Suction pipe unit
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the construction of hydropower and can be used in the construction of hydropower plants and pumped storage power plants. Suction pipe unit includes camera impeller, cone, knee and outlet diffuser. Above the outlet diffuser is optional bypass cavity connected to the outlet of the diffuser by means of an intermediate tube, which in terms are staggered and placed between the secondary bypass cavity and a rectilinear section of the ceiling area of the discharge diffuser. The output part of the ceiling of the discharge cone is made in the form of a curved section. Under the action of pressure drop water from downstream for additional bypass cavity falls into the ceiling area of the discharge diffuser, which reduces separation of the water flow from the ceiling of the suction pipe and reduces the pressure pulsations. The invention increases the reliability and durability of the suction pipe. 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of hydropower construction and can be used in the construction of hydropower plants and gerakkan Tadashi diffuser. In addition, in order to reduce hydraulic losses, it is provided with an additional outlet diffuser located in a plane at an angle 0o< < 180oto the axis of the main diffuser (see RF patent N 2033496, CL E 02 B 9/00, publ. 20.04.95. Bull. N 11). .For reasons that impede the achievement of specified following technical result when using the known device is that the known device is very material-intensive design, because it is necessary to increase the consumption of expensive material for the construction of an additional outlet of the diffuser, and it will significantly increase the cost of the entire draft tube. In addition, this construction will result in increased hydraulic pressure losses of energy due to the significant increase in the total length of the discharge diffuser.The closest device to the same destination to the invention by the combination of features is the suction pipe of the unit containing the cone with knee and attached outlet diffuser, and the diffuser has a rectangular cross-section and is equipped with a movable sectional ceiling, consisting of pivotally interconnected sections, (see ed. mon. USSR N nel decreases the consumption of the whole structure, consequently, its cost. In addition, during operation of the hydraulic unit in the turbine mode, the mobile sections of the ceiling are in the lower position, and when turning on the unit in pumping mode section of the ceiling go up, thus achieved the most beneficial shape of the ceiling of the suction pipe in both modes of operation of the unit.For reasons that impede the achievement of specified following technical result when using the known device, taken as a prototype, is that the known device comprises a movable elements as pivotally interconnected sections, which during operation of the suction tubes reduce the reliability of the whole structure. In addition, there is a likelihood of failure of the movable panels of the ceiling, which will lead to a sharp deterioration in the hydraulic regime of the discharge flow and increased losses.The invention consists in the following.The proposed construction of the suction pipe of the unit allows to solve the problem of increasing the reliability and durability of the suction pipe, and will also reduce the amount of expensive material, greatly sarracenia efficiency of hydropower.Technical result: the cost of materials for the manufacture and reducing the cost of construction on 2 - 3%; increase the reliability and durability of the suction pipe; reduction of failures and downtime for repairs; reduced flow velocities at the end of the discharge cone due to this increase in demand and the number of generated electricity. In addition, the possible reduction of hydraulic losses in the suction pipe by eliminating the separation of the water flow from its walls and reducing pressure pulsations in the pipe wall.This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved in that the suction pipe unit including the camera impeller, cone, knee and outlet diffuser, equipped with an additional bypass cavity located above the discharge cone, and intermediate tubes, which in terms are staggered and placed between the additional bypass cavity and a rectilinear section of the ceiling area of the discharge cone, and the output part of the ceiling of the discharge cone is made in the form of a curved segment.The positive effect from the use of the invention in water supply (pressure drop) of the downstream additional bypass cavity and intermediate tubes in the ceiling area of the cone draft tube. Moreover, for the uniform receipt and distribution of water in the zone of the possible isolation of the intermediate tube in the plan are staggered. All this allows to reduce hydraulic losses and to ensure the integrity of the passing water flow in the suction pipe, as well as to reduce the flow velocity at the end of the discharge cone by increasing the area of the output section. In addition, the water supply into the ceiling area will reduce pressure pulsations and further increase the reliability of the suction pipe.In Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal section of the suction pipe unit of Fig. 2 - suction pipe unit under the plan.The suction tube includes camera of the impeller 1, the cone 2, shank 3 and outlet diffuser 4. The suction pipe is provided with an additional bypass cavity 5, which is connected with the discharge cone 4 by means of an intermediate tube 6.The suction pipe of the hydraulic unit operates as follows. The flow of water after the chamber of the impeller 1, sequentially passing through the cone 2, shank 3 and outlet diffuser 4, falls on the tail part of the outlet of the diffuser 4. Under the action of pressure difference in the it low atmospheric pressure). This reduces the separation of the water flow from the ceiling of the suction pipe and reduces the pressure pulsations.The proposed solution suction pipe contains no moving, dynamic elements, thereby increasing reliability and durability of the whole structure during operation. Further, the device additional bypass cavity will cause the thread will not break away from the walls, as this will significantly increase hydraulic and hydrodynamic qualities of the suction pipe. In addition, the design will significantly reduce the consumption of expensive materials for its manufacture, and consequently, reduce its cost. The reduction of flow velocities at the end of the discharge diffuser will result in increased capacity and the amount of produced electricity.The expected benefits from the implementation of this framework is as follows.1) the effect of the decrease of failures and downtime for repairs.When hydroelectric power N = 2300 MW and reducing repair time t for 2 weeks or 672 hours per year, the number of generated electricity will increase during this time, the value of
