The technique of operation of a power plant with combined cycle

 

(57) Abstract:

In the invention disclosed method of using the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine 1 in the power plant with combined cycle, in accordance with which the control quality of the exhaust gases and their distribution in the boiler space 3 power plant to produce steam in order to achieve its highest performance. Outside air is mixed only with that part of exhaust gas that passes through the channels 8 of the burner as secondary working gas or gas at a higher level. The rest of the exhaust stream enters the boiler space on the path not passing through the burner 20. The highest total capacity of the system is achieved in the case when the quantity of outdoor air is mixed with part of the exhaust gases passing through the burner, such that the mixture contains approximately the minimum amount of oxygen required for complete and stable combustion of the fuel type selected, and a significant percentage of the full flow of exhaust gases is directed into the boiler space on a path that does not pass through the burner, the number of the., table 1.

The invention relates to the use of exhaust (exhaust) gases of the internal combustion engine in power plants with combined cycle. More specifically, the present invention associated with the achievement of higher efficiency systems at the expense of quality control and distribution of exhaust gases in the boiler space of a typical generating steam plant.

In those cases, when discussing the design of the power plant, the efficiency is a useful measurement tool (assessment) of quality system. As the power is transforming energy from one form to another, some losses are inevitable. In the case when the designer reduces such losses or even convert by-products or wastes defined processes in available energy resources, then, of course, the full efficiency of the system will increase.

It is already known that the efficiency in power generation can be enhanced by recirculatory exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine in the form of secondary working gas formed by the combustion products, as well as in the form of air flowing over or under the layer of fuel in a typical coal-fired and One of the objectives of this invention was the use of thermal energy of the exhaust gases to produce steam. Thus, the increase in efficiency was achieved by a simple transformation of waste into productive energy. At the same time the applicant has come to the conclusion about the necessity of raising the temperature of the exhaust gases to produce steam of high quality. The applicant suggested that repeated burning of the mixture of exhaust gases to 13% oxygen and preheated air as a secondary working gas may provide a suitable way to achieve such a result. The applicant also suggested that the full flow of exhaust gases in the boiler (the boiler) should preferably be approximately 40-70% of the total gas flow in the boiler.

Upon further research, the applicant has found that a higher full performance (COP) of the system can be achieved by controlling the amount of oxygen in key locations inside the burner, and also due to the much higher proportions of exhaust gases in the space of the boiler directly in contrast to the trends of these gases as secondary working gas or gas of a higher level, thereby reducing the amount of combustion required in the boiler. Full flow wihle the Euler scholar programme, than it was previously proposed by the applicant, in order to fully utilize thermal energy of the exhaust gases and to avoid, to the extent possible, the introduction of boiler gases having a reduced temperature. The method in accordance with this invention, and it reflects the opening of the applicant.

Where exhaust gases of internal combustion engines used to generate steam in accordance with the requirements of the process or to generate electricity, it is necessary to raise the temperature of exhaust gases from internal combustion engines to levels that are suitable for receiving a pair of high quality. Re-combustion of the exhaust gases is the combustion of additional fuel in their presence - and leads to this result. The combustion of the fuel increases the temperature of the surrounding exhaust gases and the exhaust gases downstream of the flow, as well as any other gases present.

The amount of fuel that must be burned to raise the temperature of exhaust gases, depends, of course, on the type of fuel used. It also depends on the full volume of the gas, the temperature must be increased from the initial temperature of the gas. Higher total efficiency (the system to achieve certain parameters (conditions) pair (in addition to the heat, the generated exhaust gases), since the heat generated by the fuel that must be burned. The amount of heat that must be added to the system, usually increases with increasing amount of gas in the system.

Fuel shall be burned in the presence of oxygen. Usually you must bring to the burner outdoor air containing a certain percentage of oxygen as a secondary working gas, thus providing a sufficient amount of oxygen for complete and stable combustion of the fuel. However, since there is a need for input of external air into the system, its temperature must be raised to meet the conditions for receiving the pair. The larger the volume of outdoor air is used, the more heat must be added to the system in the form of burned fuel.

In the case where exhaust gases are used as secondary working gas, their higher temperature compared to the outside air translates into a decrease in the amount of heat that must be added to the system for compliance with the conditions of getting a pair. Despite the fact that the exhaust gases usually contain some amount is the same amount of outdoor air must be mixed with the exhaust gases to bring the amount of oxygen in the mixture to a level which is sufficient to achieve complete and stable combustion of the fuel in the burner. The amount of oxygen necessary for complete and stable combustion of the fuel, of course, also depends on the volatility of the selected or readily available fuel.

The higher levels of oxygen for the entire cross section of the exhaust gases will require supplements additional quantities of outdoor air. In order to reduce the amount of outdoor air introduced into the boiler, outside air is mixed with only part of exhaust gas that passes through the channels of the burner as secondary working gas or gas at a higher level. The remainder of the exhaust gases enters the space of the boiler by a path that passes through the burner. Most high performance (COP) of the system is achieved in the case when the amount of outdoor air, mixed with part of the exhaust gases passing through the burner, such that the mixture contains a minimum amount of oxygen required for complete and stable combustion of selected fuels, and a significant percentage of exhaust gas is directed into the boiler space on the path not passing through the burner, p. the AI.

Higher total efficiency of the system can be achieved through the implementation of the present invention regardless of the initial oxygen content in the exhaust gases. Similarly, higher total efficiency of the system can be achieved regardless of the specific type of fuel. In accordance with the present invention offers a method of organizing the work of the power plant, which by its very nature is flexible and semiadaptive to any available potential energy source. Existing generator units with a combined cycle can be modified at a reasonable price, to use the achievements of the proposed method. Similarly, the method can be implemented wherever the existing power plant to produce steam can be adapted to work with combined cycle.

These and other features of the invention will be more apparent from the subsequent detailed description of the predominant variants of its implementation given with reference to the accompanying drawing.

The drawing shows the basic elements for a typical power plant with combined cycle.

The burner 20 has a primary outlet or nozzle 21. Primary discharge outlet 21 is adapted to supply fuel to the zone of combustion (burning) 30. As fuel can be used polarisavenue or fine coal, liquefied bituminous fuel, residual oil, ormosia (ormulsion) or any other suitable fuel. The choice of an appropriate burner depends on the choice of fuel type power plant for steam generation, as well as from the parameters of steam. Suitable are commercially available burners, such as manufactured by Babcock & Wilcox, in which the burner ensures the creation of a mixture of fuel and oxygen, and maintain adequate levels of oxygen required for combustion of the selected type of fuel at the burner tip and produces a secondary precursor gases or gases at a higher level. Most preferred are the high level of oxygen at the tip of the burner is preferably about 14.5 percent. When using heavy fuel oil or natural gas level is preferably respectively 14.1 and 13 percent.

Mainly the fuel is mixed with air volume sufficient to transfer or transportation of fuel. Benefits can be enhanced by maintaining a reduced pressure at the site of the combustion zone 30, as well as the implementation of combustion in several stages, in which the secondary, tertiary flow of the working gas or gas of a higher order serves the oxygen required for the completion of successive stages of burning.

Exhaust gases are directed along the branches 5 and 6 will eventually arrive in the boiler space through the outlet opening of the burner 22 and 23. Mainly the flow of the exhaust gases of the burner is at most 40 percent of the full flow of exhaust gases, which eventually enters the boiler space 3. Preferably, the flow of the exhaust gases of the burner is about 20 percent of the full flow of exhaust gases, which eventually enters the boiler space 3. The flow of the exhaust gases of the burner operates as a secondary and tertiary working gas formed gaseous products shove the shape and stability of the flame, as well as the supply to it of oxygen.

The oxygen content in the exhaust gases that are directed along the branches 5 and 6, is generally inadequate for the implementation of a complete and stable combustion of the fuel. In the exhaust stream, add more oxygen. This oxygen is added through mixing of outside air with the exhaust gases directed through the branches 5 and 6. Primarily outdoor air is preheated by passing it through a steam coil air heater 40 before submit it to the branch 41 to the burner 20. Preheating reduces the amount of heat which would then be added to raise the temperature of the air and therefore reduces the amount of fuel that would be burned. Optimal efficiency is achieved when the amount of outdoor air that is mixed with the exhaust stream, such that there is a minimum amount of oxygen required for complete and stable combustion of the fuel, which can be usually expressed as the minimum amount of outdoor air required to achieve a specified goal.

