Textured, sweeping, staple fibers of polyolefin or copolymer, its production method, a hydrophobic nonwoven material
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a technology of obtaining travel, hydrophobic staple fibers based on polyolefin and nonwoven fabrics made from these fibers. On these threads put the first finishing layer containing at least one cationic agent, in particular salt of Quaternary ammonium, pull the thread. Put the second decorative coating in the form of a dispersion containing at least one hydrophobic sizing - condensation products of fatty acid amides or hydrocarbon wax. The second finish coat may contain polydiorganosiloxane to 15 wt.%. Threads attach the crimp, cut into staple fiber. Such fibers can be combed with great speed. They are suitable for the manufacture of thermovacuum hydrophobic nonwoven materials with dry water-repellent surface, which acts as a barrier to liquids. Runoff 100%, repellently - up to 6.5 cm water.article 3 S. and 19 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab. The present invention relates to comb and thermovacuum synthetic fibers polyolefin treated in the process of forming a hydrophobic finishing patrilocal and derived non-woven products.Fiber, characterized advantage of the ability to combing with a very high speed, especially suitable for use in the manufacture thermovacuum hydrophobic nonwoven material, which is dry, water repellent surface, which can serve as a barrier to liquids, for example for the manufacture of disposable diapers and hygiene items for women. Such fibers are also suitable for the manufacture of thermostating nonwovens for medical purposes, when the dry water-repellent surface is necessary to prevent the invasion of bacteria, for example, in the manufacture of medical gowns and Drapes.Background of the invention
A known number of hydrophobic synthetic fibers based on polyolefins, such as hydrophobic textile fiber with properties that prevent contamination and discoloration. However, such fibers typically contain a cationic antistatic agents, which are undesirable, or may not be used as personal hygiene products and in the manufacture of medical products for reasons of toxicology, as they are often irritating properties due to low pH values. Kromhout, causes allergic reactions. Earlier it was considered difficult to obtain fibers for hygienic or medical use, which would have a good ability to search, along with satisfactory hydrophobic properties. This is especially important for many applications in which it is desirable that the hydrophobic fibers can be combed using a high speed carding machines.Such hygiene products as disposable napkins, diapers and pads for patients with incontinence, usually have a barrier layer, through which the liquid absorbed by the absorbent inner layer and is not able to penetrate into other structural elements, or to get on the wrong side of the material against the skin. Such barriers may include non-woven material obtained from the hydrophobic staple fibers or United in the process of molding materials obtained directly from hydrophobic polymers. However, United in the molding process, the materials are very flat and similar to the film and did not differ softness, uniformity and comfort, which provide non-woven materials. Therefore, United in the process of forming fabrics not avlla. In addition, the United in the molding process of nonwoven materials have non-uniform structure of the fibers, which leads to the formation of weak spots (holes) that are limiting barrier for liquids the characteristics of the tissue, so that the uniformity of procesov becomes the limiting factor for the characteristics of hydrophobicity. As for nonwoven materials produced from staple fibers, they tend to be insufficient for such hydrophobic barriers for liquids, due to the fact that in the process of spinning fibers treated with a special finish that facilitates the molding process, samakuva fiber and giving them antistatic properties. However, as a result of such processing in the molding process, especially due to the use of an antistatic agent, which is inherently more or less hydrophilic fibers become somewhat hydrophilic, which in this context is undesirable. On the other hand, the fibers, which differ in the desired degree of hydrophobicity, usually have insufficient antistatic characteristics.In EP 0557024 A1 discloses polyolefin fibers treated with an antistatic agent, which is a neutralized the waxes, of polyglycols and silicones, and hydrostatic coefficient is at least 102 mmIn patent WO 94/20664 disclosed is a method of obtaining travel, hydrophobic staple fibers polyolefin using two finishing coats in the spinning process, and the second coating is a dispersion containing an antistatic agent, preferably anionic or nonionic antistatic agent, and as a hydrophobic agent is a natural or synthetic hydrocarbon wax or mixture of waxes, and optionally a silicon compound.The present invention represents a different and highly effective approach to the problem of obtaining the polyolefin staple fibers with an optimal combination of hydrophobic and antistatic properties, which would make them suitable to obtain, especially at the expense of high-speed screening, non-woven materials with optimal strength and hydrophobicity. In addition, the present invention is based on the use of substances that irritate the skin.Therefore, the aim of the present invention to provide a hydrophobic thermovacuum synthetic fibers, especially for g characteristics of screening, necessary to obtain a nonwoven material having a higher strength. Another aim of the invention is to improve the deposition and distribution of finishing in the molding process of the fibers, which, in turn, increases the uniformity of the fibers, providing a speed boost combing, and enhances the uniformity of procesov the screening process, which, in turn, allows to obtain nonwovens with improved hydrophobic properties.Summary of the invention
