Method and device for thermal energy
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended to produce heat. Device and method for producing thermal energy is contacting water and hot oil in the reaction apparatus, which leads to intense reactions with the emission of very hot gases in the form of a tongue of flame with the formation of a larger amount of heat than burning only one oil. The invention allows to obtain more energy and achieve higher temperatures. 2 C. and 8 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The present invention relates to a method for producing thermal energy in a continuous process and device for implementing this method.It is known to use oil as a heat carrier in heat exchangers to produce steam. Thus, in U.S. patent 2222575 described cooling hot oil direct contact of oil with the cooling water, which evaporates, forming pairs used. The hot oil is pumped into the chamber with a temperature of about 343oC, and on the surface of the oil from a large number of nozzles sprayed water. When the interaction of water with the oil, the water evaporates, cooling this oil, which zamenyaet is an oil bath, which is constantly heated from below by, for example, burning wood. For the formation of steam in the heated oil under the top level of the injected water, which by direct contact with hot oil evaporates and rises to the surface of the oil with the steam rises and is removed from the spherical hardware oil (about 350oC) and water together are fed into the vessel and razbrasivayutsya it in the form of small droplets, the collision of which is accompanied by evaporation of water and runoff down partially cooled oil that collects in the bottom of the vessel. In U.S. patent 4207840 described steam generator, in which there is a spherical device, the bottom of which is an oil bath, which is constantly heated from below by, for example, burning wood. For the formation of steam in the heated oil under the top level of the injected water, which by direct contact with hot oil evaporates and rises to the surface of the oil, with which the steam rises and is removed from the spherical device.The closest known technical solution to the proposed invention is a solution for U.S. patent 4164202 water are fed into the vessel and razbrasivayutsya it in the form of small droplets, the collision, which is accompanied by evaporation of water and runoff down partially cooled oil that collects in the bottom of the vessel.A new method to produce thermal energy in comparison with known methods allows to obtain more energy and achieve higher temperatures.Here's the method of obtaining thermal energy in a continuous process, based on the use of oil, is that the water is in contact with the oil, preheated to temperatures above 250oC. In accordance with the invention the process is carried out in the apparatus, which serves the air, and the contact between water and oil is carried out by spraying water on the surface of the hot oil.In the preferred form of the invention prior to the filing of the water, the oil is heated to the desired temperature, and after the start of water supply heating oil ceased.The level of hot oil support inside the device, which has an output open nozzle and at least one nozzle located on the wall above the oil level while water is sprayed from the nozzle (nozzles) on top of the oil, and heat out of the device through its output servername hole, which itself forms the output nozzle, or are connected with the output nozzle.Preferably as the heated oil to use rich oil.Most preferred is the use of vegetable oil.It is advisable when using vegetable oil to pre-heat it to a temperature of 310oC.In a preferred form of implementation of the method it is recommended that the amount of oil relative to the amount of water not exceeding 50 parts by weight.When conducting the above-mentioned process can be used instead of fresh sea water.In the device for implementing the method in accordance with the invention of the camera for the reaction has a device for supplying air and water spray carried out on the surface of the hot oil.Features, details and advantages of the invention will become more clear from the description of its preferred embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 shows the device in the form of a heating furnace which is equipped to offer in the invention method,
Fig. 2 is schematically one variant of the reaction apparatus and the apparatus, which is used in the proposed device according to the invention.Proposed in the invention method provides for contact of water with the oil, preheated to a temperature which depends on the type of oil, and add air. When this occurs, the release of heat, which can be compared with the formation of a very large and hot flame. This means that during the process is very intense burning, which is accompanied by evolution of heat. Thus, energy is the energy transfer and heat production. The reaction between the hot oil and water can get very simple way, using, for example, edible oil, a pan and a thermometer for measuring high temperatures. Beginning in the pan you need to pour a full Cup of oil and heat it up to 310oC. the oil is Then slowly filled with water. Immediately appeared the flame remains as long as there is water, so it can be added to a certain quantity. While we are not talking about getting a pair, but there is a kind of combustion, accompanied by the consumption of an appropriate quantity of oil and water. The same reaction can be performed at a temperature of from 310 to 320oC use the>It must be emphasized that oil temperature should normally be below the temperature of combustion, i.e., the oil prior to contact with water should not burn, and only by contact of the oil with water, begins a new kind of combustion. This indicates the presence of a specific reaction, which involves oil and water. To heat the oil to the required temperature without its ignition before contact with water, the process of preheating certain types of oils can be conducted at pressures greater than atmospheric.In the three above-mentioned patents, in which we are talking about steam, the water is in contact with the oil at a temperature of 343oC and no combustion occurs. It is important to note that at a