Modular power plant
(57) Abstract:Modular power plant is designed to generate energy by water vapor. Modular power plant that operates from a source of geothermal steam contains many integrated power modules. Each module has a steam turbine operating on a pair of the source for the formation of the heated exhaust low pressure steam, the condenser steam containing organic fluid environment, for condensing the heated exhaust steam and evaporation of the organic fluid turbine, working on organic fluid in a closed Rankine cycle, the capacitor of the organic fluid for condensing the heated organic waste fluid in the fluid, the tool will return the fluid to the condenser steam electric generator connected to the steam turbine and turbine operating on organic fluid, adjustable control valve to control the flow of steam to the steam turbine and the amount of electricity produced by the generator. Each module also has a tool to control the amount of electricity produced by the generator fashion way that decrease electrical load energy installation control valve of one module is adjusted to reduce the produced amount of the electric power, and position control valves other modules remain unchanged for operation at nominal conditions. In addition, there is a means for collecting heated exhaust steam from each module and for his return to the well. This embodiment of the modular setup allows to increase its efficiency and effectiveness. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The invention relates to the production of energy by water vapor, and more specifically to a modular power plant that operates from a source of geothermal steam.Water vapor for many years, used for the generation of electric energy. In particular, recently, as energy sources in increasing the amount of used geothermal sources of water vapor. Usually to convert geothermal water vapor coming out of the wells into electrical energy used by a steam turbine.Lately there is more extensive use of this energy source through the use of turbines operating on for the use of a combination of steam turbines and turbines with a closed organic Rankine cycle, moreover, in many cases, these sources contain non-condensable gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc. that are harmful to the environment.Known power plant, operating from a source of geothermal steam containing steam turbine, running on a pair of this source for energy production and heated exhaust low pressure steam, the condenser steam containing organic fluid environment, for condensing the heated exhaust steam and evaporation of the organic fluid turbine, working on organic fluid in a closed Rankine cycle for making the vaporized organic fluid and producing power and heated waste vaporized organic fluid condenser organic fluid for condensing the heated organic waste fluid in the fluid, the tool will return the fluid to the condenser pair, an electric generator connected to the steam turbine and turbine operating on organic fluid for the production and supply of electricity to the network (U.S. patent N 4542625).In this power plant condenser water vapour acting pdamage from the steam turbine, and collection of non-condensable gases by feeding organic fluid that is vaporized for use during operation of the turbine with a closed organic Rankine cycle. Thereafter, the condensate together with the compressed non-condensable gases is pumped back into the absorption hole, whereby not made gases in the free atmosphere. In such cases, typically used one or more steam turbines to generate energy through geothermal water vapor coming out of the wells, with a large number of individual turbines with a closed organic Rankine cycle working on waste water steam leaving the steam turbine. Thus, the power plant of this type requires a rather costly and extensive distribution system having a large-diameter pipe for supplying exhaust steam at low pressure coming out of the steam turbine to the turbine with a closed organic Rankine cycle, and complicated control system, as, for example, control of exhaust steam must be carried out even in the event of a malfunction or disruption of one or more turbines, organic Rankine cycle. Prov.even a decline in their performance also usually causes a decrease in the efficiency of steam turbines, because organic fluid acts as a coolant condensers of steam.The basis of the invention is to create a modular power plant, which through a simple and effective control system allows you to reduce or eliminate the aforementioned disadvantages.This task is solved by providing a modular power plant running from the source of geothermal steam containing many integrated power modules, each of which has a steam turbine operating on a pair of this source for energy production and heated exhaust low pressure steam, the condenser steam containing organic fluid environment, for condensing the heated exhaust steam and evaporation of the organic fluid turbine, working on organic fluid in a closed Rankine cycle for making the vaporized organic fluid and producing power and heated waste vaporized organic fluid, the capacitor of the organic fluid for condensing the heated organic waste fluid in the fluid, the tool will return the floor is becausei organic fluid, for the production and supply of electricity to the grid, adjustable control valve to control the flow of steam to the steam turbine and the amount of electricity produced by the generator, in which, according to the invention, each module is provided with a means to control the