Plasmatronic reactor

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a plasma chemical engineering and is intended for chemical thermal decomposition of liquid reagents. Plasmatronic reactor includes a plasma generator, a reaction chamber with nozzles, each of which is in the reactor vessel provided with channels unidirectional tangential blower with output under the cut nozzles and channels spotno transverse tangential blower sputtered reagents. Each nozzle is provided with an additional slot nozzle air blower located coaxially in the nozzle, the inner diameter of the annular slit additional nozzles are made in excess of 8-10 times the diameter of the outlet nozzle. The invention allows 3-4 times to increase the resource of continuous operation and thereby increase productivity by 30-40%. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to a plasma chemical engineering, in particular to devices thermochemical decomposition of liquid reagents to obtain powders of oxides, nitrides and carbides.

Known plasmatronic reactor containing a plasma generator, a reaction chamber with nozzles for feeding into the flow of the plasma jet sprayed LM is part of the reaction chamber. The particles of the solid residue formed in the reactor after evaporation of the drops of solvent may be in liquid, semi-liquid or plastic state, when their adhesion to the walls of the reaction chamber is high. Due to this wall plaque is formed, which grows sometimes to a complete overlap of the working chamber. In addition, jet sprayed into the reactor liquid reagents create, due to the effect of ejection, the pressure in the basal region of torches spray that enhances the recirculation flow in the reaction space, contributes to the formation of outgrowths of the condensed products on the perimeter of the output sections of the nozzles of the nozzle and leads to disruption of the spraying mode. As a result, due to unnecessary downtime required for cleaning surfaces of their tumors, reduces the performance of the reactor (Mists Y. N. Low-temperature plasma and high-frequency electromagnetic field in producing materials for nuclear energy. -M.: Energoatomizdat, 1989, S. 135-136, Fig. 4.4).

Known plasmatronic once-through reactor, taken as a prototype, including a plasma generator, a reaction chamber with nozzles symmetrically arranged otesaga blowing reaction chamber and the outlet nozzle of the product, when the channels are tangent to the inner surface of the reaction chamber. Vortex airflow introduced with the aim of protecting the walls of the reaction chamber from deposits of a solid phase on its walls, and the gas in the vortex airflow is introduced at a tangent to the walls of the reaction chamber. As in the previous device, this reactor also has a tendency to overgrowth of nozzles of the nozzle, therefore, also required stop for cleaning. In addition, due to the uneven temperature distribution in the cross section of the reaction channel, creating a zone of recirculation, which leads to heterogeneity of the granulometric characteristics of the obtained target product. To protect the surface of the reaction channel along the entire length requires a large consumption of gas, which complicates the operation of the reactor. So, to reduce heat losses have to use heat recovery for heating the gas supplied to the blowout, and for maintaining a constant gas-dynamic conditions in the reactor to increase the capacity of the pumps at the output side of the process line installation (see Suris, A. L. plasma-Chemical processes and devices. -M.: Chemistry, 1989, S. 49).

The objective of the invention is to increase productivity plasmotron the second zone of the sediments. The task is solved in that in plazmotrona reactor including a reaction chamber with nozzles for spraying reagents, equipped with a system of channels vortex air blower, each nozzle is provided with an additional slot nozzle air blower located coaxially in the nozzle, the inner diameter of the annular slit additional nozzles 8-10 times greater than the diameter of the outlet nozzle, the outer diameter of the slit nozzle is selected from the condition of equality of the velocities of the gas and gas-droplet flows at the outlet of the additional nozzles and injectors; in addition, for each nozzle in the reactor vessel provided with channels unidirectional tangential blower with output under the cut nozzles and channels spotno transverse tangential blowing of the flux of sputtered reagents, with the centerline of the nozzle and the projection of the centerline of the channels spotno-transverse ventilation in the axial plane of symmetry of the reaction chamber intersect in one point.

In Fig.1 shows a General view of the reaction chamber of Fig.2 - section a-a in Fig.1; Fig.3 - the node B in Fig.1 (nozzle and the additional nozzle).

Plasmatronic reactor (Fig.1) consists of a plasma generator 1, a cylindrical reaction chamber 2 with peoduct 6 and the outlet pipe 7. The nozzle 3 is provided with an additional blowing nozzles 8 (Fig.3) made in the form of an annular slit, a coaxial nozzle, the inner diameter of annular slits additional nozzles 8 8-10 times greater than the diameter of the output sections of the nozzles.

The channels 9 of the nozzle 3 and the additional blowing nozzle 8 serve for the supply of gas from a common gas manifold 10, and the width of the slit nozzles 8 is selected from the condition of equality of the velocities of the flows at the outlet of the nozzle 8 and the nozzles 3. The axis of the channels 4 and 5 are located in vertical planes parallel to the axis of the reaction chamber. Forming a surface channel 4 vortex blower are tangent to the circular lines, limiting the output section of annular slits additional blow-off 8 of the respective nozzles 3. Channels spotno-transverse ventilation 5 are made so that the centerline of the nozzle and the projection of the centerline of the channels spotno-transverse ventilation in the axial plane of symmetry of the reaction chamber intersect in one point.

The reactor operates as follows.

After the inclusion of plazmogeneratora 1 and heating of the reaction chamber 2 the gas is fed into the system tangential channels 4 and 5, the nozzle and nozzle of the additional air blower 8, then potassium the pressure drop in the basal region of torches sputtering, it reduces the cast drops and particles of the product on the surface of the reaction chamber adjacent to this area. In addition, the presence of additional blowing nozzle 8, in most cases, prevents the formation of growths around the outlet openings of the nozzles, is firmly linked with the adjacent surface, as a result of disruption of the protective flow at the nozzle exit of the additional air blower 8, the annular surface is under his protection. But in the possible cases of the early formation of outgrowths (for example, when receiving a relatively low-melting powders), they are not reaching the dimensions that violate sputtering, fall under the influence of protective flow from the nozzle 8 and reaches the receiver solid product 6. This is ensured by the value of a smaller diameter annular gap 8, 8-10 times the diameter of the output section of the nozzle 3. Practical tests have shown that at lower values of the diameter of the annular gap and protective gas-droplet flows intensively mixed directly in the root area of the spray, and the growth of deposits occurs in the outer nozzle area for additional ventilation. When the values of the internal diameter of the annular gap, more than 10 times previewformat begin to form growths, industrious spray reagents. The choice of the width of the slit 8, which provides equality of velocities and protective spray flows, reduces their mutual penetration and reduces the yield of particles in the outer region of the resulting flow in the upper part of the chamber.

But below, in the course of flow in the reaction chamber, due to the turbulent interaction of the spray and coax him more protective of the stream, nagovarivaete drops and particles of the product begin to penetrate into the outer region of the resulting stream (resulting from the interaction of protective flow from the nozzle 8 and the flow of the gas-droplet mixture from the injector 3). Gas flows generated by the channels 4, compensate ejection pressure drop around the annular slit nozzle 8 additional ventilation, preventing the return of the particles penetrated into the outer region of the resulting stream, and their deposition on the surfaces of the reaction chamber adjacent to the nozzles. These particles are fond of tangential flow generated by channel 4. Increases the time of their stay in the zone of the main thermal effects of the plasma jet, but at the same time, the particles that have reached the side stroenie. In the initial period of operation of the solid particles deposited on the surface of the reaction chamber, forming, mainly due to clutch each other, dense, relatively thin layer, futureuse wall of the reaction chamber 2. The result reduces the loss of heat through its walls, the temperature of the surface formed by futureuse layer increases and the deposition process of the particles is slowed down. This happens not only by reducing the effect of thermophoresis, but also due to increases in average temperature and align it to the cross-section of the reactor. In addition, the dense structure futureuse skull layer automatically provides the ratio of the surface roughness of the reaction channel and the particle size at which the adhesion of particles to the surface is minimal (see Simon A. D. Adhesion of dust and powder, M, Chemistry, 1976, S. 431), which also increases the duration of the continuous process. The vacuum created in the paraxial region of the reaction chamber in its upper part due to the vortex flow formed by the channels 4, creates a tendency to move towards the walls of the particles formed on the portion 11 of the counter interaction of the plasma jet and spray flows, spray different physics at the initial site of interaction of gas-droplet flows with heat transfer fluid, where a substantial proportion of the particles is in a liquid, semi-liquid or plastic state, when their adhesi to the walls of the reaction chamber is still high. Following the initial phase of the vortex flow generated by the channels 5, as well as the vortex flow formed by the channels 4 in the upper part of the reaction chamber, provides deposition on its surface a thick, relatively thin futureuse layer consisting of solid particles. The execution of the channels spotno-transverse ventilation 5 so that the centerline of the nozzle and the projection of the centerline of the channels in the axial plane of symmetry of the reaction chamber intersect at one point, ensures the interaction generated by the channels 5 protective stream sprayed with the reagent on the portion 11 of the counter interaction torches sputtering and thermal fluid (plasma jet).

Practical assessment showed that the proposed design plazmotronov reactor allows 3-4 times to increase the resource of continuous operation plazmotronov reactor, resulting in the overall performance of the reactor is increased by 30-40%.

1. Plasmatronic reactor including a plasma generator, a reaction chamber with nozzles for spotno-cross the product and the outlet nozzle of the product, characterized in that each nozzle is provided with an additional slot nozzle air blower located coaxially in the nozzle, the inner diameter of the annular slit additional nozzle 8 to 10 times the diameter of the outlet nozzle, the outer diameter of the slit nozzle is selected from the condition of equality of the velocities of the gas and gas-droplet flows at the outlet of the additional nozzles and nozzle for each nozzle in the reactor vessel provided with channels unidirectional tangential blower with output under the cut nozzles and channels spotno transverse tangential blowing of the flux of sputtered reagents.

2. Plasmatronic reactor under item 1, characterized in that the axial line of the nozzle and the projection of the centerline of the channels spotno-transverse ventilation in the axial plane of symmetry of the reaction chamber intersect at one point.

 

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