temperature of 343oC all final products of the distillation of oil look like oil, but in fact, many of them are complex compounds that are actually not oil, such as bitumen. Cannot be answered positively or negatively on the possibility of the interaction of water with this specific "oil at a temperature experiments in which even was not conducted, however, it is necessary to pay attention to the specific character of this "oil".As a camera it is advisable to use the device having the form of a cone, tapering up to a located at the top of the hole. In addition, it was found that for best results the camera or device, you must enter the air. For submission to the office of water and spray, and also for feeding in the air you can use regular oil injector not working on oil and water.As oil is preferable to use saturated oils, such as saturated animal or saturated vegetable oil. It was established that using vegetable oil is more effective because it required starting temperature of approximately 310oC. However, you can successfully use a light vegetable oil. On the other hand, the temperature of the run in order to avoid prior to chemical decomposition of the oil should not be too high.When coarse control process, the ratio of the oil to the oil and thin, in particular, electronic, control of process parameters, such as the consumption of oil, water and air and the diameter of the jet at the exit of the nozzle, this ratio may be reduced accordingly.You can use sea water, which may even improve the performance of the system.Studies have been conducted of this basic process for endothermic engines of the type that gave quite satisfactory results and showed that the process of energy transfer with minimal loss. The proposed method can find very wide application, in particular in aircraft, missiles, helicopters, ships, hovercraft, tanks, cars, ships and vehicles or other objects, in which the process of combustion, and, as described below, in burners of heating systems for domestic and industrial use in various industrial melting furnaces.The danger of a possible explosion completely eliminated, since by themselves components of the reaction are non-flammable up to that moment will be created precisely controlled initial conditions.In the proposed new method in the combustion products , million, whereas normally this value exceeds 50 parts per million.Proposed in the invention method is mainly designed to produce thermal energy, but it can be used to produce mechanical energy in the turbo and engine endothermic type.It is shown in Fig. 1 the device has a furnace 1 with the exhaust manifold 2, which, for example, can be used as boiler or heater, and a conventional nozzle 3 made the type of nozzles used for spraying and feeding into the furnace and furnace fuel and air. The nozzle 3 is connected to the tank 4, which you can use normal oil tank, used in heating boilers, and provided with a nozzle 5, the spray material supplied to the nozzle 3 from the tank 4.In the described device, the nozzle 3 is not connected directly with the furnace 1, and is connected with the reaction apparatus 11, which includes a reaction chamber 12, it is suitable supply pipe 13 connected through the control valve 14 with another tank 15.The reaction apparatus 11 and the working chamber 12 have the shape of a cone tapering upwards, turning into a kind of pipe 16, which end of the apparatus 11 are wire heaters 23, connected to a source (not shown) of power. Instead of a wire electric heaters you can use a gas burner or other heating device.For the implementation of the proposed method, the container 4 is filled with water, and the tank 15 is filled with vegetable oil. In accordance with one variant of the invention, the vegetable oil you can use regular cooking oil. In the present embodiment, in the apparatus 11 under the action of its own weight is filled with a limited amount of oil, which is controlled by a valve 14, in other devices for oil supply, you can use the pump. The oil level 24 in the apparatus 11 is, for example, from 3 to 5 mm, and the oil should completely cover the wire heaters 23. In the apparatus the oil 24 is heated to a temperature of about 330oC, minimum temperatures of 300oC. the temperature of the oil is controlled by thermometer 25. When using vegetable oil on the surface located in the chamber 12 oil 24 when reaching the initial temperature of the process can be observed a small tongues of blue flame. After that, the nozzle 3 starts spreading over the surface of the oil 24 water while feeding VI, accompanied by after a very hot material through the nozzle 17. As a result of this expiration is formed like a tongue of flame bubble 29 luminous white or blue hot gas with temperatures ranging from 1200 to 2000oC based directly on the output of the nozzle 17 is relatively short light having a cylindrical section 30, a length of, for example, from 20 to 50 mm, the Presence of this plot 30 depends on the settings and control the device.For experimental purposes in a discharge pipe 2 has been installed, the detector 31. With this detector 31, it was found that the off-gas flow is minimal pollute the environment, because it is, as a rule, when the ratio of water to oil, equal to 6:4, contains from 5 to 10 ppm CO and 10 to 11 parts per million of NOx.After reaction start supply of power to the wire heater 23 can be stopped, as released by the reaction heat itself maintains the temperature of hot oil and provides heating oil coming from the tank 15.Although the main source of energy is water, however in PR is s 14 and 18 mode of the device, in particular the regulation of the supply nozzle 3 air and water, the oil consumption relative to the consumption of water can be maintained at a level of approximately 1 to 9. The optimal process parameters must be determined experimentally. With manual control and without special requirements to achieve optimal performance the percentage of oil and water by weight, it is possible to choose several large, for example, 4:6. A fundamental point is to maintain oil temperature 24 in the apparatus 11 at a level exceeding the permissible minimum. By means of the throttle valve 18, instead of which it is possible to use a valve of a different design, inside the device 11 is