The electrostimulator of gastrointestinal tract

 

(57) Abstract:

Features electrostimulator of gastrointestinal tract with the duration of the stimulation pulses is less than 1 MS and a special circuit circuit electrodes of the stimulator on the pause period between pulses, characterized by increased reliability of electrical stimulation, absolute safety and harmlessness to human body. The technical result is achieved due to the introduction of the contact device. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-s, 2 Il.

The invention relates to the field of biomedical engineering, and more specifically to electro-stimulation devices for the diagnosis and treatment of organs and tissues, and more specifically to improvements in the electrostimulator of gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

One of the problems to be solved when designing the Pacer is the problem of the electrodes and their interaction with the tissues and fluids of the body.

It is known that the response of excitable cells to external stimulus depends on the strength of the electric field [1]. In the physiological experiments using intracellular electrodes, it was found that the electrical charge in 10-11A. sufficient to trigger action potential of cells [2]. In us is[3].

In a known stimulator of gastrointestinal tract, for example, described in [4] and taken as a prototype, the generator delivers stimulating pulses to the electrodes, the voltage pulses with duration of 5-7 MS and such amplitude that when working on active load 100 Ohms in the circuit stimulator flows pulsed current with an amplitude of 8-12 mA.

The processes at the electrodes of the pacemaker, are determined by electrophysiological and electrochemical conditions at the phase boundary of the electrode-medium consisting of a metal surface and ions adjacent to the surface of the metal. The majority of sites of the lattice on the surface of the electrode surrounded by water molecules. Therefore, the first layer, adsorbed on the metal surface is water molecules, the second layer shell of hydrated ions accumulated at the phase boundary. This structure is known as the electrical double layer Helmholtz. It corresponds plate capacitor, the capacitance of which is determined by the distance separating opposite charges, and the average dielectric constant of a layer of absorbed water. The capacity of the Helmholtz layer on a smooth metal surface is 5-50 f/cm2[3], and the equivalent electric circuit and ohmic resistance, due to the current Faraday.

Since experiments show [3] that the voltage of the stimulation needed to achieve a threshold reduction of muscle tissue increases with decreasing pulse width, excitable muscle tissue cannot be approximated simple ohmic resistance, the conductivity of the tissue can also be represented as a parallel connection of the capacitances and active resistance.

When applying voltage to the electrodes, first there is only a redistribution of charge on the electrodes, in the absence of crossing the phase boundary whatever-else the charge carrier, it truly capacitive current that is not associated with any electrochemical reaction.

Directly the electrical current can only occur with the passage of charge carriers across the phase boundary and entering into reaction with the components of the solution environment of the gastrointestinal tract, i.e., when the current occurrence of Faraday, the value of which depends on the electrode potential.

Research work electrostimulator of gastrointestinal tract in real conditions and in the model 1% solutions of sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid and alkalis, conducted by the author showed that at the time of filing vente with a time constant of 0.3 to 0.5 MS up to a certain level and remain almost constant until the removal of the voltage from the electrodes. This means that to obtain a constant current stimulator is a current charge capacity, and a constant current is determined by the total equivalent ohmic resistance of the interface electrode - environment. That is, since the time the current constant until the end of the voltage pulse in the circuit of the pacemaker current flows, the physical nature of which is connected with the electrolysis of the internal environment of the gastrointestinal tract and chemical changes in the electrodes. As a result of leaking in the chain promoter of this current may cause irreversible redistribution of intra and extracellular ions, leading to changes in tissue and, in particular, to increase the threshold level of stimulation [3].

Chemical changes in the electrodes, in particular, anodic etching, can lead to the penetration in the patient's blood toxic products of the electrochemical reaction of the electrode material with the internal environment of the gastrointestinal tract. The most toxic elements are cobalt, chromium, Nickel, vanadium [3], which can be included in the composition of the electrodes of stainless steel. Analysis of the electrode ispolovich above drawbacks of the pacemaker prototype the author of the present invention it is proposed to use to stimulate the digestive tract pulses with a duration not greater than 1 MS with the same current amplitude. When such duration stimulation pulses flowing through the tissues of the charge sufficient to generate spontaneous depolarization of cells in the tissue of the gastrointestinal tract and does not cause the above-described effects that characterize the stimulator prototype. Conducted by the author experiments confirm this.