E = N t,
E = 2300000 672 = 1545600000 kWhIf the value is = 309120000 R. per year.2) the effect of the decrease of the flow velocity to the end of the discharge cone.By reducing the speed of the outflowing stream of water with V1= 2.4 m/s to V2= 2.0 m/s the difference between the pressure losses will be
h = (V21-V22)/2g
h = 1,1(2,42-2,02)/29,81 = 0,1 m
When the flow is Q = 500 m3/s, the expected effect on the increase in capacity will be
N = gnQh,
N = 9,81 0,9 500,0 0,1 = 441,45 kW.Taking the number of hours of use of installed capacity in year tN= 2500 hours per year, the number of generated electricity will increase even further by the value of
ESS= N tN,
ESS= 441,45 2500 = 1103625 kWhIf the cost of 1 kWh is equal to 20 kopecks, the expected effect of the increase of electricity will be
S = 1103625 0,2 = 220725 times a year.Sources of information
1. The patent of Russian Federation N 2033496, CL E 02 B 9/00, published 20.04.95. Bull. N 11. // Of the suction pipe of the unit.2. The copyright certificate. USSR N 1402700, CL F 03 B 11/00, published 15.06.88. Bull. N 22. //Vsasyvauschie-suction pipe of the reversible unit. Suction pipe unit camera including RA the cavity, above the outlet of the diffuser, and the intermediate tubes, which in terms are staggered and placed between the additional bypass cavity and a rectilinear section of the ceiling area of the discharge cone, and the output part of the ceiling of the discharge cone is made in the form of a curved section.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.
EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.
14 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed for preventing getting of young fish into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield made in form of hollow guides arranged in tiers across water channels in depth with displacement of each upper tier towards diversion channel. It contains also perforated air duct located on bottom of water channel directly before said shield and train-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of channel in parallel with air duct and connected with outlet and device to let out young fish arranged in height of fish retaining shield. Guides of U-shaped are installed at angle to current of intake channel, their planes are perforated and open end part is pointed to bottom of water channel. Young fish let out device is made in form of perforated shields installed side guides for vertical displacement by drive in height of fish retaining shield relative to additional guides made from side of bank edges of intake channel. Perforation holes of shields and u-shaped guides do not coincide in light.
EFFECT: possibility of retaining and bringing young fish out of limits of influence of diversion facility.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in channel and made in form of perforated pipelines arranged in horizontal tiers along entire depth of channel and connected with source of working medium, perforated air duct placed on bottom of channel directly before shield and trash-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of shield parallel to perforated pipeline and air duct which is connected with fish outlet. Perforated pipelines are furnished with ejectors and fish gathering troughs. Ejectors are connected with pressure line of pump and are placed inside perforated pipelines and in communication with fish gathering troughs through perforation holes made in horizontal plane along both sides of pipelines, fish gathering troughs being rigidly fastened opposite to perforation holes. Inner space of fish gathering troughs is provided with longitudinal horizontal partitions dividing the troughs into separate fish intake parts. Surfaces of fish gathering troughs pointed to surface and to bottom of water channel are made perforated. Cross partitions found inside separate fish intake parts form fish intake channels. Initial part of fish outlet is made with fish intake pocket over entire depth of water channel. End face parts of perforated pipelines pointed to side of fish outlet communicate with inner space of pocket.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and removing of young fish over entire depth of water channel.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in water channel in tiers in depth of water channel with displacement of each higher tier to side of water intake channel, perforated air duct made in form of guides installed across water channel before shield on bottom of water channel, and trash-and-fish trough connected with fish outlet and arranged in upper part of shield parallel to air duct. Guides are made in form of flat plates rigidly installed at angle to flow in intake channel. Each plate is provided with horizontal axle in its upper part on which additional plate is secured from side of water intake channel for turning. Lower end face end of additional plate is provided with radial baffle whose surface has perforation holes. End face part of additional plates is provided with sector stopper from side of fish outlet, horizontal axles of plates being connected with drive. Additional plates can be perforated.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and bringing young fish out of the limits of influence of diversion facility.
