The impeller of the axial hydraulic machines
(57) Abstract:The impeller is intended for use in hydromeliorative, namely hydro small hydro power plants. The node connecting the impeller with the shaft is made of parts that allow you to create significant pre-stressing. The flanges of the blades is made with extra long shanks, in the form of nuts stretching installed prepisovanie belts on the outer part of the hole housing the impeller. The outer tapered portion of the shank gradually turns to the second prepisovanja belt and ends the polyhedron. At last put the puck with the response of the internal bore, the fixed curved shoulder in the groove housing the impeller and fixing tie bolt screwed into the Central threaded hole of the shank flange of the blade fixing the flange of the blade to the chassis. The shaft flange resting on the inner edge of the impeller, has a Central conical tide and the Central internal thread. In the thread screwed stud, the other end of which is screw nut tension with the outer conical generatrix passing in a reference to the body surface with the center of pressure, sundirect work and creates conditions for increasing the power output by reducing the stub relations. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of hydro, in particular for hydraulic machines small hydropower plants.A prototype of the proposed technical solution is the impeller of the axial hydraulic machine, comprising a housing mounted on the flange of the shaft with a long cylindrical shank terminating external thread, on which the screw nut stretching, resting on the outer end of the housing, and an internal thread, which is screwed into the bolt securing the fairing of the impeller and the blade mounting on the case, while the blade has a flange with a shank, in which in the vicinity of the flange is made of outdoor boarding belt and inner thread, which is screwed into the mounting bolt .The disadvantages of this solution are:
landing band shank flange of the blade prepisovan on the outer edge of the holes in the flange of the blade casing impeller nut tension rests on the inner edge of the end of the body, which leads to eccentric compression jumper corps and the occurrence of tensile stresses in the outer fibers of the dam body, which, being summarized in the course of the tensile stresses from external Gogo, in connection node of the casing and the flange of the blade, fixed in the housing by means of a short strap, which operates the buoyancy force from the eccentric compression jumpers are not provided with enough hard pinched;
long shank flange shaft, made in concert with the shaft, substantially complicates and increases the cost of procurement of the shaft, since this procurement must be made of special shaped beams with different diameters at different sections or round smooth steel (beams), which then by means of mechanical processing will be shot more than 50% of the initial mass of the workpiece for the manufacture of a shaft having sites with substantially different diameters.In addition, the manufacture of the shaft in one piece with the shank, which created significant stress for the initial skin tightening, will result in the need to use expensive high-strength steel or in the manufacture of the shaft of a conventional medium-carbon steels it impossible to create in the shank of the required high voltages of skin tightening.For the similar, you can take the impeller model axial hydraulic machines, in which the axle of the blade representing the CPF is LBA, which is wrapped around the nut on the inside of the housing, securing the blade to the chassis. The diameter of the pin is determined from strength considerations, is longer than its length, making her give tensile quite small. This design has the following disadvantages:
- due to the low compliance of a system of bolt (in this case necks), to ensure usually generated voltages of skin tightening ( 200 MPa) nut need to wrap, turning only 7...10 degrees, which in conjunction intense relaxation phenomena, the initial relaxation of skin tightening and disconnection;
- due to the low flexibility of the system bolt (axle) ratio of base load in this connection increases to 0.5 instead of the usual value of 0.15. . .0,2, resulting in increase in the same ratio voltage in the journal and decreases its reliability;
in design does not envisage the strengthening of cross bridges between the holes for the blades, which causes to increase the area of the jumper to increase the outer diameter of the impeller, and therefore, to reduce bandwidth and power hydraulic ceteris paribus.is and with the shaft. This goal is achieved by the fact that the shank flange of the elongated blades are made with the second internal bore belt, which moves the outer belt of the middle part of the shank, made in the shape of two truncated conical shells, smoothly into one another, the exterior of which forms a nut stretching and clamping bolt screwed into it, is fixed relative to the housing washer with the shoulder, one of which enters the groove in the housing, the other records the pinch bolt, put its internal bore in the form of a polyhedron a polyhedron end of the shank flange of the blade.The shank of the shaft, forming a connection node impeller, made in the form of a conical tide with a Central internal thread forming nut stretching, with screwed in her swivel stud at the end of which screw nut tension with the outer conical generatrix passing in a reference to the body surface with the center of pressure, which coincides with the center of pressure of the outer edge of the impeller of the axial hydraulic machines.The drawing shows a diametrical section of the proposed impeller axial hydraulic machine with a connection node of the casing and the flange of the shaft unit is the missing nut tension and having a threaded hole for the tie rods 8, connected with the casing 2 impeller with nuts stretching 9, when the skin tightening which is provided by the Central compression of the wall of the housing 2. By means of a bolt 5, a locking washer 3, the flange 4 of the blade 6 is fixed in the housing 2. The flange 4 blades 6 provided with an elongated shank 7, the free end of which is made a second landing belt, which moves smoothly into the outer belt of the shank flange 4 blades 6 middle part of the shank, made in the shape of two truncated conical shells, smoothly into one another, the exterior of which forms a nut tension. The clamping bolt 5 is screwed into the nut the tension of the shank 7 of the flange 4 of the blade 6, is fixed against rotation curly washer 3 with shoulder, one of which enters the groove in the housing, the other captures the head of the clamping bolt 5. Pin 8 has a Central threaded hole, which turned the bolt 11, securing the fairing 10 and recessed in its Central hole which is plugged by a stopper 12.The Assembly technology of the proposed device and its static state after Assembly.The shank 7 of the flange 4 of the blade 6 is inserted into the hole of the casing 2 impeller axial hydraulic machines. The blade 6 is fixed the tx2">The bolt 5 is put on the washer 3, which one shoulder is fixed in the groove of the housing, after which it is screwed into the internal thread of the shank 7 of the flange 4 of the blade 6, the controlling force of the tightening bolt 5. There should be no twisting of the flange 4, which is controlled by the risks on the housing 2 and the flange 4. After skin tightening bolt 5 he recorded the second shoulder washers 3.The tie pin 8 is screwed into the nut of the tension in the internal thread of the tide flange 1 of the shaft 13 to create the specified efforts of skin tightening. The flange 1 of the shaft 13 is fitted to the casing 2 impeller so that the protrusions of the flange without bias entered into the undercut of the housing 2, after which the free end of the tie rods 8 put a special nut strain 9 and is skin tightening studs 8, creating it the specified initial efforts of skin tightening, enough to ensure the reliability of the connection flange 1 of the shaft 13 and the casing 2 impeller.A Central part of the flange 1 of the shaft 13 and the nut 9 in the form of a conical nuts stretching and manufacture of studs 8 of the high-strength steel grades, you can create the connection to the high voltage primary skin tightening, providing a minimum of relaxation phenomena and wysokiej pinched shank 7 of the flanges 4 of the blades 6, that increases the reliability of connection of nodes of the housing 2 and the flange 4 of 6 blades.Simultaneously, in the most dangerous section of the casing 2 impeller (in the jumper between the Windows to the flanges of the blades, not shown) occur prior static compressive stress, increase reliability of jumpers, perceiving in operating conditions of the tensile stresses.This construction allows to optimize the connection node of the shank 7 of the flange 4 of the blade 6 with the casing 2 impeller and field jumpers housing 2, on the basis of their strength, making them useful compressive stress, by variation of the position with seat belts shank 7 of the flange 4 of the blade 6, the position of the bearing surface of the nut strain 9 and strength of skin tightening studs 8.Install the fairing 10 locking seat belt in the guide body 2 of the impeller, and then the fairing 10 is fixed by a bolt 11, the twisted pair in the Central hole of the stud 8. The hole for the bolt 11 of the fairing 10 is closed tightly with the cap 12.Description of the operation of the device in operating conditions.The proposed device of the impeller of the axial hydraulic machines, when hydrocele wheel, transmitted to the generator through the flange 4 of the blade 6, the casing 2 impeller, flange shaft 1 and the shaft 13 of the hydro unit.The flange 1 of the shaft 13, the flange 4 of the blade 6 and the fairing 10 to form an easily assembled and reassembled connection with the casing 2 impeller with a high initial voltage, which is possible due to the manufacture of parts of these compounds, which play the role of nuts (flange 1 of the shaft 13, the nut 9 and the shank 7 of the flanges 4 of 6 blades) in the form of special nuts sprains. Consequently, the compounds provided immobility and neraskryvaemogo, which in turn leads to a significant reduction of the load voltages in the most dangerous sections of the connection flanges 4 and bolts 5, as well as in the cross-section of the housing (plug housing) and to increase the strength reliability in all dangerous points of connection.Specified is as follows.When the hydraulic machine, in particular turbine, the flanges 4 of 6 blades acting on the flow through the blades 6 bending and torque (around the axes of the bolts 5) moments and centrifugal forces of the blades.Skin tightening bolts 5, screwed in developed shanks 7 of the conical shape of the flanges 4 of the blades 6, and skin tightening studs 8, OSC 4 blades 6 remains unstable welded to the casing 2 impeller when all combinations of forces, acting on the node connection flange 4 to the housing 2, including