(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of tractor engineering, in particular for tractors for agricultural purposes with all the leading bridges. The tractor includes mounted on the frame of an internal combustion engine connected through a gearbox with adjustable pump that is hydraulically connected to the hydraulic motors, resulting in a rotation of the wheel, and the control unit, the inputs of which are connected with sensors rotational speed of the wheels, and the outputs are connected to actuators. The motors driving wheels are adjustable. On their inputs set the pressure sensors connected to the second inputs of the control unit, the second outputs of which are connected with actuators controlled motors. The invention will improve the manageability of the tractor and reduce fuel consumption. 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of transport engineering, in particular for tractors for agricultural purposes with all-wheel drive.Known vehicle (A. C. the USSR 1341069, IPC B 60 K 17/10, 1987 ) containing the motor from the transfer gearbox, which is connected to the adjustable amatory, hydraulically connected with the pump and cause the propulsion control unit connected to the sensors for controlling the values of displacements.The disadvantage of this vehicle is the deterioration of the controllability of the vehicle, as it depends on the frequency of rotation of the crankshaft of the engine. In addition? changing the operation mode of the engine increases fuel consumption.Known self-propelled machine with hydrostatic transmission (A. C. the USSR 518387, IPC 60 K 17/10 F 16 H 39/02, 1976), adopted for the prototype. It includes mounted on the frame of an internal combustion engine connected through a gearbox with adjustable pump that are hydraulically connected c hydraulic motors, and the control unit.The disadvantage of this self-propelled machine is the deterioration of controllability due to the inability in hydrostatic transmissions locking differential connection of the wheels of each axle and the power mismatch wheels increases fuel consumption.For corrective agricultural tractor motors driving wheels are adjustable, the inputs of which are mounted pressure sensors connected with the second inputs of the unit panel is In Fig. 1 presents schematically the proposed agricultural tractor;
in Fig. 2 shows the control unit.Agricultural tractor contains mounted on the frame of the internal combustion engine 1 (Fig. 1 not shown) with gear 2 connected to the shafts controlled pumps 3, 4, 5, 6. The pumps 3, 4, 5, 6 are hydraulically connected with the adjustable hydraulic motors 7, 8, 9, 10, the shafts of which are connected with the wheels 11, 12, 13, 14 of the tractor. While the wheels 11 and 12, for example, form a pair of front wheels, and the wheels 13 and 14 of the rear pair.The pumps 3, 4, 5, 6 are equipped with actuators 15, 16, 17, 18 to change the working volume, and the motors 7, 8, 9, 10 are equipped with actuators 19, 20, 21, 22. In the hose connecting the pump and motors, installed pressure sensors 23. Wheels 11, 12, 13, 14 fitted with sensors 24 speed.The pressure sensor 23 is connected to the first input of the control unit 25, and the speed sensors 24 a second input. Actuators 15, 16, 17, 18 pumps connected to the first output control unit 25, and the actuators 19, 20, 21, 22 motors - a second output.During movement of the tractor occurs kinematic and force R tractor with one engine the number of differentials to one less than the number of drive wheels (Lifanov A. H. The differentials of automobiles and tractors. - M: mechanical engineering, 1972, S. 4, 13-24). For example, a tractor with four-wheel drive must have three differential: one between the front and rear wheels and one pair of front wheels and a pair of rear.The proposed tractor as follows. The internal combustion engine 1 through the gear 2 causes the rotation of the shafts of the pumps 3, 4, 5, 6, and then the motors 7, 8, 9, 10, which are connected by a hose with the pump and rotate the wheels 11, 12, 13, 14.During rectilinear movement of the tractor wheels 11, 12, 13, 14 have the same frequency of rotation n11= n12= n13= n14as the working volumes of the pumps 3, 4, 5, 6, and hydraulic motors 7, 8, 9, 10 are equal q3= q4= q5= q6and q7= q8= q9= q10. The pressure drops in the hydraulic motors 7, 8, 9, 10 have equal values, so the axes of the wheels 11, 12, 13, 14 are created equal torques M11= M12= M13= M14.On the proposed tractor operation of differentials is reproduced by changing the actuators 15, 16, 17, 18 of displacements of the pumps 3, 4, 5, 6 and actuators 19, 20, 21, 22 working objemosem in the control unit 25, until you restore the equality of pressure on the hydraulic motors 7, 8, 9, 10.When turning the tractor, for example, the left wheel 11, 14 become a runner, and on the lagging axes of the wheels 12, 13 arise brake torques, i.e., n11> n12n14> n13p9> p10p8> p7and M11> M12M13> M14. Increasing the levels of the signals from the pressure sensors 23 of the motors 8, 9 and reduced the levels of the signals from the speed sensors 24 wheels 12 and 13 which are received in the control unit 25. From the control unit 25, the signal is sent to the actuators 16, 17 of the pumps 4 and 5, which reduce their working volumes of q4and q5up until the differential pressure shall be equal, i.e. p7= p8= p9= p10.If the tractor turns to the right, the working volumes of the pumps 3 and 6 (q3and q6shrinking and restored equality of pressure on the hydraulic motors.Turn the tractor creates the kinematic misalignment between the wheels of each pair.When the slipping of one wheel, for example 