supported temperature over 320oC. If necessary, the process can be stopped by blocking the valve 14, thus due to the continued in the apparatus (11) water temperature in the chamber (12) of reaction falls below the temperature of the start and the process will stop. For automatic control of the process it is necessary to continuously measure the temperature of the oil 24 in the apparatus 11, and depending on this temperature to regulate the flow into the machine oil and formed in the jet of a mixture of water and air.For maintaining the oil level 24 in the chamber 12 is m her sudden stop.It is shown in Fig. 1, the reaction apparatus 11 has the shape of a truncated cone. However, this form is not absolutely necessary, alternatives form the reaction apparatus are truncated pyramid or, less preferably, the cylinder.The apparatus 11 shown in Fig. 2, has a combined shape of a cylinder and cone. This design differs from the design shown in Fig. 1, multiple nozzles 5, the spray water over the surface of the oil.In Fig. 3 shows one nozzle 5 and a separate line 32 to supply air located above the level in chamber 12 of the apparatus 11 oil 24, and in this embodiment, the camera is made in the form of a combination of prism and pyramid.In the construction shown in Fig. 3, unlike the structures shown in Fig. 1 and 2, there is no electric wire heaters 23 and instead of them for the initial heating oil used gas flame 33.The dimensions of the apparatus are selected depending on the heat capacity. In particular, the size of the device it is recommended to choose directly proportional to the desired heat capacity. For example, in relation to the installation shown in Fig. 1i large diameters thermal capacity will be more however, this is a large consumption of reagents, and at smaller diameters will receive less heat and at the same time reduce the consumption of oil and water. Consumption of oil and water in direct proportion depends on the diameter of the device 11 or the working chamber 12. The advantage of the conical shape is the availability of the site, reflecting heat to the oil 24, which is in a hot condition. When such a conical shape, in addition, there is a constant drip down formed in the chamber 12 small droplets consisting of a mixture of water and oil. It should also be noted that too large sizes of nozzles can reduce the process temperature, which may fall below 300oC, i.e. the temperature at which the start of the reaction, which process can just stop.In any case, knowing the relationship between the diameter and capacity, which is based on volumetric dissociation participating in the reaction water, it is possible to experimentally determine the exact size of the apparatus 11 for different calorimetric potentials of various nozzles and furnaces.Before beginning the process, as noted above, in the apparatus 11, the oil must be the Oia oil, is it safe enough for the possible storage of oil without any problems and the need for cooling. As already noted, the actual temperature depends on the type of oil used.In the above embodiments, it was about the process of obtaining heat. It is obvious that the obtained thermal energy can be used in various ways, for example, to drive the engine that runs on hot air, or conventional engines or appropriately modified turbines.The following examples represent possible variants of application proposed in the invention method.The method can be used in relation to the normal turbine, which has a burner with combustion chambers on the outer toroidal diameter, and in this case the system can be used simply and with high efficiency, bearing in mind the usual big consumption in such machines and a high content of NOxin the exhaust gas.The diesel engine can be modified as follows:
- use two injector pump: one for oil and one for water (air is supplied into the intake manifold, which has had landroval water a few degrees after as the piston reaches the highest point, strictly through a fixed time after combustion;
- deploy the motor 180o, i.e., to position the crankshaft above the pistons. This reversed position it is necessary to make it possible to create at the base of the inverted cylinder a certain level of oil. The oil level should be such that the cylinder was only necessary for combustion, the amount of oil because too much oil dramatically increases the compression ratio. In the same way you can modify and gasoline injection engine. 1. The method of obtaining thermal energy in a continuous process, based on the use of oil, in accordance with which the water comes in contact with oil, preheated to temperatures above 250o, Characterized in that the process is carried out in the apparatus, which serves the air, and the contact between water and oil is carried out by spraying water on the surface of the hot oil.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that prior to the feed water, the oil is heated to the desired temperature, and after the start of water supply heating oil ceased.3. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 and 2, otlichuy and at least one nozzle (5), located on the wall above the oil level (24), while water is sprayed from the nozzle (nozzles) on top of the oil, and heat comes out of the apparatus through the output nozzle.4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the apparatus (11) has the shape of a cone, tapering from the base up to the top hole, which itself forms the output nozzle (17), or are connected with the output nozzle.5. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that as the rich oil used oil.6. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the quality of the oil used vegetable oil.7. The method according to p. 6, wherein the oil is preheated to a temperature of about 310oC.8. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 - 6, characterized in that the amount of oil relative to the amount of water does not exceed 50 parts by weight.9. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 8, characterized in that the quality of water using sea water.10. A device for implementing the method according to PP.1 to 9, characterized in that the chamber (12) for the reaction has a device (3, 32) for supplying air and water spray carried out on the surface of the hot oil.
FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.
EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: combustion apparatus for fluent fuels.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying gas to be burnt out from the head of the burner of the torch plant in the combustion zone. The composition of gases is variable. The gas flow rate varies from 1m/s to 3.5 of sound speed due to generating excess static pressure of gas from 0.00001 MPa/cm2 to 3.0 MPa/cm2 by the movable control device. The gas jet is turbulent with a cone angle from 2o to 155o.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: combustion apparatus using fluent fuel.
SUBSTANCE: burner comprises casing made of a scroll, hollow shaft for fuel supply arranged inside the casing, sucking and exhausting branch pipes for air secured to the casing, nozzle mounted in the conical sleeve, diffuser, and drive. The shaft is mounted for rotation and provided with blades of the fan. The nozzle and conical sleeve are secured to the hollow shaft. The drive is secured to the casing inside the sucking branch pipe. The branch pipe is mounted with a space relation to the casing to provide a space for air flow. The shaft of the drive is hollow to provide fuel flow to the nozzle. The shaft of the drive and hollow shaft of the burner are axially aligned and interconnected. The drive shaft is provided with emulsifier for generating emulsion or suspension and supplying fuel and/or water emulsion and cock for fuel supply.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: methods of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the method of combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel in a burner. The method of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel in a burner provides, that along the burner external surface a non-corroding technical atmosphere is set in motion, chosen from a group including steam, CO 2 , nitrogen or their mixture. In the capacity of the non-corroding technical aerosphere they use steam. Combustion is carried out at the presence of steam. At least a part of the non-corroding aerosphere is added to the hydrocarbon fuel. The non-corroding aerosphere is used in an amount sufficient to dilute or replace a corroding technical aerosphere existing around the external surface of the burner. The invention allows to avoid a corrosive spraying of the metal and carbonization of the industrial burners exposed to action of the corroding technical aerosphere.
EFFECT: the invention allows to prevent a corrosive spraying of the metal and carbonization of the industrial burners.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: methods of burning pulverized fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preparation of fuel for burning, delivery of fuel, transportation of high-pressure air, mixing air with pulverized fuel and delivery of high-concentrated aeromixture to boiler burners. Transporting air is ozonized before mixing it with pulverized fuel ; part of ozonized fuel is delivered to transport of pulverized fuel and remaining part is delivered autonomous passage of burner to flame root via pipe line.
EFFECT: steady ignition of pulverized fuel; enhanced efficiency of burning process.
FIELD: methods of burning hydrocarbon fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel includes separate delivery of fuel and air to burner; fuel is delivered mainly to central area of air flow and is burnt over periphery of flame at excess air mode and at excess of fuel in central area of flame; vapor is fed to central area of flame and field of acoustic oscillations is applied. Burner proposed for burning the gaseous hydrocarbon fuel includes air box, hollow gas manifold with outlet gas holes; it is coaxially arranged inside vapor swirler manifold made in form of hollow cylindrical body with profiled passages and mounted in cylindrical body at radial clearance; cylindrical body has nozzle hole; one end face of vapor swirler is blanked-off and opposite end face is smoothly engageable with nozzle hole in body. Burner for combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuel includes air box and injector mounted on fuel swirler and vapor swirler which are mounted in cylindrical body at radial clearance; said cylindrical body is provided with nozzle unit made in form of hollow detachable cap with holes over spherical end face; mounted at spaced relation inside this cap is cap of smaller diameter and similar in shape; smaller cap has holes which are coaxial to outer cap; outer cap is provided with additional holes; inner cap is not provided with such holes.