Another disadvantage of the stimulator prototype is the lack of reliability and effectiveness of the stimulation.

Upon termination of the supply voltage to the electrode capacitance of the equivalent circuit of the stimulator begin to discharge, the discharge current flows in opposite to the charging current direction. As in the wiring diagram of the stimulator prototype does not provide specific discharge circuit, this process is very slow and by the time of arrival of the next stimulating pulse they do not have time to run out to the end. As a result, each next stimulating pulse amplitude is less than the previous one, which reduces the probability and reliability of excitation of cells in the tissue, since the threshold level of excitation can be achieved.

To eliminate this drawback, i.e., for rapid discharge of the containers, it is proposed to enter into the electrical circuit of the pacemaker site to match the CLASS="ptx2">

The introduction of such a site makes it possible to eliminate another disadvantage of the stimulator of the prototype is its lack of electrical safety. In accordance with GOST [5] the current in the circuit of the pacemaker, located in the digestive tract, in the absence of pulses must not exceed 100 a. However, failure of the output stage of the pulse generator of the pacemaker to its electrodes is applied a constant voltage from the power source, and the circuit of the pacemaker and through the fabric will leak current exceeding 100 a, which can cause severe pain and even lead to electrochemical burn.

Proposed to be used for electrode metals with high voltage polarization, for example, titanium and its alloys. On the surface of such electrodes in the anodic oxidation, the formation of a solid oxide film, which is a good insulator and increases the equivalent capacitance of the boundaries of the electrode - tissue.

When the force applied to such electrodes DC voltage from the power source of the pacemaker current in the circuit of the stimulator does not exceed 20-25 mA.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

On in Fig. 2 is an equivalent circuit diagram of the stimulator;

In Fig. 1 shows:

U is the voltage on the electrodes of the stimulator;

J is the current in the circuit stimulator;

t1- the date of termination of the supply voltage to the electrodes of the stimulator at the end of the first pulse;

t2- submission to the electrodes of the stimulator of the second pulse voltage;

J1- maximum charge current capacitance in the equivalent circuit of the stimulator of Fig. 2 the first impulse;

U1- the voltage on the plates of a charged capacitance in the equivalent circuit of the stimulator of Fig. 2;

J2- maximum charge current capacitance in the equivalent circuit of the stimulator of Fig. 2 second stimulating pulse;

J3- maximum discharge current of the capacitance in the equivalent circuit of the stimulator of Fig. 2;

J4the current in the circuit stimulator, due to the total ohmic resistance in the equivalent circuit of the stimulator of Fig. 2;

U2- residual voltage on the plates of the capacitance in the equivalent circuit of the stimulator of Fig. 2 at the time of submission to the electrodes of the second pulse.

In Fig. 2 shows:

1 - power source stimulator;

2 - generator stimulation pulses;

3 - resistance Ogre is 5 - the capacity of the Helmholtz layer at the phase boundary of the electrode of the pacemaker;

6 - resistance of the medium and the tissue of the gastrointestinal tract;

7 - equivalent to the capacity of the tissue tract;

8 - pin device for automatic circuit electrodes of the stimulator on the pause period between pulses of stimulation.

1. The electrostimulator of gastrointestinal tract with the body in the form of sealed capsules consisting of two electrically isolated from other electrodes connected to the generator electrodes of the stimulating pulses, and the power source for him inside the capsule, characterized in that the duration of the pulses produced by the generator, less than one MS.

2. The electrostimulator of gastrointestinal tract with the body in the form of sealed capsules consisting of two electrically isolated from other electrodes connected to the generator electrodes of the stimulating pulses, and the power source for him inside the capsule, characterized in that the electrodes are electrically connected to each other via the connecting device, closing them during the breaks between next to each other impulses.

3. The electrostimulator of gastrointestinal tract by p. 2

 

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