14, the rotational speed of the wheels 14 is not changed, n11= n12= n13= n14and drop the SUB>8= p9= p10and M14< M11= M12= M13. This decreases the level of the signals from the pressure sensors 23 of the motor 14 and does not change the level of the signals from the speed sensor 24 of the wheel. The signal from the control unit 25 will be credited to the actuator 19 of the motor 7 and its working volume of q7will be reduced, and the differential pressure will be p7= p8= p9= p10.If the slipped wheels of one pair, for example 13 and 14, reduced working volume of the hydraulic motors 7 and 8, that is, q7and q8.The slipping of the wheels of one pair creates a power mismatch between the front and rear pairs of wheels and uneven movement of the tractor, which increases fuel consumption.When driving the tractor reversing the operation of the control unit 25 does not change.Thus, the alleged invention allows to improve the controllability of an agricultural tractor and reduce fuel consumption.The alleged invention does not adversely impact on the environment. Agricultural tractor including mounted on the frame of the engine vnutrennego, resulting in a rotation of the wheel, and the control unit, the inputs of which are connected with sensors rotational speed of the wheels, and the outputs from the actuators, characterized in that the hydraulic motors driving wheels are adjustable on their inputs set the pressure sensors connected to the second inputs of the control unit, the second outputs of which are connected with actuators controlled motors.
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle contains frame 1 with cab 9, front and rear steerable wheels 4, 6 and middle wheels 5, engine placed behind the cab along vehicle and covered by hood 11. hydrostatic transmission contains pumping station 21 consisting of matching reduction gear driven by engine placed behind the cab, and three pumps connected by pipelines with hydraulic motors providing separate drives of wheels. Hydraulic motors are arranged along frame 1 between sidemembers on solid brackets made in form of boxes with flanges connected with wall of side member between its webs. Invention makes it possible to create ecologically clean and reliable multipurpose all-wheel-drive vehicle of high cross-country capacity with hydrostatic transmission to drive all wheels.
EFFECT: provision of convenient mounting and servicing of transmission units.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.
FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles with positive displacement hydraulic drive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission includes constant-capacity guided-vane hydraulic pump mechanically connected with vehicle engine communicating through pressure, drain and suction hydraulic lines through hydraulic distributor enclosing pressure and drain hydraulic lines and playing the part of reversor with at least one constant-capacity reversible guide-vane hydraulic motor to transmit torque to one or two driving wheels of automobile. Spaces of suction and drain hydraulic lines communicate with space of hydraulic tank. Suction hydraulic line passes through adjustable hydraulic restrictor whose control lever is mechanically coupled with automobile accelerator pedal.
EFFECT: simplified design of transmission, reduced fuel consumption and weight of transmission and its cost, and increased efficiency of automobile.
18 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; machine building hydraulics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used on vehicles and machine-and-tractor units operating under unsteady conditions of movement. Proposed device contains planetary train 1, reactive link 3 connected with drive gear of oil pump 5. Planetary train is connected through carrier shaft with gearbox 9 and is set into operation by engine 11. Two-step adjustable restrictor 12 is installed in pressure main line of pump. Safety valve 14 and control cock 15 are connected to input of adjustable restrictor, being also installed in pressure main line of pump pneumohydraulic accumulator, being end member of pressure main line, is provided with three spaces. It consists of hydraulic cylinder, free piston, piston with rod, piston position regulator, oil line and oil channel. Space between pistons is filled with oil which regulates volume.
EFFECT: reduced influence of vibrations of external traction load onto functioning of machine-and-tractor unit.
FIELD: transport engineering; hydrostatic transmissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrostatic transmission contains pumping unit consisting of main and makeup pumps driven by vehicle engine, hydraulic motors connected by main hydraulic lines with pumping unit and forming circulating hydraulic circuit, and electrically driven self-contained pump whose delivery space is connected with hydraulic circuit formed by main hydraulic lines. Hydrostatic transmission is furnished additionally with sealed hydraulic tank with device for charging its air space with compressed air from vehicle pneumatic system and containing shutoff cock, compressed air pressure regulator in sealed hydraulic tank with safety valve and vacuum manual control valve to discharge compressed air from sealed hydraulic tank, two-position manual control valve for alternate hydraulic coupling of suction space of self-contained electrically-driven pump with hydraulic tank and with device for charging the tank with working liquid, check valve arranged in drain hydraulic line at inlet of sealed hydraulic tank, and manually controlled shutoff valve in suction hydraulic line at outlet of sealed hydraulic tank.