In one aspect the present invention relates to a method for sweeping, hydrophobic staple fibers, polyolefin, which comprises the following stages:
a) coating on molded fiber of the first decorative coating containing at least one cationic antistatic agent,
b) stretching the fibers,
(C) applying to the extruded fibers of the second decorative coatings in the form of a dispersion containing at least one hydrophobic lubricant selected from the condensation products of fatty acid amides, hydrocarbon waxes,
d) giving the yarn crimp,
e) drying the filaments, and
f) cutting the filaments to obtain staple fibers.In anionic systems, you must use large amounts of hydrophobic sizing, often silicone compounds, to achieve a reasonably high degree MgO agent and hydrophobic sizing is sufficient to achieve the desired hydrophobicity, which can be obtained using only a small amount of silicone or no. This is an important advantage, because a reduction in the number of silicone provides a stronger and more uniform friction between the fibers, which, in turn, facilitates high-speed search.The antistatic agents of type Quaternary ammonium salts are usually used for polyolefin fibers, not intended for hygienic purposes, in particular for bulk continuous filaments, staple fibers, intended, for example, for making up into rugs or technical purposes and not for personal hygiene items or service. In accordance with the present invention it was found that the condensates of fatty acid amides and natural or synthetic waxes can be used in combination with cationic antistatic agents, and condensates of fatty acid amides and waxes are hydrophobic sizing, i.e., impart hydrophobic properties, along with the necessary frictional properties.Some types of previously known polypropylene fibers get using cationic antistatic agents, components esterified waxes and large quantities of alcro large quantities of acetic acid and other acids, which should evaporate during linking, in order to avoid caused by acid irritation of the skin. In contrast, the fibers of the present invention will be received, using alkoxysilane emulsifiers without esterified wax components, and also without the use of large quantities of acid.Detailed description of the invention
The term "polyolefin" means that the fibers of the present invention is derived from polyolefins or copolymers, including homopolymers isotactic polypropylene, as well as its statistical copolymers with ethylene, 1-butene, 4-methyl-1-pentanol and so on, and linear polyethylene of various densities, such as low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene. The melt, which is used for fiber-based polyolefins may contain commonly used additives such as calcium stearate, antioxidants, stabilizers process and pigments, including bleaches and dyes, such as TiO2and so onHydrophobic fibers can be both single-component and two-component fibers, the latter can be bicomponent fibers type aconcentric (near the center). Bicomponent fibers typically have a core and shell, which are composed of polypropylene/polyethylene, low pressure polyethylene/linear low density polyethylene, a statistical copolymer of polypropylene/ polyethylene or polypropylene/statistical copolymer polypropylene.Fibers obtained by the method of the present invention, can be white (no pigment) or colored (pigmented).The fiber formation is preferably carried out using a conventional molding from a melt (known as "molding with high hood"), in particular conventional molding with an average speed. Conventional molding includes a two-stage process, the first stage of which comprises extrusion of melts and real fiber formation, and the second stage is extrusion molded fibers, as opposed to the "short form", which is a one-step process in which fibers and molded and pull in one operation.For forming the fused fiber components supplied from the respective extruders via the distribution system and are passed through the holes of a Spinneret. Then EXT is, and at the same time pulled into fibers, which are harvested in bunches, usually containing a few hundred threads. Speed molding after cooling zone is at least about 200 m/min, more about 400-2500 m/min After curing, the fiber is treated with the first finishing surface in the molding process. This is usually carried out through the sliding rollers, but it can be done in alternative systems, for example by spraying the fiber bundles or immersing them in the finishing composition.Pulling in the molding process is carried out, using the so-called pulling out of line, or stretch out the line that, as mentioned