Device for producing oxygen from atmospheric air
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of adsorption technique and can be used for air separation by pressure swing adsorption with getting the gas mixture with a high content of oxygen. The unit consists of an air compressor, drying unit and the adsorption unit comprising a receiver, two filled with the adsorbent of the adsorber, the inlet pipe which is connected to the compressed air supply and output connections to the receiver, pipelines connecting the adsorbers with a receiver, a source of compressed air, the consumer, and two parallel pipelines connecting the output connections of the adsorbers between them, mounted with controllable valves and narrowing devices supply washers, and communicating sections consumable washers different and are chosen in a special way valves control the gas flow and the control unit, switch valves in sequence to realize in the adsorbers cycle adsorption-regeneration. The technical result is the optimization of the flow rate of product gas supplied to the regeneration of the adsorbent, the improvement effeat energy. 1 Il., table 1. The invention relates to the field of adsorption technique and can be used for air separation by pressure swing adsorption with getting the gas mixture with a high content of oxygen.Known pressure swing adsorption plant for air separation to obtain a gas mixture with a high content of oxygen, consisting of an air compressor and an adsorption unit comprising a receiver, two filled with the adsorbent of the adsorber, the inlet pipe which is connected to the compressed air supply and output connections to the receiver, pipelines connecting the adsorbers with a receiver, a source of compressed air, consumers and each other, the valves control the gas flow and the control unit performs switching of the valves in sequence to realize in the adsorbers cycle adsorption-regeneration /see application France N 2569352, class. B 01 D 53/02, A 61 M 16/10, 1986/
A disadvantage of the known device is the lack of regulation of the gas flow with a high content of oxygen supplied to the regeneration of the adsorbent independently in each of the adsorbers that are not pozvolyaet efficiency of the installation as a whole.The closest adopted for the prototype, is the plant for oxygen-enriched air, containing a suction unit /compressor/ air dryer for drying air and the adsorption unit, consisting of two adsorbers with adsorbent receiver, valves, connecting pipes /see U.S. patent N 4491459, CL 55-163, 1985/
Due to the inequality of the operating characteristics of the adsorbers, which always takes place in real devices of this type /differences in the quality of the adsorbent, the difference of the hydraulic resistance of the layer, the difference of the geometric dimensions, and these differences the greater, the larger the size and the more complex the design/ efficiency of the installation operation below the maximum achievable as to reduce the influence of this factor is necessary to ensure that the gas supply to the regeneration of each of the adsorbers with a flow rate corresponding to its individual characteristics, which in this design is not provided.The proposed device for producing oxygen from air, comprising an air compressor, drying unit and the adsorption unit comprising a receiver, two filled with the adsorbent of the adsorber, the inlet is Edinaya adsorbers with a receiver, the source of compressed air, consumers and each other, the valves control the gas flow and the control unit performs switching of the valves in sequence to realize in the adsorbers cycle adsorption-regeneration, characterized in that the setting input a second pipeline connecting the outlet of one adsorber with the outlet pipe of the other, and the first and second pipelines installed valves and orifice type of expenditure washers, and communicating sections consumable washers different and are chosen in a special way.The proposed installation, unlike the prototype, is composed of the adsorption unit two parallel pipelines connecting the output connections of the adsorbers, mounted with controllable valves and expenditure washers of different diameters. This allows for debugging of the technological cycle to optimize the flow of product gas supplied to the regeneration of the adsorbent, independently for each of the adsorbers, which increases the efficiency of the regeneration process and improves the performance of the entire installation without additional energy costs.The drawing shows a diagram of the config block 3, connected by pipelines. The adsorption unit 3, in turn, consists of two adsorbers AD1, AD filled with sorbent layer which is preferential sorption of nitrogen, receiver AK, in which there is an accumulation of product gas and averaging its concentration, as well as smoothing of pressure fluctuations caused by cyclical operation of the installation, and piping systems a, b, C, g, d, e, connecting the adsorbers AD1, AD and receiver AK among themselves, with the source of compressed air, with the consumer and with a drainage line. On pipelines installed controlled valves K1.., K6, check valves K01, K02 and orifice type of