Wing (blade) to adjust to any misalignment of the angle of attack to the direction of flow environment
(57) Abstract:Wing (blade) is designed for energy power plants using energy flow and converts it into mechanical energy, and can also be used as a hard sail-wing, turbine, hydraulic and other Wing to adjust to any misalignment of the angle of attack to the direction of flow of the medium is installed on a moving structure with the possibility of rotation around its own axis. Wing contains the device changes the angle of attack by rotating its axis by means of influence on him through the kinematic connection of the flap that is installed on the rear edge of the wing can be rotated. The device changes the angle of attack represents an axis, one end of which is located inside the flap between the two plates and is bent at an angle 120-135° with the ability to move between these plates, while the axis is made to rotate, and its second end is located inside the wing and kinematically associated with moving design with the possibility of stress-elastic recoil of rotation when exceeding the torque of the rotation axis. Kinematic relationship side of the axis of the device changes the angle of attack, raspolozhenu engagement with the bevel gear, mounted in the housing of the moving structure, or in the form of a flexible connection. The device allows maximum use of the energy flow. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to the field of energy power plants using energy flow and converts it into mechanical energy, as well as to the field of dvigateli and can be used as a hard sail-wing, turbine, hydraulic, etc.Known wind power unit according to the author's certificate of the USSR N 1442692 /1/ containing mounted on a vertical shaft rotor with rotary blades on a horizontal bearing traverse. Device rotation of the wings includes a thrust, in pairs attached one end to the blades, where the device turn provided with a crank mechanisms, each rod of which by means of levers and hinges connected to the other ends of the rods of each pair.This scheme allows to guarantee the full independence of the aerodynamic modes of each blade from the wind direction. However, the limited mobility prevents the creation of a thrust force of a separate wing for the entire trajectory swept surface. This leads to the replacement of the automatic regulation of the angle of attack and profile curvature for U.S. patent 5193978 /2/, adopted as a prototype containing the front section, which is using the parallelogram device is rotated around its vertical axis (parallel to the axis of rotation of the rotor, to which are attached radial beam wings), and is set at some angle of attack to the oncoming flow. The rear section of the blade connected to the front via a pivoting device. A control lever pivotally connected with the axis of the blade and by a parallelogram mechanism with the rear section of the blade. The rear section of the blade, simultaneously with the front, is always parallel to the control lever, which in turn changes the angle of attack of the blade and flow direction parallel to the control lever, so that the curvature of the profile is changed. At high angles of attack, you may receive the maximum lifting force. The blade can be used to convert the energy flow or movement in the stream.The disadvantages of the prototype are:
1. The presence of the protruding levers, creating aerodynamic losses.2. Poor stabilization of the position of the blade in the flow - the blade can take on a negative angle of attack.3. When flygerian from squall.4. The inability to make a complete revolution around its axis, since the control lever has two rigidly fixed point of installation.All this does not allow the maximum use of the energy of the wind or was.The problem solved by the invention, is maximum use of the energy of the wind or water flow through achieving the following technical result: substantial, up to 0.8, improve the energy utilization factor of wind - or was; the ability to effectively use as automatically installed on the flow of the wing.The goal of the project is achieved in that wing adjust to any misalignment of the angle of attack to the direction of flow of the medium, mounted on a moving structure with the possibility of rotation around its own axis and containing the device to change the angle of attack by rotating its axis by means of influence on him through the kinematic connection of the flap that is installed on the rear edge of the wing can be rotated, the device changes the angle of attack represents an axis, one end of which is located inside the flap between the two plates and bent at an angle (120-135)Kinematic relationship side of the axis of the device changes the angle of attack, which is located in the wing, moving design, made in the form prescribed on the axis of the conical gear meshing with bevel gear mounted in the housing moving the structure or in the form of a flexible connection.The invention is illustrated by drawings on the example of vetrogidroenergetica, which depict:
Fig. 1, is a General view of vetrogidroenergetica;
Fig. 2 is a top view with vector diagrams of speed and strength;
Fig. 3 - wing with flaps;
Fig.4 is a kinematic diagram of the device of the self in the angle of attack.The invention includes a vertical rotor with blades 1, a shaft 2 which is mounted on the base 3. Inside the base 3 are the multiplier and an electric generator, not shown in the drawings. The lower end of the shaft is kinematically connected with the shaft of the multiplier. In the upper part of the shaft 2 is installed hub 4 to which is attached rigidly to the radial rod 5, evenly spaced around the circumference. The number of radial rod 5 is equal to the number of blades 1. In the described exemplary embodiment the design of wind turbine is considered a variant of the three-bladed rotor, but CISL free rotation around the axes of the rollers 6, parallel to the axis of the rotor shaft 2 of the rotor. Each blade 1 consists of the lower wing 7, the upper wing 8 and the control flap 9. The bottom 7 and top 8 wings rigidly interconnected by a roller 6 which is free to rotate in the bearing 10, which is mounted in the housing 11, is rigidly mounted on the end of the radial rod 5. Thus, each pair of wings 7 and 8 freely rotates on its axis parallel to the axis of the shaft 2 of the rotor. Trapezoidal in plan the wings 7 and 8 are symmetric hydrodynamic profile. The axis of rotation of the wings 7 and 8 pass through the focus of the wing at a distance of 30 % of chord from the leading edge that does not cause displacement of the center of dynamic pressure of the flow at the working angles of attack of the blade, and fluoroware blades with heavy gusts of wind is provided mainly flap mounted behind the rear edge of the wing 8.The wings are balanced so that their centers of mass was located on the axis of rotation, i.e. the axis of the roller 6, it eliminates the influence of centrifugal forces on the hydrodynamic forces during rotation of the rotor.The control flap 9 is located on the trailing edge 8, he has Aerohydrodynamic (mutually beneficial) profile. The area of the control flap 9 is under the surveillance of the blade in the stream. The control flap 9 is used to set the blade 1 at the optimum angle of attack for the apparent velocity vector of the flow. Aerogidromehanika the blade installation is performed using the device installation angle of attack, which is located in the housing 12 within the casing 13 of the upper wing 8. The control flap 9 is installed with the possibility of rotation around the axis 15, rotating in bearings 16, which are mounted on brackets 17 mounted on the rear edge of the wing 8. Inside flap 9 has two parallel flat plates 18 with a guaranteed gap between them. In the gap between the plates 18 sets the axis of the crank 19, which is still connected with the axis of the mechanism 20 angle (120-135)orotating in bearings 21. The vertex angle of intersection of the axes 19 and 20 located on the centerline of the hinge axis 15 and the rotation of the flap 9 at some angle is converted into rotation axis 20 and Vice versa. On the other end of axle 20 having a flat area on the side surface, equipped with a conical gear wheel 22 can be rotated in excess of the working torque. A gear wheel 22 is equipped with a mechanism for tracking the adjustment of the moment of rotation on the axis 20 to provide fluoroware blades when squall and the entrance is sterile on the platen 6. Flange bevel gear 23 on the side surface has a recess 24, to which by means of the clamping device (e.g., farm Mises) drawn in the fixing roller 25. The roller 25 fixes the gear 23, not allowing it to pivot relative to the housing 11, and can be pressed her arm centrifugal regulator 26.With increasing angular speed higher than the calculated centrifugal force FCBmass controller 26 increases and the lever 27, overcoming the clamping force, the press roller 25 from the flange bevel gear 23. The gear rotates in the housing 11 and the wing flygirls, but remains in the feathered position only so long as the angular velocity has dropped to settlement. The threshold of the regulator can be adjusted. In the initial position chord stole 8 and the flaps 9 are located on a straight line perpendicular to the centerline of its radial rod, i.e., tangent to the circumference of the rotation.The principle of hydrodynamic installation angle of attack of the blade is based on the difference in the location of the centers of the dynamic pressure of the flow in a symmetric convex and symmetrical wing profile MAGNETOM the profile of the flap. When the angle of attack of the wing is symmetric vieile not experiencing restoring force. The flap center of dynamic pressure with minimum deviation from the feathered position is moved to the rear edge and he seeks to restore his feathered position. The flap is kinematically connected with the wing, inside of which is fixed to the housing of the mechanism kinematically associated with the radial arm in its azimuthal position relative to the flow direction. The angle of attack of each wing depends on the specified angle 19 to the axis 20 and the azimuth (heading) angle of this wing to the wind speed at a given speed of rotation of the rotor.The present invention works in the following way:
Consider the initial moment of impact of the stream on the stationary rotor. Flow affects the flap 9, which is trying to take a directional position, is rotated together with the wing at a certain angle. Together with flaps 9 are rotated and flat plate 18, between which sets the axis of the crank 19. The axis 19 is rotated together with the plate 18 in a horizontal plane, while sliding on the surface of one of the plates in a vertical plane, i.e., sine-cosine dependence. Axis mechanism 20 is communicated torque and bevel gear 22 runs in the gear 23 on which eno chord of the wing 8 in this design is equal to 45o.When forced rotation of the flap 9 on the wing 8 at 45oa gear wheel 22 is rotated 90oand, objetivas by a toothed wheel 23, rotates the blade 1 on the 90ofrom the initial position. In this case, the flap 9 is rotated in space on the 90o+ 45o= 135o. The average ratio between the rotation angle of the wing 8 90oC, and the total angle of rotation of the flap 9, equal 135ois equal to 0.66, and the angle of attack = -0,66. With a stationary rotor = = 90, = 90-59,4= 30,6. The wing is located at: azimuth 0oor 180oand the power of the dynamic pressure on it immediately converted into a thrust force directed tangentially to the circumference of the rotor. The rotor starts to rotate at a peripheral velocity Vwhile each wing induces a counter-thread-V= Vand it affects the flow equal to the algebraic sum of the vectors Vand VT, i.e., VAand forming an angle with the vector Vthat in turn forms an anglecwith the vector VT. Given that the highest utilization rate of flow is possible when V= Vt2, i.e., the relative RMSE is scrap, and calculate the total thrust of all wings for one full turn. Thus, flaps, tracking the flow of VAconstantly generates a moment of rotation on the axis 20 angle of attack , constantly providing traction T directed along the line of the vector V. If a strong gust of wind on the flap 9 there is an additional side dynamic pressure. The torque on the axis 20 is rising sharply toothed gear 22 rotates on the axis 20. The flap 9 is losing hard kinematic relationship with the wing 8 and flygirls. For wing 8 angle is currently sacrificii and it also flygirls. A similar process happens with other wings, that is, the rotor obespechivaetsya", and after passing a flurry of wings, while in azimuth= 90again restore its performance
With increasing flow velocity VTor when the load of the generator may increase the peripheral speed V= R. the Increase of the angular velocity will increase FCBcentrifugal force regulator 26 and he his arm 27 will press the pressure roller 25 from the recess 24 on the flange bevel gear 23, and it will turn in the housing 11. Under the influence of the flap 9, the axis 19 axis 20 wing will be exempt from chacenay, then the function mechanisms will be restored when passing through the point= 90.
The health wing of tried and tested models of sailing catamaran and vertical wind turbine.Sources used:
1. USSR author's certificate N 1442692-similar.2. U.S. patent N 5193978 prototype. 1. Wing (blade) to adjust to any misalignment of the angle of attack to the direction of flow of the medium, mounted on a moving structure with the possibility of rotation around its own axis, containing the device to change the angle of attack by rotating its axis by means of influence on him through the kinematic connection of the flap that is installed on the rear edge of the wing can be rotated, characterized in that the device changes the angle of attack represents an axis, one end of which is located inside the flap between the two plates and is bent at an angle of 120 - 135owith the ability to move between these plates, while the axis is made to rotate, and its second end is located inside the wing and kinematically associated with moving design with the possibility of stress-elastic recoil of rotation exceeding the working metroactive changes of angle of attack, located in the wing with a moving design, made in the form prescribed on the axis of the conical gear meshing with bevel gear mounted in the housing of the moving structure.3. Wing (blade) under item 1, characterized in that the kinematic connection side of the axis of the device changes the angle of attack, which is located in the wing with a moving design, made in the form of flexible connection.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-conventional power sources, and it can be used in plants using energy of wind, river, deep sea and other currents. Proposed plant contains one or several vertical shafts and horizontal rods with blades. Said hollow rods are installed on shafts for limited turning relative to their axes. Opposite blades of each rod are rigidly secured on rod square to each other and eccentrically relative to axis of rod. Shafts adjacent in horizontal direction are made for rotation in opposite directions.
EFFECT: provision of simple ecologically safe device operating at any direction of current in liquid and gaseous medium and at medium interface.