earlier, occurs separately from the molding process. The drawing process typically involves a series of hot rollers and oven with hot air, in which several bundles of fibers pull at the same time. The bundles are first passed through one set of rollers, followed by passage through an oven with hot air, and then passed through a second set of rollers. The temperature of the hot rollers and in the oven with hot air of approximately 50-140oC, for example about 70-130oC, and the temperature is chosen in accordance with the type of fiber, for example, obiamnete polypropylene/polyethylene fibers. The speed of the second set of rollers above the speed of the first set and therefore the heated fiber bundles are stretched in accordance with the ratio between the two speeds (called" degree of drawing"). You can also use the second wave and the third set of rollers (two-stage extractor), and the velocity of the third set of rollers must be higher than the speed of the second set of rollers. In this case, the degree of drawing is the ratio between the speeds of the last and the first set of rollers. Similarly, you can use additional sets of rollers and furnaces. Fiber of the present invention typically pull, using the degree of drawing from about of 1.05:1 to about 6:1, i.e., from 1.05:1 to 2:1 for polypropylene fibers, and from about 2: 1 to 4.5:1 for polyethylene fibers and bicomponent fibers of polypropylene/polyethylene, resulting in a gain corresponding fiber fineness, for example about 1 to 7 denier, typically about 1.5 to 5 denier, and most often about 1.6 to 3.4 denier.After extraction of the bundles of filaments treated with a second composition of finishing, for example, using moving rollers or by spraying or immersion. Threads can optionally be heated before giving them tortuosity, for example by means of steam or superheated hydrophobia components of the finishing composition. Ideally it would be preferable to apply a dispersion of the composition of the finish, not melting hydrophobic sizing. However, components finishing in the molding process must be in the form of dispersion during application to prevent coalescence (adhesion) of the particles or droplets of a hydrophobic lubricant, and after that is usually required to melt these components in order to ensure uniform distribution of the fibers. Melting hydrophobic sizing preferably occurs before the installation to make the crimp, but may also occur in the installation or during subsequent stages of drying. Energy used for heating and melting the hydrophobic sizing may come at the expense of the bundle of filaments which are heated during the extraction process, or in another embodiment it can be provided, for example, by steam or infrared radiation, as described earlier.The friction in the device for imparting crimp (which, in turn, affects the cohesion of procesov) can to some extent be controlled by varying the process parameters, in particular pressure in the chamber to obtain a fiber tortuosity. However, this is only possible optionalinfo finish on the friction between the fibers and between the fibers and the metal will be presented next.Stretched fiber is usually texturing (give them tortuosity) with the aim of obtaining fibers, suitable for screening by giving them a "wavy" shape. Effective texturing, i.e., a relatively large number of turns of the fiber ensures high speed processing in the carding machines, for example at least 80 m/min, usually at least 100 m/min, and in many cases at least 150 m/min or even 200 m/min or more, thereby ensuring high performance.Giving tortuosity is usually carried out using the so-called camera to make the crimp. The bundles of filaments are served through a pair of rollers under pressure into the chamber, where they take the tortuous shape due to the pressure that is created due to the fact that they do not pull out the insides of the camera. The degree of tortuosity can be adjusted by the pressure rollers located in front of the camera, the pressure and temperature in the chamber and the thickness of the bundle of filaments. In another embodiment, the threads can be texture due to the air flowing through the nozzle with the air flow. In some cases, for example, for an asymmetric two-component fibers, the device for giving tortuosity can be excluded, as ThermoBrite.Fiber of the present invention typically texturing to about 5-15 izvilista/cm, typically about 7-12 izvilista/cm (with the number of izvilista is the number of bends of the fiber).After kimirovanie fibers, for example in the camera to give tortuosity, they are usually fixed by heat treatment to relieve tension that may be present after extraction and kimirovanie that makes texturing a more homogeneous. Fixation and drying of the fibers are important factors for the hydrophobicity of the final product. In particular, it is important that the drying unit, for example, clothes dryer, oven or tube for drying and heat-setting, and so on, had a uniform distribution of hot air, as it leads to a low and uniform distribution of moisture in the fibers, which, in turn, affects the hydrophobicity of the final product. The residual moisture content is preferably less than 2.0%, more preferably less than 1.5% by weight based on the weight of the fiber. Fixation and drying of