amount of electricity produced by the generator module, the control valve modules are made with the possibility of adjustment by means of management in accordance with the electrical load power plant with regulation, while reducing electrical load power plant, the control valve of one module to reduce the produced quantities of electricity and preserving unchanged the provisions of the control valves of other modules for operation at nominal conditions, and there is a means for collecting heated exhaust steam from each module and for his return to the well.Preferably, the pressure on the steam side of the condenser pair of each module was more atmospheric.It is expedient that there should be a tool for collecting non-condensable gases from steam condenser pair of each module, and a compressor for compressing the collected non-condensable gases and ceramah gases, collected by a pair of capacitor pair each module, in the same borehole, which returns condensed heated waste organic fluid.It is possible that there is a means for mixing non-condensable gases are collected by a pair of capacitor pair each module, with condensed heated waste organic fluid medium, before returning condensed heated organic waste fluid into the well.It is useful to organic fluid medium was pentane. While the present invention is suitable for use in the geothermal water vapor, and other sources of heat, such as water vapor, are available when performing industrial processes.Since in this invention the water vapor from the source is distributed in parallel to the various modules of the power plant is actually under pressure from the source of water vapor, the diameter distribution pipes is relatively small. As a consequence, the size of the control valve is also relatively small, so the cost of such systems is significantly reduced. In addition, since each of the a and preferably one electric generator, the present invention provides a higher efficiency, easier operation and higher efficiency levels.Below embodiments of the invention are described by means of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
in Fig. 1 shows a known geothermal power plant;
in Fig. 2 presents a block diagram of a geothermal power plant according to the present invention;
in Fig. 3 presents a diagram of a variant of implementation of the present invention.If we now turn to the drawings, in Fig.1 position 10 is indicated an example of a typical geothermal power plant for the generation of electric energy from geothermal water vapor, water vapor from the well 11 flows through the pipe 12 and control valve 13 to a steam turbine 15. Turbine implements the operation of steam and drives the generator 18, which is designed to supply power to the power supply through electrical protective subsystem 17 using the control device 14. Usually electrical protective subsystem 17 includes circuit breakers and other protective the La feed waste water vapour, emerging from the steam turbine 15, the capacitors 27a, 27b, 27c using control valves 22a, 22b and 22c are controlled by control devices 25a, 25b and 25c, which are contained in modules, respectively, 20a, 20b, 20c power plant with a closed organic Rankine cycle. Because water vapor supplied to the modules installation represents the exhaust steam leaving the steam turbine 15, the pressure is relatively small - usually the pressure is about 25 psi (1,76 kg/cm2), the diameter of the pipes 19a, 19b and 19c is relatively large, for example, it is approximately 140 cm, with valves 22a, 22b and 22c, which also have large dimensions, making the installation very expensive. Capacitors 27a, 27b, 27c water vapor preferably work under pressure above atmospheric, so as to facilitate the extraction of non-condensable gases contained in the water vapour from the system through the compressor 26, the condensate formed by the capacitors of the water vapour and compressed gases forced into the absorption hole 45 by use of a pump 42. The coils 28a, 28b, 28c, available in capacitors 27a, 27b and 27c pair containing an organic fluid medium used for cooling the optical setup with a closed organic Rankine cycle, thus vaporized organic fluid produced in the coils 28a, 28b, 28c, is fed to the turbines 30a, 30b and 30c, powering generators 35a, 35b and 35c, created for the generation of electric energy supplied through the switching mechanism and electrical protective subsystem 34a, 34b and 34c to the electrical network. Pair organic working fluid leaving the turbine 30a, 30b and 30c, are fed to capacitors 36a, 36b and 36c this fluid environment where condensation occurs, and the condensed organic fluid is returned by the pumps 38a, 38b and 38c to the coils 28a, 28b and 28c of the evaporator, thus completing its cycle. The cooling water contained in the cooling water means (not shown) may be used for cooling of these capacitors, or if it is preferable to cool the condensers can be used the air supplied air cooling means (not shown) with forced draught.Controlling devices 25a, 25b and 25c modules are designed to control the amount of exhaust steam, reaching modules 20a, 20b and 20c power plant, and regulate the degree of opening of the control valves 22a, 22b and 22c in accordance with the regulated power, vyrabatyvaemaya device provides control of the amount of water vapor from the source, reaching the steam turbine 15 via the control valve 13. Therefore, if, for example, to the electrical network must be filed less capacity, the control device gives a signal to the control valves 22a, 22b and 22c