expenditure washers DRN, DRN provide control of gas flows in the adsorption unit, the control unit BU, switch valves K1,..., K6 for alternate implementation of the adsorbers AD1, AD cycle adsorption-regeneration.The device operates as follows.Air compressor 1 sucks in air, compresses it to a pressure of 8...10 kgf/cm2and submits to the input of the drying unit 2, in which the moisture is separated and the oil. Next, the dried compressed air is fed to the inlet of the adsorption unit 3. B Is D1, AD, alternately goes through cycles of adsorption-regeneration, and when one of them is in the process of adsorption, the other is regenerated.Compressed air passing through the pipe and through the open valve K1, is fed to the inlet of the adsorber AD1 and moves through the bed of sorbent in which there is preferential adsorption of nitrogen molecules. With increasing gas pressure in the adsorber, the oxygen concentration at the outlet increases and reaches a value of 90...95%.Simultaneously, from the adsorber AD are reset remaining after the previous stage adsorption enriched nitrogen gas, drainage through open valve K4 and drainage piping B. By decreasing pressure in the adsorber AD results in the release of nitrogen molecules absorbed by the sorbent previously, i.e., its regeneration.When the pressure of the gas in the adsorber AD1 magnitude greater than the pressure in the receiver AK, check valve K01 is automatically opened and the product gas output AD1 enters the receiver AK. Simultaneously, the valve opens K5 and product gas by pipeline in expenditure through the washer LFPR 1 with optimal flow enters the outlet of the adsorber AD and then through the layer of sorbent and the meters of gas.After a certain period of time the drain valve K4 is closed and in the adsorber AD there is a partial pressure recovery due to the ongoing supply of product gas output AD1.During the purge and partial recovery of the pressure in AD product gas continues to flow into the receiver AK, through the check valve K01, compensating for the loss of pressure in the receiver caused by the selection of gas to the consumer.When the pressure of gas in AT the optimal value, the valve K5 and K1 closes and opens the valve K2 and K3 and the cycle is repeated so that the adsorber AD begins phase adsorption, and in the adsorber AD1 - stage regeneration and purge and partial pressure recovery in AD1 is gas output AT through the open valve K6 pipeline g with optimal flow determined pass-section expenditure washer DRN, and closing of the valve K3, and loss of pressure in the receiver AK caused by the selection of gas to the consumer, recovered by feeding the product gas output AT through the check valve K02 pipeline D.Selection of flow sections consumable washers to optimize the regeneration of the sorbent is carried shall provide the approximate diameter of the hole consumable washer according to the following formula
< / BR>where d is the diameter of the hole consumable washer, cm;
3,6210-2the factor that determines the minimum value of the purge gas flow rate through a unit cross-sectional area of the canister (determined experimentally), kg/(BSD2);
S is a sectional area of the adsorber, cm2;
T is the temperature of the gas before spending washer, K;
- - coefficient of consumption expenditure washers;
P is the calculated value of pressure adsorption, kgf/cm2;
B*- coefficient of the gas type, in our case, B*= 0,417 (for oxygen at the supercritical pressure drop).In the manufacture of the pipelines, G establish expenditure washers with a hole diameter equal to the estimated value of d. During the debugging process, record the pressure value in each of the adsorbers in the late stages of adsorption. The diameter of the hole consumable washers installed in the pipeline, through which the purging of the adsorber, with more pressure in the late stages of adsorption when installed in both pipelines expendable washers with hole diameter d, is determined experimentally from the condition of maximum oxygen concentration by a consistent increase from C installation the following results were obtained (see table).Thus, the proposed device for producing oxygen from atmospheric air allows for the same energy cost as the prototype, to get a higher specification. Device for producing oxygen from air, comprising an air compressor, drying unit and the adsorption unit comprising a receiver, two filled with the adsorbent of the adsorber, the inlet pipe which is connected to the compressed air supply and output connections to the receiver, pipelines connecting the adsorbers with a receiver, a source of compressed air, consumers and each other, the valves control the gas flow and the control unit performs switching of the valves in sequence to realize in the adsorbers cycle adsorption - regeneration, characterized in that the installation entered the second pipeline, connecting the outlet of one adsorber with the outlet pipe of the other, and the first and second pipelines installed valves and orifice type of expenditure washers, and communicating sections consumable various washers and hole diameter of one of them ODA is, predelay minimum value of the purge gas flow rate through a unit cross-sectional area of the canister (determined experimentally), kg/(s cm2);
