The method of disposal of radioactive waste
(57) Abstract:How is that in the bottom ground form wiem, place a container with waste and covered with soil or other material, and then set on removing the plate. Viem perform at such a depth that does not have the effect of agitation on the surface of the water, and there is no visible movement of water masses in the bottom pane. Viem can be formed by means of an explosion. The technical result consists in the fact, which is technically simple and safe disposal of radioactive waste. 1 C.p. f-crystals. The invention relates to the field of waste disposal of radioactive waste.The known method involving the placement of radioactive waste in the bottom removed and the subsequent backfilling of removing /UK application N 2138198, G 21 F 9/34 published 17.10.84,/ this viem are in the form trenches in shallow water, and waste placed in protective casings. The disadvantages of this known method are:
- shallow water suggests the possibility of the damaging effects on the shell of the aquatic environment and, consequently, the possibility of destruction of the shell and release of radioactive waste;
- is owode assumes the presence of water mass movements and the impact of disturbances on the surface of the water environment, that can lead to the destruction of the protective shell.Technical result achieved when implementing this method is to improve reliability due to the presence of multi-layered protection/container, filling and cooking facilities, as well as reducing the environmental /water mass movement/.The essence of the method lies in the fact that radioactive waste is enclosed in protective containers that are placed in fiamah the bottom. Thus wiemy perform at a depth of no agitation of the water environment in the bottom field at the waves on the water surface and the absence of visible movements of water masses in the bottom pane. After placing the containers wiemy fall asleep and set on top of the stove, ensure there is no leakage at the edges.The depth should be at least 100 meters that were not influenced by storm. In addition, in the burial place, there should be no visible flow, which can contribute to erosion of the bottom soil.The depth should also allow to observe the installation and placement of the container, a filling funnel and the installation plate.Education removing can be carried out by the explosion. While the charge is placed on the cable p is mojen case of education removing the usual deep bomb. The plate is made of steel and has a large mass, which prevents diffusion of substances waste through its edges. 1. The method of disposal of radioactive waste, including the execution in the bottom ground water environment viemu and disposing of radioactive waste, characterized in that the radioactive waste is enclosed in protective containers, place them in viamax bottom ground that perform at a depth of no agitation of the water environment in the bottom field at the waves on the water surface and the absence of visible movements of water masses in the bottom pane, and after placing the containers make the filling viemu containers and set on top of the stove, ensure there is no leakage at the edges.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that viem form explosive charge on the rope, which consistently reinforce a protective shield for the container, located above it.
FIELD: monitoring the ecological safety.
SUBSTANCE: it is proposed a new method for monitoring the safety of sites for storage of radioactive wastes. The method is based on determination of the Cr(VI) nonsorbed ion concentration in the soils, surrounding the storage sites.
EFFECT: reliability of monitoring the safety of sites for radioactive waste storage.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: evacuation of radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for container-free subsurface burial of solid radioactive wastes in abandoned deep workings of cryolite zone involves delivery of solid radiation sources pre-cooled in winter to abandoned mine workings. Radiation sources are placed in layer-by-layer manner on prepared falsework paled floor, leveled, compacted, flooded with water, and frozen by natural cold before piling radioactive wastes to full height of subsurface workings. In the process, burial ground is shaped in the form of pillar. Split ice is added in the course of placing layers of solid radioactive wastes including their forced cooling with cold atmospheric air.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and safety.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: disposal of radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for building radioactive waste disposal structure involves formation of horizontal helical system of round-section transport and room tunnels penetrated by single mechanized tunneling machine including erection of grade-crossing elimination structures. Helical system of tunnels is made in the form of ellipse with variable distance between adjacent tunnels of helical system. Grade-crossing elimination structures are erected at two diametrically opposite points of system where each pair of tunnels is joined to form single tunnel communicating with adjacent coupled tunnel through crossover. Tunnel-to-tunnel distance is predetermined at several points by simulation including heat and radiation load on soil mass.