to reduce the degree of opening, which causes the reduction of exhaust water vapor supplied to the capacitors 27a, 27b and 27c, thus decreasing the pressure in the coils 28a, 28b and 28c of the evaporators. Therefore, the performance of the turbine 30a, 30b and 30c, intended for organic vapor and accompanying generators is reduced. In this case, the control device accordingly reduce the amount of water vapor from the source reaching the steam turbine 15, by adjusting the opening of the control valve 13, thus reducing its operating pressure, and hence also decreases and the power of the steam turbine. This is because the organic working fluid contained in each module with turbine organic Rankine cycle, acts as a coolant condensers vapor steam turbine 15. In addition, if one of the modules power plant operating on a closed organic Rankine cycle, in alausi valve 22a and consequently, it will also provide for the proper regulation of the valve 13, causing the water vapour from the source reaching the steam turbine 15, which leads to the turbine under pressure, which differs from the nominal value, and hence to a lower efficiency.If we refer to Fig.2, the position of the 50 identified device according to the present invention, used for production of energy by means of steam, which created a distribution pipe 52 for parallel flow of geothermal water vapor coming out of the hole 51, steam turbines, contained in a large number of merged modules, power plants, and shows three such module 55a, 55b and 55c. However, the present invention can also be applied to a single module power plant, for example, to the module shown in Fig. 3. The vapor pressure of the geothermal wells in total approximately 150 psi (10.5 kg/cm2). Here for convenience we refer to the module 66a power plant comprising a hydraulic valve 57a and steam turbine 60a, designed to produce water vapor from source and run by the. The operation of the valve 57a is controlled by the control device 56a. The capacitor 62a of water vapor, which preferably operates under pressure, more atmospheric pressure, which facilitates the separation of non-condensable gases contained in the water vapour created for condensing the exhaust vapor leaving the steam turbine 60a through cooling water vapour organic fluid medium supplied to the condenser in the coil 67a. Such a device avoids the use of vacuum pumps. The compressor 59 is created to compress non-condensable gases contained in the capacitor 62a of water vapor, while the compressed gas flowing in the outlet pipe 75, where together with the condensate from the condenser, they through the use of a pump 76 is served in the absorption well 80. The coil 67a also acts as an evaporator turbine with a closed organic Rankine cycle, with organic working fluid contained in the coil, vaporized, and the vaporized fluid is supplied to the turbine 70a intended for organic vapor, where it expands and produces useful work, preferably by actuation was electrolyzable pentane. However, there may be used and other organic fluids, such as freon, etc. it is Preferable that the electric generator 65a capacity exceeded steam turbine 60a and turbine 70a for organic vapor produced them power should preferably be equal to the sum of the individual capacities of the steam turbine and turbine for organic vapor. For example, the power of the steam turbine 60a can go up to 1.5 megawatts, the power turbine 70a for organic vapors may also be 1.5 MW, in this case, the power generator 65a is 3 MW, which provides the ability to simultaneously work as a steam turbine, and the turbine, fossil pair at full capacity. Although it is not shown, but if preferred, can be installed clutch, located on the shafts 61a and 68a between the generator and, accordingly, turbine for steam and turbine for organic vapor, and when it preferably with a separate electric generators. Created the capacitor 72a organic fluid for condensing organic vapours from the turbine 70a, while the condenser is cooled by air supplied by means of forced draught (Wami (not shown). Pump 74a returns the condensed organic fluid medium to the coil 67a, completing the cycle organic fluid. Thus, the power unit 50 is a hybrid power plant that contains a part that runs on geothermal water vapour, and the part that runs on organic fluid.Thus, as can be seen from Fig. 2, when the device 50 is open, the water vapor supplied from bore 51 in the pipe 52, is distributed to the various modules of the power plant by means of control valves 57a, 57b and 57c, managed control devices 56a, 56b and 56c. Because water vapor is distributed to the modules power plant under pressure, rather comparable with the source pressure of water vapor in the well 51, than under a relatively low pressure at the outlet of the steam turbine, which occurs during normal use, an example of which is shown in Fig. 1, the diameter distribution pipeline is relatively small, for example, it is approximately 50 cm, when using a pressure of about 150 psi (10.5 kg/cm2). In addition, thanks to the size of control valves 57a, 57b and 57c also consider the con siderably widening and does the job thus, when the shafts 61a, 61b and 61c lead generators 65a, 65b and 65c, generating electrical energy. Exhaust steam leaving the turbine 60a, 60b and 60c, is supplied to the capacitors 62a, 62b and 62c, where it is condensed, and the condensate and non-condensable gases collect in the condenser water vapor, is introduced into a bore 80 through line 75, using the pump 76, where non-condensable gases are compressed by the compressor 59. Vaporized organic working fluid formed in the coils 67a, 67b and 67c, is supplied to steam turbines 70a, 70b and 70c, where it expands, causing the turbine to rotate, their power will Perelada electric generator 65a, 65b and 65c, which serves generated electrical energy to the electrical network through the protective circuit and the corresponding switching mechanisms. Thus, the turbine 70a, 70b and 70c for organic vapor also contribute to power generators 65a, 65b and 65c, with separate electrical generators and electrical components, such as separate switching mechanisms, increase savings and provide greater convenience. Waste organic vapors emerging from the turbine 70a, 70b and 70c, fed to the capacitors 72a, am 67a respectively, 67b and 67c of the evaporator, using pumps 74a, 74b and 74c.In the embodiment, the structure shown in Fig.2, the control device 56a, 56b and 56c control the level of electrical power produced by the modules by controlling the power level of the generator 65a, 65b and 65c and pressure in the coils 67a, 67b and 67c of the evaporator, and the corresponding regulation of the amount of water vapor supplied to the modules power plant, through the use of valves 57a, 57b and 57c control water vapor.For example, during normal operation, if the control device indicate that the electrical network must be filed less current, the amount of water vapor from a source that is supplied to only one module in a power plant, for example, the module 55a, can be reduced by a corresponding adjustment of its control valve, providing the module to the electrical circuit of lower power, at the same time allowing other modules power plant to continue operating at nominal values, while maintaining their performance levels. Therefore, in this case in the module 55a control unit 56a causes a decrease in the opening degree of the control valve 57a, obespechivanie pair provides a reduction in operating pressure of the coil 67a of the evaporator, what causes the decrease of the work performed by the turbine 70a for organic vapor and steam turbine 60a, therefore, the energy produced by the generator 65a, is reduced. In addition, if one of the modules is not working due to malfunction or maintenance, and so on, the idle control module will lead to simple closed control valve, while the other modules continue to operate at the rated value. Therefore, during the ongoing operation of the steam turbine contained in other modules, will remain high efficiency. This is the opposite of conventional power plants, an example of which is shown in Fig. 1, where the termination of one of the modules 20a, 20b or 20c also will reduce the amount of water vapor supplied to the steam turbine 15 in Fig. 1, through the partial closing of the valve 13 for water vapor, which leads to changes in operating pressure steam turbine relative to the nominal values, and therefore reduce its effectiveness. Thus, in the present invention by the incorporation of a steam turbine together with the turbine with a closed organic Rankine cycle with preferably one El is th increase savings and simplified management apparatus, generating energy, and there is only one control valve water vapor on the module, and included the need for a separate control valves for steam turbines and turbines with an organic Rankine cycle that occurred in the prior art. In addition, the presence of a steam turbine together with the turbine organic Rankine cycle combined in each module power plant, makes the construction of such power plants and their maintenance more convenient. The present invention saves, for example, the design of long span to accommodate steam turbines, which were designed according to the conventional prior art. In addition, if you prefer, in a particular embodiment, the design pumps 74a, 74b and 74c can also be mounted on a common shaft with steam turbines and turbines for organic vapor that provides the ability to automatically run a turbine with a closed organic Rankine cycle. If you prefer, in the present invention, the modules can be ready to supply generated electric power to the auxiliary equipment, webnote.Although this option is the implementation of the design refers to the use of geothermal water vapor, the present invention is also suitable for use with other heat sources such as industrial fluids or steam, containers exposed to solar energy, waste heat from industrial processes, such as flue gases, where, if necessary, can be integrated intermediate heat exchanger to transfer heat received from the source to the module power plant through steam generation.The use of organic fluid in part of the power plant with such types of heat sources provides distinct advantages due to their thermodynamic properties, for example, their relatively low boiling point, the minimum moisture vapor obtained by expansion in the turbine, as well as relatively high levels of heat (i.e. the ratio of quantity of heat per unit time required to raise the temperature of the organic working fluid from the temperature of the condenser to the temperature of evaporation of the remaining liquid to the total amount of heat per unit time required for evaporation robotloader of the invention can be particularly advantageous in those cases, when the device containing flammable materials is prohibited. In such cases, the part of the module, which is a steam turbine may be located in restricted areas, ensuring the generation of electric power even in such places.It can be assumed that the above description of the preferred variant of the invention, the obvious advantages and improved results achieved by the method and device according to the invention. Can be made various changes and modifications of the present invention without deviating from the essence and scope specified in the following claims.It should be understood that the invention relates not only to the modules power plants, but also to the way these modules power plant, as described above. In addition, although it is possible to use multiple electric generators driven by turbines, is preferred in each module power plant to use a single generator placed between the steam turbine and turbine operating on organic fluid in a closed Rankine cycle. 