S is a sectional area of the adsorber, cm2;
T is the temperature of the gas before spending washer, K;
- coefficient of consumption expenditure washers;
R - calculated value of pressure adsorption, kgf/cm2;
IN*= 0,417 - coefficient of the gas type,
while the diameter of the holes other consumable washers installed in the pipeline, through which the purging of the adsorber, with more pressure in the late stages of adsorption when installed in both pipelines expendable washers with hole diameter d, is determined experimentally from the condition of maximum oxygen concentration by successive increasing values from d to d1with a step of 0.05 - 0.1 mm
FIELD: petroleum and gas industries; adsorptive refining of liquid and gas streams from impurities.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with designs of adsorptive apparatuses and may be used in different branches of industry for adsorptive refining of liquid and gas streams from impurities. The adsorptive apparatus contains a cylindrical body with connecting pipes of the cleaned medium feeding and withdrawal of not adsorbed components, in which there is a partition dividing its space into two communicating chambers, in each of which a sorbent is placed. At that the partition has a cavity limited at least by one flexible wall. The invention allows to increase a purification efficiency of the divided mixture at the expense of exclusion of wall cavities, the use of different sorbents with various properties, to ensure operation of the adsorber with changing while in operation volumes of adsorbent in a corrosive medium and high temperature of a desorption.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased purification efficiency, possibility to use different sorbents with various properties, operation of the adsorber with changing while in operation volumes of adsorbent.
FIELD: sorption neutralization of gases.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device includes two parallel horizontal gas-tight reactors arranged in casing at spaced relation; each reactor includes at least two sections filled with bulk granulated adsorbent and closed over ends with partitions carrying ejection pneumatic haulage units mounted above flow divider; device is provided with inlet and outlet branch pipes for delivery and discharge of gas; provision is made for V-shaped slide at angle of generatrices exceeding slope of repose for bulk adsorbent; V-shaped slide of each reactor is provided with drain branch pipe; walls of central reservoir are combined with hood excluding bridging of adsorbent; hood is equidistant relative to slide. Mechanism for hermetic discharge of used adsorbent includes longitudinal screw feeder and discharge pipe fitted with swivel gate valve; direction of turn of spiral provided on screw feeder of discharge mechanism is opposite to direction of main spiral.
EFFECT: improved quality of neutralization of gases; enhanced operational safety.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: devices for separation of gases by adsorption.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for separation of gases by adsorption, in particular, to adsorbers for realization of a cyclical adsorption-desorption process of separation of the air. The adsorber used for a short-cycled heatingless adsorption contains a body filled with a sorbent and a mounted inside it at least one ring conical partition and unions for feeding (withdraval) of the treated gaseous medium and separation of a target component, supplied with the filtering partitions. At that in the narrowed part of the conical partition there is a filtering device made in the form of an enclosed in the body rolled transversely as Archimedes spiral hose filter inside which there is a band with protrusions and cavities forming with the hose filter internal walls bins and as a sorbent they use a layered charge of faujasite zeolites in calcium and lithium forms in the ratio from 0.2:1 up to 1:0.2. At that on the boundary line of the layers there are perforated partitions with a high thermal conductivity. The invention allows to improve reliability of operation of the adsorber.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improved reliability of operation of the adsorber.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides an improved adsorbent to remove impurities form various hydrocarbon streams. Adsorbent contains zeolite, alumina, and an additional metal oxide, at least 10 mol % of metal in the metal oxide being based on stoichiometric amount of metal required to compensate negative charge of zeolite lattice. Resulting adsorbent containing zeolite X, aluminum oxide, and sodium is successfully used to treat ethylene stream to liberate the latter from CO2, H2S, methanol, and other sulfur- and oxygen-containing compounds.
EFFECT: expanded hydrocarbon purification possibilities.
6 cl, 4 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides material for retaining polyhalogenated compounds consisted of filler capable of absorbing polyhalogenated compounds and polyolefin matrix wherein filler is entirely bound and captured.
