beach.

In addition to the function of protecting the shore from erosion, berry bushes will be a good food supply and habitat for birds and other animals, and harvesting of medicinal plants.

Cane lane shore will clean the water and to serve as a place of local nesting waterfowl.

Literature

1. Tolstoy, M. P. Man - Converter-nature.-M.: Nedra, 1984, 88 S.

2. Nikolaenko Century. So, Babakin A. C. agroforestry systems in the fight against water and wind erosion.-M: the Forest industry here, CLASS="ptx2">

4. A patent. RF N 208376, E 02 IN 11/00, 1997.

1. The way to protect the shores of the artificial reservoirs from abrasion, including the planting of protective grass-wood strip along the shore, characterized in that in 2-4 years after you fill the reservoir with water and depletion of the banks of the waves, the water level is reduced to the exposure of beach width equal to the maximum wavelength develop in the reservoir, and on the Nude beach from the water's edge planted aquatic and semi-aquatic herbaceous plants, and then on top of steep banks on safe from breakage removing aphiwat rampart and ditch, and the ditch planted shrubs and napajany shaft is curly, creeping and climbing plants in equal proportions.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the shaft have on the edge of the steep coast.

 

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3 dwg

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