Exhaust gases supplied through the branch 7, on the part of the combustion zone 30 and mostly served in the boiler space 3 through the outlet opening or nozzle 8, made in the wall or walls of the boiler space 3. After bending around the exhaust stream enters the boiler space 3, it is mixed with the combustion products and exhaust flow burner (now at elevated temperature). When mixing gases tend to get a General homogeneous medium inlet temperature of the boiler. Mainly around the exhaust flow rate is at least 60 percent of the total flow of exhaust gases, which is served in the boiler space 3. Preferably the envelope of the exhaust stream is at least 80 percent of the total flow of exhaust gases, which is served in the boiler space 3. Optimum performance will be achieved in the case when the average inlet temperature of the boiler is the minimum required to achieve a given parameter pair.

The method in accordance with the present invention can be demonstrated on the example of a simple system containing the following components and having the following operating limits or specifications:

(1) diesel generator type VASA 18V46, working on fuel oil No. 6;

(2) boiler operating at Toccata on a wet weight) in the air intake of the burner; the burner provides the minimum excess oxygen 10 percent of its output, which gives approximately the combustion temperature of 2800 degrees Fahrenheit at the outlet of the burner; the temperature of the intake is approximately maintained at 563 degrees Fahrenheit;

(3) steam is generated at 300oF at the outlet of the economizer, without purging; the formation of a pair occurs at a gauge pressure of 1300 psig/950oF for feed water;

(4) the fuel on the basis of residual fuel oil No. 6, on the basis LHV, 17, 233 BTU (British thermal units/pound;

(5) environmental conditions - 86oF, relative humidity of 60 percent, the level of the sea.

Typical operating parameters are given in the table.

Thus, when the parameters are set a pair of optimal performance is achieved in the case when the additive of fuel and air is minimized or, on the contrary, when a substantial part of the exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine enters the boiler space district road, passing the torch.

The proposed system can be easier understood if we consider the boiler as a component separate from the internal combustion engine. the owny for so the boiler could produce pairs of a given quality. Based on the number of required fuel, and this number is a function of the quality and nature of the fuel, it is possible to find the amount of oxygen which must be introduced into the combustion zone and around it, in order to achieve a complete and stable combustion of the fuel. As shown in the table point higher boiler efficiency is the point at which you add the minimum amount of fuel to obtain the required steam parameters. The minimum inlet temperature of the boiler in this example (the maximum bypass) is about 1230oF, and it is apparent efficiency (performance) of the boiler to 150 percent.

To perform the task of creating an effective combined system to develop significant capacity on the basis of the use of diesel engines while maintaining flexible fuel performance diesel systems with combined cycle, with the preferred solution may be carried out using six diesel engines such as VASA 18V46 in combination with three steam generators with heat recovery with repeated heating and high pressure. However, if we admit that the exhaust Gano in the exhaust stream to overcome the critical points of each steam cycle, it becomes clear that there can be created a whole range of power plants using steam turbines with repeated heating and without it.

For diesel engines used fuel oil 885,8 MBTU/H/17233,0 BTU/LB. Full (gross) output power diesel generator is 90,7 MW. The flow of the exhaust gases of the burner is 271,3 KLB/H at 660oF. the Envelope of the exhaust stream is 1085,4 KLB/H, or about 80% of the full flow of the exhaust gas flowing into the boiler space, at 660oF. Outside air at 88oF and at a relative humidity of 80% pre-heated to 300oF and mixed with the stream of exhaust gases of the burner at 48,25 KLB/H.

Fuel oil No. 6 is fed to the burner when 231,1 MBTU/H/17233,0 BTU/LB. Alternative fuels are natural gas or light distillate fuel. Using Orimulsion or coal, of course, will require changes of the site steam system in power plant. Usually when using the most heavy fuels may not be used three boiler pressure and can be used two system pressure. Especially contaminated fuels can require special controls the ambient temperature of the boiler 1230oF and gross heating rate 7016,6 BTU/KWh (lower heating value, gross (gross) output power setting). Gross and net power output power respectively to 130.6 MW and a 126.7 MW and a steam turbine operates at a gauge pressure of 1465 psig/1000oF and produces 39.9 MW.

In the case where the bypass flow of exhaust gases is reduced to 60 percent, achieved a higher gross heating rate 7172,51 BTU/KWh (lower heating value, gross output capacity of the unit). Gross and net power output of the plant, respectively 160,0 MW and 155, 2mm MW and a steam turbine operates at a gauge pressure of 1465 psig/1000oF and produces 69,3 MW. The difference in performance leads to increased fuel consumption and outside air. In the previous example, the flow of the exhaust gases of the boiler increases to 542,5 KLB/H at 660oF. the Envelope of the exhaust stream is reduced to 814,0 KLB/H at 660oF. Outside air at 88oF and at a relative humidity of 80% pre-heated to 300oF and mixed with the stream of exhaust gases of the burner at an increased speed atra on what has been described the preferred embodiment of the invention, it is quite clear that he was only given as an example having no limiting character and that it specialists in this field can be amended and supplemented, which do not extend, however, beyond the scope of the following claims.

1. The technique of operation of a power plant with combined cycle, which includes an internal combustion engine, burner and boiler space, characterized in that it comprises the following operations: direction of the first part of the flow of exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine to the boiler space, bypassing the burner; a fuel supply through the primary outlet of the burner in a quantity sufficient to achieve the desired average inlet temperature of the boiler during its combustion; the second part of the flow of exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine to a possible direction at least through one outlet of the burner other than the primary outlet of the burner; mixing with the second part of the flow of exhaust gases such amount of air that the mixture of air and exhaust gas contains approximately the minimum level of oxygen required for complete and with the opening of the burner and combustion.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the first part of the exhaust stream is at least about 60% of the total flow of exhaust gases directed into the boiler space.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the first part of the flow of exhaust gases is approximately up to 80% of the total flow of exhaust gases directed into the boiler space.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the first part of the exhaust stream is at least about 54% of the total weight of all gases entering the boiler space.

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the first part of the flow of exhaust gases is approximately up to 76% of the total weight of all gases entering the boiler space.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the internal combustion engine is a diesel engine.

7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that produce heating of the air previously mixing with the second part of the exhaust stream.

8. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that produce mixing of the fuel with a certain amount of conveying air previously in the implementation of its combustion.

9. The method according to p. 8, C on p. 8, characterized in that the combustion is produced in several stages.

11. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the flow of exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine is directed, omitting the primary outlet of the burner.

12. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the first part of the exhaust stream enters the boiler space downstream of the flow relative to the combustion zone.

13. The technique of operation of a power plant with combined cycle, which includes an internal combustion engine, burner and boiler space, characterized in that it comprises the following operations: direction of the first part of the flow of exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine to the boiler space, bypassing the burner; a fuel supply through the primary outlet of the burner; a second part of the flow of exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine to a possible direction at least through one outlet of the burner other than the primary outlet of the burner; mixing with the second part of the exhaust stream of such air, the mixture of air and exhaust gas contains approximately minimum oroweat at least one outlet of the burner and combustion, in which the first portion of the exhaust stream is at least about 54% of the total weight of all gases entering the boiler space.

14. The method according to p. 13, characterized in that the first part of the flow of exhaust gases is approximately up to 76% of the total weight of all gases entering the boiler space.

15. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that the first part of the exhaust stream is at least about 60% of the total flow of exhaust gases entering the boiler space.

16. The method according to p. 13, characterized in that the first part of the flow of exhaust gases is approximately up to 80% of the total flow of exhaust gases entering the boiler space.

17. The method according to p. 13, characterized in that only use the minimum amount of fuel required to achieve the desired average inlet temperature of the boiler during its combustion.

18. The technique of operation of a power plant with combined cycle, which includes an internal combustion engine, burner and boiler space, characterized in that it comprises the following operations: direction of the first part of the flow of exhaust gases from the engine Erste burner in number, sufficient to achieve the desired average inlet temperature of the boiler during its combustion; the second part of the flow of exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine for its possible use as a secondary working gas or gas of a higher level; mixing with the second part of the flow of exhaust gases such amount of air that the mixture of air and exhaust gas contains approximately the minimum level of oxygen required for complete and stable combustion of the fuel; creating a mixture of air and exhaust gases as secondary working gas or gas of a higher level and fuel combustion.

19. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that the first part of the exhaust stream is at least about 60% of the total flow of exhaust gases entering the boiler space.

20. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that the first part of the flow of exhaust gases is approximately up to 80% of the total flow of exhaust gases entering the boiler space.

21. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that the first part of the exhaust stream is at least about 54% of the total weight of all gases coming into the boiler space is inovace to 76% of the total weight of all gases, coming into the boiler space.

23. The method according to p. 22, characterized in that the mixture of air and exhaust gases are used as secondary and tertiary precursor gases.

24. The method according to p. 23, characterized in that the amount of oxygen in the secondary and tertiary different working gases.

 

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