3 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering; fish protective facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to draw off young fish from zone of influence of water diversion front. Method comes to ejecting young fish into intake part of ejecting plant from section of pond with higher concentration of young fish, creating active ejecting working stream in mixing chamber by entraining volume of water containing young fish into stream created by central ejecting hydraulic jet and further conveyance of water-fish mixture along pressure conduit into fish outlet. At the last stage of conveyance young fish is transported into fish outlet under no pressure conditions by forming hydraulic jet angle to trough of fish outlet, young fish being dropped on surface of fish outlet stream. Invention provides effective conditions for drawing off young fish into fish outlet and reduces damage to young fish. If working ejecting stream is preliminarily saturated with atmospheric air, its outer borders are saturated with air in form of finest microbubbles which form boundary layer ("air cushion") at contact with which young fish do not suffer from discomfort and easily take up hydrodynamic pressure built in mixing chamber. Moreover, provision of boundary layer saturated with microbubbles of air makes it possible to considerably reduce value of friction coupling of two streams, main getting from working nozzle and ejecting, containing young fish.
EFFECT: provision of good conditions for letting out young fish into fish outlet, reduced damage of young fish.
7 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices protecting young fish and preventing their getting into diversion facility. Proposed fish protective facility includes filtering water-separating dam made in form of vertical water-separating wall arranged along water intake channel and separating inlet part of channel from water conduit, device for preliminary drawing off young fish made in form of vertical rod installed for rotation by drive arranged before water-separating wall from its end face part pointed opposite to water flow. Rod is displaced relative to water-separating wall towards water intake channel. Device for preliminary drawing off young fish is furnished with additional means to increase fish draw-off effect, said means being made in from of flat round disks rigidly secured in height of rod coaxially with rod. Disks are installed parallel to each other forming slot water intake channels. End face part of water-separating wall adjoining the rod is provided with slots located opposite to planes of arrangement of disks. Disks are installed for free passing relative to slots. Invention provides higher efficiency of drawing off young fish out limits of zone of influence of diversion facility owing to provision of disks considerably increasing area of contact with surrounding medium and creating powerful circulation flow providing diversion of young fish and trash entrained by water behind outer surface of dam.
EFFECT: provision of effective conditions for drawing off young fish out of limits of zone of influence of diversion facility.
15 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fish protective facilities used in diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective facility includes vertical gauze shield installed in inlet part of water intake channel at angle to its longitudinal axis, fish outlet arranged in place of mating of shield with side of channel, and device for creating whirlpool current for washing the shield containing jet guide member and made in form of chambers adjoining outer surface of shield and forming water intake holes over entire depth of water intake channel. Chambers are made cylindrical being formed by surface of shield and jet guide member and are placed in communication through water intake holes formed by edges of shield of adjacent chambers and edges of jet guide members at place of their butt joining. Each chamber is provided with independent fish outlet made in form of vertical perforated pipe arranged coaxially to chamber and communicating by independent fish duct with fish outlet. Inlet part of water intake channel is made with tangential inlet, edge of left side of channel, shield and tangential inlet are arranged in one plane.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of washing of gauze shield and drawing off young fish and trash.
24 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic and hydropower engineering, particularly for building water-retaining structures to provide power supply to small settlements and farms.
SUBSTANCE: method involves assembling flexible apron assembly consisted of flexible floor apron and flexible downstream apron in watercourse; securing thereof to watercourse bottom by anchors. Water outlet assembly including hydroelectric generator arranged inside it is secured to floor apron and downstream apron by rigid ties. Connected to water outlet assembly by ties are water retaining shell and rope system secured to anchor poles located on watercourse bank.
EFFECT: reduced time of structure assembling and costs for electric power generation.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish-passing devices included in water intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on young fish's tendency to follow moving objects. Method involves forming water permeable screen including flexible elastic members and extending for the full stream depth; providing means for flexible members displacement and installation in working position; providing preliminary young fish concentration in previously created artificial water-plants and transferring young fish into fish-passing channel. Water permeable screen is formed of flexible elastic members on level of stream carrying young fish with maximal concentration. Screen is created in horizontal plane, wherein flexible elastic members are reciprocated from one bank to another along with directing young fish concentrated inside screen in fish-passing channel. Flexible elastic members imitate natural water flora, which is native fish habitat.
EFFECT: provision of controllable water intake during change in vertical young fish descent dynamics.
27 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device designed to prevent young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective device includes suction branch pipe lowered under water level, water permeable shield, device to bring young fish off made in from of hydraulic wash-away device with slot arranged coaxially with suction branch pipe out of the limits of suction hole, feed pipeline connected with pressure line of pump and made inside suction branch pipe coaxially with the latter, and ring conical partition made coaxially to suction branch pipe and rigidly secured on outer surface of suction branch pipe. Hydraulic wash-away device is formed by two cup-like deflectors with concave side pointed to suction hole and installed one over the other to form ring slot directed along water permeable shield. Lower deflector is provided with central outlet hole whose diameter is smaller than diameter of jet forming nozzle arranged coaxially to hydraulic wash-away device and rigidly connected with end part of feed pipeline. Ring conical partition is installed with its larger base to side of suction branch pipe, its smaller base being arranged in plane of suction hole.
EFFECT: simplified design of fish [protective device, provision of effective bringing young fish of limits of influence of suction branch pipe.
7 cl, 8 dwg