the accelerating mode.As a result, the bolt 5 is passed only part of the external load, defined by the coefficient basic load Sanogo (neraskryvaemogo) flange connection (10...20%). Therefore, the voltage from the external forces in our offer minimized by increasing the compliance of a system of bolts, including nuts and stretching. In addition, in the proposed design is significant additional pinched developed and executed with two prepisovanie in body belts shank 7 of the flanges 4 of the blades 6 in the axial compression of the housing 2 when the skin tightening nut 9.As a consequence, will be further reduced when part of the external load on the bolt 5 against these 10...20%. Therefore, the reliability of the connection node of the flange 4 of the blade 6 and the housing 2 will increase. Jumper housing 2, which is located in the cross section passing through the axis of the bolts, in the proposed design are subjected to compression when the skin tightening nut 9, which provides uniform compression of the housing. Moreover, due to the presence in the system of high-strength studs 8 and nuts stretching 9 (pin 8 and two nuts stretching it ends) tension compression Paramecium high reliability plug body 2 even when a very small stub respect compared to the prototype.Lockwasher 3 increases the stiffness of the crushing of the flanges 4 of the blades 6 in the housing 2 and, consequently, the reliability of mounting flanges of the blades.Thus, implementation of the proposed ideas in the design of the impeller of the axial hydraulic machines provides a simplification of manufacture and Assembly of the impeller and increase its reliability. At the same time appears to increase energoeffektivnyh qualities of the turbine by reducing the stub relationship.The proposed impeller axial hydraulic machines can be easily manufactured and applied to commercially available hydraulic machines small hydro. Developed sectoral program on development of experimental small HPP on the development of optimal designs of technological equipment of hydropower plants.In this program, which currently is being reviewed in RAO UES of Russia proposed the impeller is regarded as the most perfect for fabrication and testing in the first place.Sources of information
1. USSR author's certificate N 1795143 A1, class F 03 B 3/12 (Fig.2 - Prototype).2. Model tests of hydraulic turbines. Ed. by C. M. orpus, mounted on the flange of the shaft with a long cylindrical shank terminating threads that screw nut stretching, resting on the outer end of the housing, and an internal thread, which is screwed into the bolt securing the fairing to the impeller, and a blade attached to the housing, the blade has a flange with a shank, in which in the vicinity of the flange is made of outdoor boarding belt, and an internal thread, which is screwed into the clamping bolt, characterized in that the shank flange of the elongated blades are made with the second internal bore belt, which moves the outer belt of the middle part of the shank, made in the shape of two truncated conical shells, smoothly into one another, the exterior of which forms a nut tension, the clamping bolt screwed into it, is fixed relative to the housing washer with the shoulder, one of which enters the groove in the housing, the other records the pinch bolt, put its internal bore in the form of a polyhedron a polyhedron end of the shank.2. The impeller of the axial hydraulic machines under item 1, characterized in that the shank of the shaft, forming a connection node impeller, made in the form kanilai, at the end of which screw nut tension, with the outer conical generatrix passing in a reference to the body surface with the center of pressure, which coincides with the center of pressure of the outer edge of the impeller.
FIELD: turbine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: blade system comprises blades whose inlet and outlet edges are made so that the working section of the inlet blade edge adjacent to the hub prevents against cavitation.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic unit contains hydro generator, working blades rotating around a horizontal axis and having a shape formed with one parabola or with a cross of two parabolas, and a shaft running inside a bar to transfer a torque to the generator. The unit is equipped with a hollow drum with supports providing its floatation ability, and with a rotary table whereon the hydro generator is assembled. Also the hydro generator has inertial wheels with massive rims secured to both sides of the drum, and the second bar. The working blades are fastened flexibly with loops to the drum and pressed to the supports by flat springs. The shaft is made flexible and runs through both rods by means of which the axis of the unit is held and directed.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a hydro unit.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: centrifugal reaction impeller can be used in non-pressure devices, for example in centrifugal pumps and turbines. The impeller if made up of two plates with a circular belt rigidly fitted there between and furnished with closed discharge channels made therein. The aforesaid impeller is fitted on the shaft and has a hole to receive working medium. The discharge channels are arranged along the axial component perpendicular to the impeller radius, their outlets being directed towards the direction opposite to the impeller rotation. The impeller inner space features toroidal shape with a golden cross section.