EFFECT: extended possibilities of capturing harmful polyhalogenated compounds and inconveniences of activated carbon and polyolefin absorbers are avoided.
13 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: gas treatment processes.
SUBSTANCE: process comprises passing gas-air mixture through powdered polymer adsorbent bed followed by desorption, said powdered polymer adsorbent being, more specifically, polyvinylchloride powder with particle size 0.16 to 10.00 mm and total particle porosity 29 to 52%. Adsorption is conducted in periodic mode in fixed bed adsorbers. Desorption is effected under vacuum at residual pressure from 0.001·104 to 2.5·104 Pa.
EFFECT: enabled quantitative isolation of a wide spectrum of organics at simplified purification technology.
1 tbl, 23 ex
FIELD: obtaining fresh water from atmospheric air in remote, dry or arid zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating air flow with air blower; supplying air flow through air ducts, valves and heat-exchangers; absorbing water steam from air flow by sorbent at absorption stage; heating sorbent layer at desorption stage by heat generators arranged directly in sorbent layer; removing desorbed water steam from sorbent layer; condensing water steam in condenser and accumulating thereof in storage vessels. The heat generators are heat-exchangers with developed surfaces distributed in sorbent layer and sorbent heating is performed due to water steam condensation on heat-exchanger surfaces. Besides, electric heaters may be used as the heat generators. The electric heaters are also distributed in sorbent layer and are heated by alternating current supplied thereto. The heat generators may be formed as current-conducting sorbent layer heated by electric current. Catalyst may be also used as the heat generators. The catalyst is located in sorbent layer and adapted to provide hydrocarbon oxidation reaction.
EFFECT: increased quality of obtained fresh water and reduced power consumption for fresh water obtaining.
6 cl, 3 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises passing air through cooled adsorbent bed and then through carbon monoxide oxidation catalyst bed based on manganese and copper oxides. Thereafter, air is passed through heated adsorbent, after which air stream direction is reversed and simultaneously adsorbent is heated at its inlet and heated at its outlet. Cooling and heating are accomplished with the aid of thermoelectric elements, wherein current direction switching is made synchronously with air stream direction reversal. Filter module contains adsorber connected to cartridge at its exit. Cartridge contains carbon monoxide oxidation catalyst. A second adsorber is mounted on the outlet of cartridge. Adsorbers are connected to air stream switch and made with internal ribbing coupled with thermoelectric elements. The latter connected to power source over current direction switch.
EFFECT: simplified process, increased reliability, reduced power consumption, reduced apparatus dimensions, and avoided operation suspension for performing regeneration.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises dust catcher, adsorber, and sucking device connected via the through passage for supplying air with inlet and outlet branch pipes and mounted on the individual section of the movable platform for permitting mutual connection. The device is provided with the additional section of the movable platform provided with the lock device for connecting with the main sections. The additional section is provided with the device for fine purification of air, which is mounted downstream of the adsorber. The device for fine purification is made of housing that receives vertical grids whose mesh size does not exceeds 0.6 mm. The layers of chemical absorbers are interposed between the grids. The layers catch harmful gases that are generated during welding. The thickness of each layer is 50-80 mm. The specific gas loading of each of the layers does not exceed 1.5 l/min cm2. The device for fine purification of air is provided with the mechanism for discharging of the exhaust chemical absorbers.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of purification.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: petroleum industry; methods of purification of the associated petroleum gases.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petroleum industry and may be used for the additional purification of the associated petroleum gas on the oil fields at its usage as the motor fuel. The method provides for adsorption of the moisture and hydrocarbon components by the sorbent with its subsequent regeneration. As the sorbent they use basalt fibers with the diameter of the elementary fiber of 5-8 microns, the length - of no more than 50 mm, the bulk density of 40-50 kg/m3 and the strength at the loading of 4-8 kN/m2. Adsorption is realized at the temperature of 18-30°C. Regeneration of the sorbent is exercised in two stages: at the first stage the regeneration is conducted in the self-flowing mode of the adsorption components, and at the second stage the regeneration is run in the drying cabinet at the temperature of 180-200°C. The invention allows to increase effectiveness of purification of the petroleum gas.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness of the petroleum gas purification.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl