The method of cleaning soil from radionuclides and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of cleaning soil from radionuclides. The objective of the invention is to provide a method of cleaning soil from radionuclides, characterized by ease of recovery and recycling of radionuclides, relative cheapness, can be used in different types of terrain. The method consists in the fact that clay powder, is able to Sorb radionuclides, is formed into a porous pipe with bell - pipe-filters. Then the pipe-filters are burning, sort, test, package and transport in contaminated areas of soil. Contaminated sites determine the depth of radionuclides, make geodetic marking, digging trenches, align them, and laid in a trench the pipe-filters in the form of a closed drainage system below the level of occurrence of radionuclides in the soil and the soil. Connect the drainage system with wells traps radionuclides, which, in turn, connected to the channels, which discharge treated water in its natural channel, and covered trenches. After some time, determined by the amount of precipitation fell on the cleaned area, and sorbing ways again to complete the cleanup of contaminated soil. Wells-trap satisfied with a diameter of 1-2 m 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to a method of cleaning contaminated soil.In the Chernobyl disaster were contaminated a huge area of cultural lands.In this regard, was invented many ways of cleaning soil from radionuclides.Proposed by different authors are methods for removal of land from radionuclides can be divided into the four following groups:
1. Methods of biological treatment using biological objects - plants, bacteria, etc., with subsequent collection and disposal of biological substances.with. N 1771534, CL G 21 F 9/8, RF patent N 2010366, CL 5 G 21 F 9/18 and so on);
2. Methods chemical treatment by soil or soil of various chemical substances that neutralize and bind radionuclides (see and. C. N 1780426, CL 5 G 21 F 9/24, the application for the patent of the Russian Federation N 9201471 8/25 and so on);
3. Mechanical cleaning methods, by mechanical removal of contaminated soils or soil, and installation of various barriers (see RF patent N 2008734, CL 5 G 21 F 9/34, RF patent N 1806411, CL G 21 F 9/24);
4. their extraction and utilization (see A. C. N 1581084, CL 5 G 21 F 9/34, RF patent N 2025801, CL 5 G 21 F 9/12).However, the known methods of cleaning soil from radionuclides are not without drawbacks.The disadvantages of biological methods of cleaning soil from radionuclides are:
1. Impossibility in vast areas due to differences of soil types and soil (swamps, Sands, and so on) and different climatic conditions;
2. Difficulties with the collection of biological objects and their disposal;
3. Expensive.The disadvantages of chemical methods of cleaning soil from radionuclides are:
1. Secondary chemical contamination of soil and ground;
2. High cost;
3. Difficulties with disposal of used chemicals, especially in wooded and marshy land.The disadvantages of mechanical methods of cleaning contaminated land are:
1. The inability to remove all contaminated land;
2. High cost;
Disadvantages cleaning methods using sorbing substances are:
1. Secondary contamination of soil and ground;
2. Difficulties with the collection and disposal of sorbing sputtered substances, especially in wooded and Bolo is dionuclide in soils and grounds, water is, by partial dissolution and the water pressure is purely mechanical (see Chernobyl disaster: causes and consequences (expert opinion), part 4. "The consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe for Ukraine and Russia", Chapter 4 "Geochemistry of technogenic radionuclides (hot particles) ChNPP and their environmental impact", Ed. by C. B. Nesterenko and other Minsk: Test, 1993, S. 40, 57, 66 - 75.Known hollow, porous filters containing pores in the form of capillaries, purifying the water from dissolved radionuclides due to ion exchange at the molecular level with the filter material and due to the mechanical delay of radionuclide when filtering (see patent RU N 2060950 C1 6 C 02 F 1/18, 1996).Also known is the method of assignment of the soil and groundwater buried in the land drainage pipes (see Century, Yasenetsky, N. To.Fenin. "Organization and technology of irrigation and drainage works". - M.: Kolos, 1975, S. 346 - 365. N. C. Argov and other "land Reclamation". - M.: Agropromizdat, 1991, S. 206 - 222).In addition, known and apparatus for making tubular articles from powdered materials containing cone clip, elastic matrix, forming the core, base, liner, features, fix the PTO and the movable head plate with the supporting member, support frame with emphasis, the vibrator and the mechanisms of rotation and vertical movement of the core (see patent USSR N 1790493, class B 28 B 3/02, 1992).Using these insights, the author offers a new method of cleaning soil from radionuclides.The closest to the essence and the achieved effect is a method of cleaning soil and soil with plants (biological objects), which are the roots of (capillary-porous systems) absorb water from the soil, and with it the radionuclides and thereby purify the soil and the soil (see and.with. N 1771534, CL G 21 F 9/18).In addition to the above disadvantages of the biological wastewater treatment plant, treatment plant has one significant drawback. This selectivity in the uptake of radionuclides. For example, some plants absorb radionuclides strontium and do not absorb radionuclides of cesium and Vice versa.The objective of the invention is to provide a method of cleaning soil from radionuclides, characterized by ease of recovery and recycling of radionuclides, relative cheapness, the possibility of using different types of terrain (bolts, forests and so on) and in the vast areas of contaminated land, i.e., in chap who cleans the drainage systems of the pipe-filters, sorbing radionuclides, and pit-traps, walls also have the ability to Sorb radionuclides, which use the clay powder with a particle size of from 0.14 to 1.25 mm, a moisture content of 3 to 5 percent and form from it to install molding tubular products porous pipe with socket (pipe-filters), and then the pipe-filters are burning, sort, test, package and transport in contaminated areas of soil, contaminated sites determine the depth of radionuclides, make geodetic marking, digging trenches, align them, and laid in a trench the pipe-filters in the form of a closed drainage system, below the level of occurrence of radionuclides in soil and ground, connect the drainage system with wells traps radionuclides, which in turn connect with channels, which discharge treated water in its natural channel, and covered trenches, and then, after some time, determined by the amount of precipitation that fell on the cleaned area and absorptive capacity of the pipe-filters and material of the walls of the wells traps, remove the pipe-filters of trenches and wells traps the material of the walls and disposed of them, and then, if necessary, the CEC is granted diameter 1 - 2 m, and their walls are made of the inner and outer metal mesh, between which have a granular material, is able to Sorb radionuclides and to skip a large amount of water. The apparatus for forming tubular products on the forming core perform ledge, subject to the internal surface of the socket, and the elastic matrix is implemented with a recess, subject to the outer surface of the socket, while the installation is done without the mechanism of rotation of molding core, which caused the elastic coating.An example of execution.In Fig. 1 shows tubefilter, Fig. 2 shows a device for forming pipe-filters of Fig. 3 shows a portion of the drainage network in the plan, Fig. 4 shows a partial section of the drainage network vertically.It is shown in Fig. 1 tubefilter consists of two structural elements - pipes 1 and socket 2.The pipe-filters are manufactured in a range of sizes:
length, mm - 330 - 1500
inner diameter, m - 50 - 500
The bell perform standard sample ceramic sewer pipes.The pore size of the pipe-filters perform within 5 - 10, 10 - 20, 20 - 50, 50 - 100, 100 - 200, 200 - 500 Ám. As Siri particles from 0.14 to 1.25 mm, humidity - 3 - 5%.Forming pipe-filters that perform the installation of Fig. 2, is known from the patent of the USSR N 1790493, class B 28 B 3/02, 1992, containing cone clip, elastic matrix, forming the core, base, liner, elements, fixing the elastic matrix, the loading device, a frame structure, installed on it the loading device and the movable head plate with the supporting member, the supporting frame with the stop, the vibrator and the mechanisms of rotation and vertical movement of the core (Fig. 2 not indicated).A distinctive feature of the setup (Fig. 2) used for forming pipe-filters, from the well-known is that on the forming core is made protrusion 3, subject to the internal surface of the socket, and the elastic matrix is made with a recess 4, surrounding the outer surface of the bell. In addition to forming the core installation caused resilient floor 5, with the specified installation completed without rotation mechanism forming the core.Applying an elastic coating 5 on the forming core installation, you need to eliminate flattening of the particles of the soft powders on the solid surface of the core, and, in the context of the Oia, molding clay core caused by the lack of powder clay reinforcing fibers.After forming the pipe-filters are fired at a temperature of 1000 to 1350oC with a holding time of 1 to 2 hours. Then the pipe-filters sorted (raspakovyvat and feel special technique), labeled and packaged. Further, the pipe-filters transported to the place of laying - on terrain contaminated by radionuclides. At the specified location and determine the depth of radionuclides and do surveying the layout of the trenches. The depth of the radionuclides in the soil and the soil is determined by multiple drill holes, exploration excavated from soil pits and soil. Next, dig a trench known machines, for example, CDG-55, CDG-80, produced alignment strip and consistently investing in the socket of one tubefilter pipe end of the second tubefilter, spread the drainage network (Fig. 3). Drainage network stack below the level of occurrence of radionuclides in soil or ground (Fig. 4). The size of the trench depth from the level of occurrence of radionuclides is equal to the diameter of the pipe-filters.In the process of laying drainage network connect with wells traps 6 (Fig. 3), which in turn connect with channels 7, ommodating and outer metal mesh, between which have a granular material, is able to Sorb radionuclides and to skip a large amount of water, for example, silicon-containing adsorbent.After laying drainage network, wells traps 6 (Fig. 3) and outlet channels 7, fall asleep trench 8 (Fig. 4), and thus, the cleaning system is ready for operation.The proposed drainage system cleaning soil from radioactive contamination is as follows.The principle of operation is shown in Fig. 4, where the position 9 shows the contaminated soil or ground position 1 shows tubefilter, position 10 shows clean soil or soil, the arrows show the movement of water and radionuclides to the pipe-filters 1, the broken line shows the level of deposits of radionuclides.Water in the form of rain or melt water from getting into the ground or soil, partially dissolving partially capturing particulate radionuclides, the path of least resistance reaches pipe-filters. Being filtered through the walls of the pipe-filters, water is cleared from radionuclides and channels composed of pipe-filters 1 reaches wells traps 6 (Fig. 3). In wells-traps 6 water, again being filtered through the walls, additionally is not shown).By the passage of some time, a year or two since the laying of the drainage network, which is determined depending on the amount of precipitation in the area, and absorptive capacity of the pipe-filters and the walls of the wells traps, remove from the soil or soil worn out the pipe-filters, remove the sorbent material of the walls of the wells traps and measure the degree of contamination of the soil.If the degree of contamination of the soil of the land after cleaning as described above meets sanitary standards, purified from radionuclides plot of land is transferred to the user.If the soil and the soil after the first cleaning cycle does not meet sanitary norms on the level of contamination by radionuclides, the above described cycle cleanup of soil and ground repeat again.Worn out, contaminated with radionuclides pipe-filters and the material of the walls of the wells traps transported to the place of their disposal.The proposed method, as malariafree soil, can be applied to various soils and soils (swamps, Sands, and so on), i.e., in comparison with known biological way (treatment plant) expansion is litate the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP.In addition, the application of the proposed method in comparison with the known biological reduces the cost of the cleanup of the soil, because it does not require expenses for its operation.It should also be noted the versatility of the proposed method in comparison with known biological, because plants absorb radionuclides selectively, for example, absorb radionuclides strontium and do not absorb radionuclides of cesium, and the proposed pipe-filters of the proposed method is detained almost all types of radionuclides.Next, the proposed method of cleaning soils from radionuclides in comparison with known biological speeds up the cleaning process, because it allows one to pass through the pipe-filters and wells traps a large number of contaminated groundwater and soil water.Therefore, new features, namely: - clean up of soil and soil by cleaning contaminated soil and groundwater by the drainage systems of the pipe-filters and water traps, creating a new filter design (pipe-filters with a bell), the use and improvement of the known device for a new purpose - fabrication of pipe-filters, replacement of traditional drainage tube in meliorativnoye the device canals create a positive effect and, thus, are essential. 1. The method of cleaning soil from radionuclides by groundwater remediation, dissolving and transporting radionuclides in the soil and the soil, characterized in that soil and clean soil drainage systems of the pipe-filters, sorbing radionuclides, and pit-traps, walls also have the ability to Sorb radionuclides, which use the clay powder with a particle size of from 0.14 to 1.25 mm, a moisture content of 3 to 5% and molded out of it on the installation forming tubular articles porous pipe with bell - pipe-filters, and then the pipe-filters are burning, sort, test, Packed and transported in contaminated areas of soil, contaminated sites determine the depth of radionuclides, make geodetic marking, digging trenches, align them, and laid in a trench the pipe-filters in the form of a closed drainage system below the level of occurrence of radionuclides in soil and ground, connect the drainage system with wells traps radionuclides, which, in turn, connected to the channels, which discharge treated water in its natural channel, and covered trenches, and after etorousa ability pipe-filters and material of the walls of the wells traps, remove the pipe-filters of trenches and wells traps the material of the walls and disposed of them, and then, if necessary, the cycle is repeated again until the full cleaning contamination sites soil.2. Cleaning method under item 1, characterized in that the wells traps satisfied with diameter of 1 - 2 m, and their walls are made of the inner and outer metal mesh, between which have a granular material, is able to Sorb radionuclides and to skip a large amount of water.3. Device for forming tubular articles containing cone clip, elastic matrix, forming the core, base, liner, elements, fixing the elastic matrix, the loading device, a frame structure is installed on it the loading device and the movable head plate with the supporting member, the supporting frame with emphasis, vibrator, mechanism for vertical movement of the core, characterized in that for forming the core caused the elastic cover and the ledge, subject to the internal surface of the socket, and the elastic matrix is made with a recess, subject to the outer surface of the bell.
FIELD: manufacturing technology.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to formation of a hollow structure. Method of forming an elongate support structure having a central hollow portion, comprising arranging an elongate core member to extend substantially horizontally and has a size and shape corresponding to central hollow portion of elongate support structure. Method includes forming a core assembly by locating at a first end of elongate core member a first tensioning member, first tensioning member including a plurality of tensioning elements extending from first end of core member along outside of core member to a second tensioning member located at second end of core member. External mould assembly is attached to core assembly between first and second tensioning members to form a combined mould and core assembly. External mould assembly is sized and shaped to form a cavity extending around and along central core member through which plurality of tensioning elements extend. Plurality of tensioning elements are tensioned between first and second tensioning members. Combined mould and core assembly are positioned to a substantially upright orientation. Concrete is injected into cavity formed between elongate core member and external mould assembly to form elongate support structure.
EFFECT: high quality of hollow structure.
21 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: evacuation of radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for container-free subsurface burial of solid radioactive wastes in abandoned deep workings of cryolite zone involves delivery of solid radiation sources pre-cooled in winter to abandoned mine workings. Radiation sources are placed in layer-by-layer manner on prepared falsework paled floor, leveled, compacted, flooded with water, and frozen by natural cold before piling radioactive wastes to full height of subsurface workings. In the process, burial ground is shaped in the form of pillar. Split ice is added in the course of placing layers of solid radioactive wastes including their forced cooling with cold atmospheric air.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and safety.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: disposal of radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for building radioactive waste disposal structure involves formation of horizontal helical system of round-section transport and room tunnels penetrated by single mechanized tunneling machine including erection of grade-crossing elimination structures. Helical system of tunnels is made in the form of ellipse with variable distance between adjacent tunnels of helical system. Grade-crossing elimination structures are erected at two diametrically opposite points of system where each pair of tunnels is joined to form single tunnel communicating with adjacent coupled tunnel through crossover. Tunnel-to-tunnel distance is predetermined at several points by simulation including heat and radiation load on soil mass.
EFFECT: enhanced radiation safety and reduced construction charges.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: methods of the radioactive waste disposal.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the radioactive waste disposal. Substance of the invention: the method of the radioactive waste disposal includes boring of a borehole, placement of containers with the A-waste and leaving of a barrier pillar in the zone of the plastic deformations of the surrounding rocks, filling of the free volume of the borehole with an expanding plugging material and sealing of a the borehole head. At that the A-waste disposal is conducted in a clay bed, which is in a plastic state. The containers with the A-waste are placed in the middle part of the clay bed in its section with a length of l = m -2hδ, where "m" is the clay bed thickness, hδ is the thickness of argillaceous rocks. The plugging of the free volume of the borehole is conducted using the extracted from the borehole dried and crushed rock. At that on the section of placement of the containers the plugging is performed by substitution of the drilling mud, and on the section of the barrier pillar after an evacuation of the drilling mud - by portioned feed with water addition in the volume corresponding to the natural humidity. Advantages of the invention consist in an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: long-term storage of radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: spent nuclear fuel storage has vertical well with bridge in top part of well, containers with spent nuclear fuel boxes disposed in well, and well ventilating system. Containers are made in the form of cylinders with perforated sections in bottom part which are vertically installed on well face. Boxes holding spent nuclear fuel are disposed within container one on top of other. At least one empty container is placed in well and bridge is installed in top part of well below upper ends of containers.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and long time of radioactive wastes isolation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes bringing craft to nuclear-safe condition by removing fissionable materials therefrom. Radiation-hazardous compartment is inspected for radiation condition, cut out from craft, treated with solidifying compound, and sealed. In the process recovery is made on land. In addition, external components are dismounted from compartment hull. Dismounted radioactive components are cut in two parts and disposed inside compartment hull. Compartment is treated with solidifying compound by its external solidification with variable-thickness layer upon sealing and outside inspection of compartment for radiation condition, and γ-radiation level is measured in the course of inspection. Characteristics of immobilized pollutants of α- and β-radiating radionuclides are determined. Results obtained are mapped and these maps are used to detect radiation-hazardous zones to calculate local thickness of shielding barrier in each of these zones.
EFFECT: enhanced safety, reduced labor consumption and material input.
3 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placement of fuel assemblies in transport package incorporating container and split damping casing designed so as to minimize lift of container when inserting it in split damping casing. Transport package is conveyed to storage place where container is freed of casing, whereupon spent fuel assemblies are kept in storage place. In the process spent fuel assemblies are first placed in container and then the latter is inserted in vertical position into split damping casing made in the form of removable drum with butt-end covering and base that functions as end lid of this drum. Charged container is installed on base, covered on top with removable drum, and the latter is fastened to base. Then split damping casing is secured to container, whereupon transport package is conveyed in transport position to storage place.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of storage and transportation.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes loading spent fuel assemblies in metal-concrete container, conveying the latter to intermediate storage site, and holding it on storage sire. Shipping unit for conveying spent fuel assemblies to intermediate storage site has flat-car for carrying vertically mounted container holding spent fuel assemblies. Container is provided with external removable circular supporting member engageable with mating supporting surface of flat-car frame and means for locking container relative to mentioned frame. Shipping unit is provided with jacks for lifting the frame to load spent fuel assemblies in container. Side surface of container body has rigging members in the form of seats on its top and bottom ends. Bottom end of container is installed inside mentioned circular supporting member. Container locking means include radially disposed submersible adjustable stops.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and safety of proposed method and device.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: atomic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for producing radiation-shielding packing block for placing in storage on shore includes comprehensive engineering inspection of reactor compartment on board large floating facility. Spent fuel assemblies are removed from reactor compartment whereupon the latter is disposed in equipment area premises, and hardening mixture is placed inside containment locations. Packing block is introduced in repair dock wherein nuclear steam-generating plant is cut out of reactor compartment, made floating, and conveyed to storage location. Assembled floating block is brought out of repair dock and upon temporary storage afloat it is entered in transportation-and-transfer dock whereon it is towed to storage location. Assembled radiation-safety packing block is conveyed for storage on shore.
EFFECT: unified available engineering means, enhanced stability of cut-out block holding steam-generating plant.
1 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method for conservation of processed nuclear fuel repositories on ships of nuclear-technological provision for long-term storage includes filling of sections of repository with liquid-phase composition of hardening substances, transferring remaining highly active fractions to reliable matrix structure, and creation of system of immobilization barriers. For filling of repository with composite, standard technological apertures of repository are used. During that, successively, with time delay, firstly lower part of all sections present in repository is filled, then upper section of same and, successively, inter-section, inter-foredeck and above-foredeck spaces. For filling lower part of sections, epoxyacryl composite is used with radiation resistance not less than 8000 Mrad, and for filling other spaces - concrete small-grain composite with radiation resistance not less than 6000 Mrad.
EFFECT: increased reliability and efficiency.
2 cl, 6 dwg