EFFECT: reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions by power-generating boilers at enhanced combustion of fuel.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: fuel burning devices.
SUBSTANCE: proposed ejection burner has body with branch pipes for delivery of combustion components, stabilizer, purging ports and injector additionally provided with mixing ejector consisting of body, contraction passage, fuel and oxidizer supply pipe unions; its construction makes it possible to regulate sectional areas of ejecting and ejected flows due to change of penetration of oxidized supply pipe union into contraction passage of ejector. Widening of flow of fuel-and-gas mixture in injector is made in two sections at different taper angles; diameter of spherical cover exceeds diameter of flow section of injector. Purging ports are made in form of three-stage system; first-stage purging ports are made in form of holes in burner body; second-stage purging ports are made in form of row of holes in combustion chamber; their flow sections change by means of regulating ring moved over surface of combustion chamber; third-stage purging port is made in form of coaxial circular passage copying the combustion chamber geometry. Stabilizer tube is twisted in form of cylindrical spiral. Proposed burner makes it possible to improve quality of mixing and evaporability of fuel in injector and to obtain complete combustion of fuel at extended range of stable operation by excess air coefficient.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; enhanced stability of combustion.
FIELD: burning separated oil-containing wastes formed during operation of ships.
SUBSTANCE: proposed incinerator burner includes several injectors for delivery of oil and diesel fuel wastes sprayed by air. Air injector equipped with swirler is located in front of oil and diesel fuel waste injectors; oil waste injector is located closer and distance of both fuel injectors may be changed relative to air injector whose axis lies at right angle relative to axes of fuel injectors; mounted in front of fuel injectors are jets whose orifices have diameter lesser than that of injectors.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of burning fuel; reduction of toxic emissions from reactor.
FIELD: mode of incineration of hydrocarbon fuel and an arrangement for its realization refers to engines and power engineering with working processes including preliminary processing of fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention may be applied for incineration of fuel as in a periodic regime which is characteristic for reciprocating motors of internal combustion so as for fulfillment of streaming regimes of incineration of fuel, for example, in jet, turbojet, gas turbine engines and power installations. The mode realizes induced destruction of molecules of metastable intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons, accumulated in gas volume of fuel-airy mixture, by way of power impact leading to explosive three-dimensional spontaneous combustion of gas mixture. Peculiarity of the mode consists in that fuel-airy mixture is enriched with free electrons and power impact on molecules of the mixture for excitation of oscillatory degrees of freedom of molecules is fulfilled by means of their inelastic concussion with free electrons, speeded up by electric field, which tension E is less than tension of switching to independent gas discharge. Enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons is fulfilled by way of its ionization or by way of injection of electrons. The installation for realization of this mode has a combustion chamber with a source of power impact. The source of power impact consists of a unit of enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons and a source of a speeded up electric power which includes a system of electrons with controlled multiplexer switch connected to the sources of high-voltage tension. The invention allows to realize in a necessary moment of time momentary development of three-dimensional radical explosion in fuel-airy mixture due to simultaneous destruction of the majority of accumulated metastable molecules of intermediate products. Destruction of molecules of intermediate products generates a great number of active radicals and particles dividing and creating new circuits of reaction of oxidation of hydrocarbon and leads to development of chain-radical explosion.
EFFECT: high effectiveness of incineration mode.
21 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: wastes elimination.
SUBSTANCE: method for burning flammable substances, in particular, wastes, suggests that primary burning gas being supplied below to burning layer, secondary burning gas above burning layer is supplied to the flow of departing gas. With increase in reaction rate, or respectively, intensity of burning, mass flow rate of oxygen of primary burning gas per time unit is reduced, and mass flow rate of oxygen of secondary burning gas per time unit is increased so that increase in oxygen mass flow rate in secondary burning gas corresponds to reduction of oxygen mass flow rate in primary burning gas. Oxygen mass flow rate in primary burning gas is reduced in the place of higher reaction rate, or respectively, intensity of burning, and oxygen mass flow rate in secondary burning gas is increased directly above place of higher reaction rate, or respectively, intensity of burning.
EFFECT: increase in wastes burning efficiency due to control over oxygen mass flow rate.
14 cl, 1 dwg