Agricultural tractor

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of tractor engineering, in particular for tractors for agricultural purposes with all the leading bridges. The tractor includes mounted on the frame of an internal combustion engine connected through a gearbox with adjustable pump that is hydraulically connected to the hydraulic motors, resulting in a rotation of the wheel, and the control unit, the inputs of which are connected with sensors rotational speed of the wheels, and the outputs are connected to actuators. The motors driving wheels are adjustable. On their inputs set the pressure sensors connected to the second inputs of the control unit, the second outputs of which are connected with actuators controlled motors. The invention will improve the manageability of the tractor and reduce fuel consumption. 2 Il.

The invention relates to the field of transport engineering, in particular for tractors for agricultural purposes with all-wheel drive.

Known vehicle (A. C. the USSR 1341069, IPC B 60 K 17/10, 1987 ) containing the motor from the transfer gearbox, which is connected to the adjustable amatory, hydraulically connected with the pump and cause the propulsion control unit connected to the sensors for controlling the values of displacements.

The disadvantage of this vehicle is the deterioration of the controllability of the vehicle, as it depends on the frequency of rotation of the crankshaft of the engine. In addition? changing the operation mode of the engine increases fuel consumption.

Known self-propelled machine with hydrostatic transmission (A. C. the USSR 518387, IPC 60 K 17/10 F 16 H 39/02, 1976), adopted for the prototype. It includes mounted on the frame of an internal combustion engine connected through a gearbox with adjustable pump that are hydraulically connected c hydraulic motors, and the control unit.

The disadvantage of this self-propelled machine is the deterioration of controllability due to the inability in hydrostatic transmissions locking differential connection of the wheels of each axle and the power mismatch wheels increases fuel consumption.

For corrective agricultural tractor motors driving wheels are adjustable, the inputs of which are mounted pressure sensors connected with the second inputs of the unit panel is

In Fig. 1 presents schematically the proposed agricultural tractor;

in Fig. 2 shows the control unit.

Agricultural tractor contains mounted on the frame of the internal combustion engine 1 (Fig. 1 not shown) with gear 2 connected to the shafts controlled pumps 3, 4, 5, 6. The pumps 3, 4, 5, 6 are hydraulically connected with the adjustable hydraulic motors 7, 8, 9, 10, the shafts of which are connected with the wheels 11, 12, 13, 14 of the tractor. While the wheels 11 and 12, for example, form a pair of front wheels, and the wheels 13 and 14 of the rear pair.

The pumps 3, 4, 5, 6 are equipped with actuators 15, 16, 17, 18 to change the working volume, and the motors 7, 8, 9, 10 are equipped with actuators 19, 20, 21, 22. In the hose connecting the pump and motors, installed pressure sensors 23. Wheels 11, 12, 13, 14 fitted with sensors 24 speed.

The pressure sensor 23 is connected to the first input of the control unit 25, and the speed sensors 24 a second input. Actuators 15, 16, 17, 18 pumps connected to the first output control unit 25, and the actuators 19, 20, 21, 22 motors - a second output.

During movement of the tractor occurs kinematic and force R tractor with one engine the number of differentials to one less than the number of drive wheels (Lifanov A. H. The differentials of automobiles and tractors. - M: mechanical engineering, 1972, S. 4, 13-24). For example, a tractor with four-wheel drive must have three differential: one between the front and rear wheels and one pair of front wheels and a pair of rear.

The proposed tractor as follows. The internal combustion engine 1 through the gear 2 causes the rotation of the shafts of the pumps 3, 4, 5, 6, and then the motors 7, 8, 9, 10, which are connected by a hose with the pump and rotate the wheels 11, 12, 13, 14.

During rectilinear movement of the tractor wheels 11, 12, 13, 14 have the same frequency of rotation n11= n12= n13= n14as the working volumes of the pumps 3, 4, 5, 6, and hydraulic motors 7, 8, 9, 10 are equal q3= q4= q5= q6and q7= q8= q9= q10. The pressure drops in the hydraulic motors 7, 8, 9, 10 have equal values, so the axes of the wheels 11, 12, 13, 14 are created equal torques M11= M12= M13= M14.

On the proposed tractor operation of differentials is reproduced by changing the actuators 15, 16, 17, 18 of displacements of the pumps 3, 4, 5, 6 and actuators 19, 20, 21, 22 working objemosem in the control unit 25, until you restore the equality of pressure on the hydraulic motors 7, 8, 9, 10.

When turning the tractor, for example, the left wheel 11, 14 become a runner, and on the lagging axes of the wheels 12, 13 arise brake torques, i.e., n11> n12n14> n13p9> p10p8> p7and M11> M12M13> M14. Increasing the levels of the signals from the pressure sensors 23 of the motors 8, 9 and reduced the levels of the signals from the speed sensors 24 wheels 12 and 13 which are received in the control unit 25. From the control unit 25, the signal is sent to the actuators 16, 17 of the pumps 4 and 5, which reduce their working volumes of q4and q5up until the differential pressure shall be equal, i.e. p7= p8= p9= p10.

If the tractor turns to the right, the working volumes of the pumps 3 and 6 (q3and q6shrinking and restored equality of pressure on the hydraulic motors.

Turn the tractor creates the kinematic misalignment between the wheels of each pair.

When the slipping of one wheel, for example 14, the rotational speed of the wheels 14 is not changed, n11= n12= n13= n14and drop the SUB>8= p9= p10and M14< M11= M12= M13. This decreases the level of the signals from the pressure sensors 23 of the motor 14 and does not change the level of the signals from the speed sensor 24 of the wheel. The signal from the control unit 25 will be credited to the actuator 19 of the motor 7 and its working volume of q7will be reduced, and the differential pressure will be p7= p8= p9= p10.

If the slipped wheels of one pair, for example 13 and 14, reduced working volume of the hydraulic motors 7 and 8, that is, q7and q8.

The slipping of the wheels of one pair creates a power mismatch between the front and rear pairs of wheels and uneven movement of the tractor, which increases fuel consumption.

When driving the tractor reversing the operation of the control unit 25 does not change.

Thus, the alleged invention allows to improve the controllability of an agricultural tractor and reduce fuel consumption.

The alleged invention does not adversely impact on the environment.

Agricultural tractor including mounted on the frame of the engine vnutrennego, resulting in a rotation of the wheel, and the control unit, the inputs of which are connected with sensors rotational speed of the wheels, and the outputs from the actuators, characterized in that the hydraulic motors driving wheels are adjustable on their inputs set the pressure sensors connected to the second inputs of the control unit, the second outputs of which are connected with actuators controlled motors.

 

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