1. Modular the energy modules, each of which has a steam turbine operating on a pair of this source for energy production and heated exhaust low pressure steam, the condenser steam containing organic fluid environment, for condensing the heated exhaust steam and evaporation of the organic fluid turbine, working on organic fluid in a closed Rankine cycle, for making the vaporized organic fluid and producing power and heated waste vaporized organic fluid condenser organic fluid for condensing the heated organic waste fluid in the liquid, means for returning the fluid and the capacitor pair, the electric generator, coupled with a steam turbine and turbine operating on organic fluid for the production and supply of electricity to the grid, adjustable control valve to control the flow of steam to the steam turbine and the amount of electricity produced by the generator, wherein each module is provided with a means to control the amount of electricity produced by the generator module, the control valve modules made with possibility of regulation cf is the reduction of the electrical load power plant the control valve of one module to reduce the produced amount of the electric power and conservation neizmennym provisions governing valves other modules for their work in nominal mode, and a means for collecting heated exhaust steam from each module and for his return to the well.2. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the pressure on the steam side of the condenser pair of each module more atmospheric.3. Installation under item 1, characterized in that it has means for collecting non-condensable gases from steam condenser pair of each module and a compressor to compress the collected non-condensable gases and return them to the well.4. Installation according to p. 3, characterized in that it is made returnable non-condensable gases are collected by a pair of capacitor pair each module, in the same borehole, which returns condensed heated waste organic fluid.5. Installation under item 1, characterized in that there is a means for mixing non-condensable gases are collected by a pair of capacitor pair each module, with condensed heated waste ASS="ptx2">6. Installation according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the organic fluid medium is pentane.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: combined-cycle gas-plant includes a boiler with fluidised bed under pressure, with a furnace containing a fluidised bed and a cyclone, installed inside the body, gas turbine unit, a steam turbine with a regenerative equipment tract, heat exchangers for cooling of the gases leaving the gas turbine and ash, leaving out boiler, gas treatment unit, the vortex chamber with a device for removing the slag in the liquid state, gas cooler. In parallel with the boiler on the air supply, coal and sorbent the device comprises a gasifier with fluidised bed. A stream of fuel gas leaving the gasifier is divided into two substreams. One substream of the fuel gas is fed for combustion into the vortex chamber. The combustion products of the vortex chamber are cooled in a slag trap beam and a gas cooler, and are cleaned in a ceramic filter and fed into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine. The second substream of combustible gas passes successively cooler gas sulfur cleaner installation, ceramic filter and then enters the combustion chamber of a gas turbine. In the combustion chamber the mixture of combustion products and combustible gas subflow takes place, as well as raising of the temperature of gases produced by burning fuel gas before the gases enter the gas turbine.
EFFECT: safe operation of the installation owing to the use of combustible gas produced in its own cycle, increase of efficiency factor at the cost of raising the temperature of the gases in front of the gas turbine.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat power industry, and namely to units using heat of geothermal sources in the form of a gas/steam/water mixture with increased salt content. The invention proposes a turbine, the housing, the shaft and the rotating blades of which are hollow and interconnected between each other. Heads of the rotating blades have an oval shape, and thickness of their walls does not exceed thickness of the turbine housing wall. Cold water flowing in the cavity of the turbine housing and the rotating blades reduces temperature of their walls, due to which it is possible to prevent formation of calcium carbonate deposits on the turbine surface.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing energy use efficiency of geothermal sources owing to excluding losses of a mechanical and some thermal potential of geothermal waters, as well as excluding costs for cleaning of a geothermal heat carrier from hardness salts diluted in it.