EFFECT: improved reliability of hydrostatic transmission of vehicle designed for operation under various road conditions.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in different vehicles and in devices and mechanisms for clashless engagement of driven shafts. Proposed torque converter contains drive and driven units of converter. Drive unit is made in form of disks 2-5 with slots freely fitted on splined shaft 1. Movable blades are fitted in said slots. Driven unit of converter is made in form of cylindrical housing 7 with driven shaft 16 and rings 11 and 12 fitted on shaft. Disks 2-5 with blades 6 of drive unit of converter are arranged inside rings. Slots in disks 2-5 of drive unit of converter are made through being arranged tangentially. Each of rings 11, 12 in cylindrical housing 7 of converter driven unit is installed for rolling on guide 13, being connected with axle-shaft 14 flush-fitted in cradle of step bearing 15 whose body is in rigid engagement with cylindrical housing 7. With drive unit rotating, summary driven torque is formed from its hydraulic and inertia components. Formulas for calculating the torque are given in description of invention.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydraulic - inertia converter, its control system, gearbox of converter and method of torque conversion.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed recuperative reversible stepless hydraulic transmission of wheeled vehicle contains drive engine 5, recuperator 20 with overrunning clutch 24, controllable reversible hydraulic machine 18 with pressure and suction and control plunger 8 communicating with hydraulic control system through pipelines, follow-up hydraulic booster with variable-capacity pump 12 of reverse capacity, four non-controllable hydraulic machines 29-32. Each of said hydraulic machines has vehicle wheel, and wheels of vehicle are in contact with road pavement. Recuperator 20 is made in form of planetary reduction gear whose carrier 19 is connected with pump 12 and with hydraulic machine 18 provided with two diametric pressure and two diametric suction spaces and connected with hydraulic machines 29-32 by pipelines. Hydraulic machine 18 contains "floating" plunger 33 with two cylindrical grooves between two end face spaces and "polar" plunger by channels of which end face spaces of floating plunger 33 are communicated, overlapped or reversed with pressure and suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Cylindrical grooves of floating plunger 33 synchronously overlap or hydraulically communicate two pressure and two suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Lever 6 of polar plunger is mechanically connected with corresponding slot of plate 3 of vehicle speed and reverse control member.
EFFECT: reduced number of control members, dispensing with brake system improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, reduced fuel consumption, reduced acceleration time, increased efficiency.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: public building structures, particularly drives for showcase rotation.
SUBSTANCE: drive to rotate showcase substantially formed as superimposed disc 4 installed on pin 5 provides force transmission from drive 12 to disc 4 by means of flexible tie having tensioning means. Flexible tie is formed as closed loop of chain 10 having rigid links. The chain passes around the disc 4 along disc surface generator. Drive has sprocket 11 of driving means. The sprocket 11 is installed on shaft of hydraulic drive 12. Hydraulic drive 12 is mounted on plate 13 moving in radial direction relative disc 4 by hydraulic power cylinder 16.
EFFECT: increased safety of the drive, improved disc position adjustment, reduced size, simplified mounting and enhanced maintainability.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises electric means for measuring working volume of pumps and hydraulic motors and pickup (60) for measuring the speed of rotation of the shaft of the pump station. The electric circuits are provided with threshold control members (67) and (80) interconnected between pickup (6) and the electric means. Between threshold control members (67) and (80) and electric means for changing working volume of pumps (67) and (80) and hydraulic motors (13), (14), (17), and (18) of the drive of end wheels are variable resistors (77), (78), (86), and (87) that are controlled by pickups (89) and (89) of pressure difference in hydraulic circuits of the drive of the intermediate wheels and the drive of each pair of end wheels.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering and may be used in production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles. The self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission contains: an input shaft 9 and an output shaft 6, a centrifugal type nonadjustable hydraulic pump 3, a gear differential unit 2 with two output shafts 5, 6 and a nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4. The hydraulic pump 3 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 5. The nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 6, which is an output shaft of the gear differential unit output shaft. Self-regulation of a torque of the output shaft is depending on a load by changing the number of revolutions per a minute of the centrifugal pump using the differential gear of the he self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission. The technical result is an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.