EFFECT: reduced mechanical friction losses and higher efficiency.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydropower engineering, namely to design of turbine impellers. Tubular impeller comprises blades and shaft with upper and lower bearing disks. Tubular blades bent in the shape of elbow are installed between disks. Outlets of tubular blades are oriented horizontally along tangents to circumference of lower disk. Blades are arranged in the form of pipe sections, inlet upper sections of which are installed vertically. All pressure flow passes only inside tubular blades, which excludes non-power flow of water passing through turbine, improves cavitation characteristic of turbine and flow laminarity. External surfaces of tubular blades and surfaces of other impeller parts remain dry, which reduces losses for friction.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of impeller.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydraulic power engineering and can be used at hydraulic turbine plants; namely, in orthogonal-type hydraulic turbines with low heads. Hydraulic turbine consists of a wheel, a shaft, blades having aerodynamic profile, and traverses providing blades-to-shaft attachment. Blades are sectional and consist of pressure and back elements equipped with connection plates arranged between them and rigidly connected on one side to pressure element, and on the other side - to the back element of the blade. Pressure and back elements of the blade are made in the form of curved surfaces from sheet material of the same thickness. Section of the blade back element located close to the blade inlet edges is C-shaped and bent relative to the blade pressure element. Traverses rigidly connected to the shaft penetrate with the blades which are rigidly fixed on their ends.
EFFECT: invention is intended for increasing power, reliability of the design, decreasing material consumption, the manufacturing labour input and decreasing the cost owing to blades with aerodynamic profile being used.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: blade system of impeller of radial axial hydraulic turbine includes rim 1, hub 2 and blades 3, each of which is connected to rim 1 and hub 2 and provided with inlet and outlet edges 4 and 5 of bent shape and smoothly changing thickness in the direction from inlet edge to outlet edge and from hub 2 to rim 1. Blades 3 of blade system have thickened part near inlet edge 4. Maximum thickness of blade 3 in its section with hub 2 is more than maximum thickness of blade 3 in its section with rim 1. Optimum intervals of values of parameters are determined: maximum thickness of section of blade 3 with hub 2, maximum thickness of section of blade 3 with rim 1, as well as their location places along straightened middle line of the appropriate section.
EFFECT: preventing flow separation after inlet edges of blades at operation of hydraulic turbine in modes with increased heads and modes with partial loads in the whole range of working heads.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to devices wherein flow of liquid rotates big rotor of screw type or rotor wheel having external circular rim positioned inside big circular case. A hydro-electric turbine consists of rotor 20 positioned inside case 30 with external circular rim 22 located in channel 32 made in case 30. The turbine is improved due to making at least one exit channel 50 for removal of foreign particles. Foreign objects caught between rotor 20 and case 30 are removed through exit channel 50.
EFFECT: avoiding or minimisation of foreign objects accumulation in channel of case.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic turbine of immersion type includes rotor 20, housing-stator that is integrated into rotor 20 and electricity generating means. Rotor 20 has outer rim 22 that encircles the blades 21. There is one or more floating chambers 60 located in outer rim.
EFFECT: rotor weight reduction for floating obtaining.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: store of energy created with wind force includes sufficient amount of energy to meet the demands of the whole mankind. The invention represents effective device supplying this energy store for practical use. On rotating drive shaft 3 there installed is a pair of shaped parts 1, 2 of convex and concave profile, open V-shaped profile with rounded top, which reverses its orientation through 180 degrees, i.e. it is rotated from convex state to concave state. Drive shaft is rotated through 180 degrees. Circular movement of water, which takes place in the wave, effectively brings into operation such turbine, while the wave dies away. Pair of concave and convex shaped parts 1, 2 is spirally spread about drive shaft 3, by means of which the streams in all directions, which come into contact with pair of shaped parts, create the torque moment.
EFFECT: improving the use efficiency of streams and multidirectional oscillatory movements occurring in waves.
25 cl, 20 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: impeller of Francis type includes rim 1 with rotation symmetry about rotation axis Z of impeller and bent blades 21, 22, which are rigidly attached to rim 1, each of which includes external peripheral edge 212, 222 and internal central edge 211, 221. Connection points B21, B22 of rim 1 with internal central edges 211, 221 of blades 21, 22 are located on one and the same circle C20 centred relative to above mentioned axis Z. Connection points A21, A22 of rim 1 with external peripheral edges 212, 222 of blades 21, 22 are located at least on two different circles C21, C22 centred relative to axis Z.
EFFECT: reduction of the cost of composite elements of devices owing to limiting their dimensions by reducing the action on them of radial stresses under unsteady conditions.
11 cl, 4 dwg