EFFECT: enhanced radiation safety and reduced construction charges.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: methods of the radioactive waste disposal.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the radioactive waste disposal. Substance of the invention: the method of the radioactive waste disposal includes boring of a borehole, placement of containers with the A-waste and leaving of a barrier pillar in the zone of the plastic deformations of the surrounding rocks, filling of the free volume of the borehole with an expanding plugging material and sealing of a the borehole head. At that the A-waste disposal is conducted in a clay bed, which is in a plastic state. The containers with the A-waste are placed in the middle part of the clay bed in its section with a length of l = m -2hδ, where "m" is the clay bed thickness, hδ is the thickness of argillaceous rocks. The plugging of the free volume of the borehole is conducted using the extracted from the borehole dried and crushed rock. At that on the section of placement of the containers the plugging is performed by substitution of the drilling mud, and on the section of the barrier pillar after an evacuation of the drilling mud - by portioned feed with water addition in the volume corresponding to the natural humidity. Advantages of the invention consist in an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: long-term storage of radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: spent nuclear fuel storage has vertical well with bridge in top part of well, containers with spent nuclear fuel boxes disposed in well, and well ventilating system. Containers are made in the form of cylinders with perforated sections in bottom part which are vertically installed on well face. Boxes holding spent nuclear fuel are disposed within container one on top of other. At least one empty container is placed in well and bridge is installed in top part of well below upper ends of containers.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and long time of radioactive wastes isolation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: burying liquid radioactive wastes; waste recovery at radiochemical plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for burying liquid radioactive wastes incorporating hydrolyzing admixtures into deep-seated container bed includes correction of waste pH by nitric acid solutions and pre-treatment of container bed by forcing nitric acid solutions therein. Nitric acid solution is introduced into container bed in amount sufficient for neutralizing carbonates contained in soil which enters in reaction with waste and for attaining void liquid pH of 1.5, as well as into wastes until their pH is brought to 1 - 1.5. Under such conditions wastes are passed into deep-seated formations without precipitating over long distances.
EFFECT: elongated working time of well, enhanced safety of burying wastes into deep-seated beds.
1 cl, 3 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: physics; construction.
SUBSTANCE: process of crashed atomic reactor entombment includes construction of underground mortuary in the form of vertical underground excavation. Internal volume of the excavation is filled with ice which forms a new temporary ice foundation under the basis of the crashed reactor. The weight of the latter is shifted to the new ice foundation, heat is conducted to it, and gradually the height of ice foundation is decreasing till the complete removal of ice. At that, the crashed reactor is set at the mortuary made previously at the basement of excavation. Before deposition of the crashed reactor underground, solidity (thickness) of frozen soil body under the reactor basis is improved, and then, after the new ice foundation is ready, the load is increased, and the previous ground base is destroyed by adjoining of excavation ice body to the crashed reactor basis via flexible load-bearing cables laid through the vertical wells.
EFFECT: reduces amount of work in immediate proximity to a crashed atomic reactor.
FIELD: underground disposal of biologically hazardous sewage.
SUBSTANCE: process of underground disposal of biologically hazardous sewage into geological formations, which do not have distinct aquifiers above the working floor, includes drilling of injection wells and pumping sewage into the working floor. The process is distinguished by sewage pumping into working floor simultaneously with technical fluid injection into a stratum above the working floor. Pressure of technical fluid injection into the buffering floor is sustained at the level of 0.9-1.1 of sewage injection pressure in the working floor.
EFFECT: prevents disposed sewage penetration into higher aquifiers.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: construction, hydrotechnics.
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to cleaning methods for beds of minor rivers in permafrost zone with seasonal flow from sediments contaminated with radionuclides from radioactive solid waste handling. Removal of contaminated sediments is executed in winter by segments in downstream direction after discharge cancellation and their dewatering. Bottom ground is loosened and mechanically shaved by layers as it is freezed by natural cold with stocking it in temporary piles and subsequent transportation outside river floodplain for burying or laying in surface burial hills. To speed-up layer-by-layer freezing the net of trenches with vertical walls is cut in parallel in bottom ground depth as it freezes. Trench width is defined by parameters of equipment being used, their depth is not less than half a meter and distance between trenches corresponds to double trench depth. The invention allows to isolate from biota (for a period of not less than 100 years) the most migration suspectable solid radioactive wastes and hence to lower the risk of people irradiation.
EFFECT: lowering the risk of people irradiation.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for protection of fresh groundwater, ground and soils from pollution by toxic and radioactive substances in areas of technical wastes storage. In expected place of landfill it is created barrier, formed samples set of ground strata for depth till first water-bearing stratum of protected territory and set of local clay samples from the nearest region. Samples of ground strata are divided into layers presented by different lithological members and then territory is divided into separated sections and for each of them functioning critical time as natural geochemical barrier is defined. Then territorial sections (k) are defined, for them variation range ΔTs of territory required operation life Toper from critical time of its operating as natural geochemical barrier Tscrit exceed previously agreed acceptable value ΔTs= Toper - Tscrit > Tacc. Then it is formed database of potential contaminant migratory parameters for local clays and materials for artificial barriers, each section of being protected territory is covered by barrier material.
EFFECT: providing criterion of predictability territory operation critical time, appraisal ability of contaminants migration velocity in ground strata and increasing of being protected territory operating time.
7 cl, 2 dwg