the fibers can occur simultaneously, usually due to the supply of bundles of filaments of the camera to give tortuosity, for example, by using a conveyor belt through an oven with hot air. The temperature of the furnace will depend on the composition of wollaton) below the temperature of the components with a lower melting point. At commit time, the fiber is subjected to a crystallization process, which locks the fibers in their campervans form, thereby providing a more constant texturing. During the heat treatment also removes some water from the finishing of the molding composition. The drying process allows you to melt and spread evenly on the surface of the threads any wax components or other hydrophobic sizing. For hydrophobic oil, which are already liquids, for example, silicone compounds, heat treatment reduces the viscosity, allowing you to more evenly distribute such compounds. Threads usually dried at a temperature in the range of 90 -130oC, for example 95 -125oC, depending on factors such as fiber type.Fixed and dried bundles of filaments then served in the cutter, where the threads are cut into staple fibers of the desired length. Cutting is usually accompanied by passing the fibers through a wheel with radial blades. The fibers are pressed to the knives by the pressure rollers, and thus cut into segments of desired length, which correspond to the distances between the knives. Fibers of this image is depending on carding equipment and fineness of the threads. Length of about 38-40 mm very often suitable for fibers with Tonino about 2.2 denier, while 45-50 mm in length are often suitable for fiber denier of 3.3.It is accepted that the basic requirements for finishing coatings for molded and extruded polymer fibers include the following:
1. It should contain such a quantity of antistatic agent, which will ensure that the fiber has not acquired an electrostatic charge in the molding process and the hoods or in the screening process; anionic, cationic or non-ionic antistatic agents - all can be used in decorative coatings in the molding process, although, as mentioned earlier, cationic antistatic agents are usually not suitable for use in fibers, intended for the manufacture of absorbent hygiene products due to the fact that these agents have the ability to irritate the skin.2. If necessary, it must contain this number gives the cohesive properties of the agent, which is sufficient to ensure that the threads are held together in bundles, allowing you to handle them without creating weaves; and for this purpose often use neutral vegetable oil, dinoceros which should contain the components usually hydrophobic sizing, which regulate the friction between fibers and between fibers and metal during the manufacturing process so that threads are not subjected to mechanical wear and did not artrepublic during processing. In particular, it is necessary to adjust the friction between the fiber and the metal at the stage of forming, between the fiber and the metal roller banners and between the fibers and fiber/metal in the chamber to impart a crimp.4. Usually need water plus emulsifiers or surface-active agents to maintain more or less lipophilic components in aqueous solution. Avoid solvents in addition to water, if possible, to avoid possible pollution to the environment.The compositions of decorative coatings in the molding process are used to control friction fiber/fiber and fiber/metal during combing and therefore, these finishes, which are used for molding and stretch marks, usually chosen so that the fibers did not need any other treatment before combing.Antistatic components are necessary components for all used in the molding process of the finishing composition is more or less hydrophilic, what in principle is a disadvantage, which must be acknowledged in the case of forming finishes, which in other cases are hydrophobic. In such cases, the amount of antistatic agent must be reduced to a minimum to preserve the hydrophobic nature of the molding trim. This can be achieved by using a highly effective anti-static agent, only a small amount which is necessary to achieve the desired antistatic effect. However, commonly used anionic antistatic agents such as esters of phosphoric acid, is not particularly effective, as they are for hydrophobic fibers often contain long alkyl chains, resulting in the concentration of the phosphate groups is relatively low. As the relative number of these phosphate groups determines antistatic properties, it turns out that such agents are relatively ineffective. The following typical values for normal antistatic components serve as an indication for the relative effectiveness of their anti-static characteristics: inorganic salts 100, cationic 80-100, anionic 75-90, nonionic 50-70 fixing agents 30, mineral oils and silicones 0-10, sizing 30-50.ISIC can be used in much lower concentrations thereby, or minimizing, the hydrophilic properties of hydrophobic compounds forming finishes, but, as mentioned earlier, such cationic antistatic agents are not suitable for the manufacture of personal hygiene products and medical devices, due to their toxicity.The present invention is based on molding finishes used at the stage of molding, and at the stage of stretch marks that meet the previously listed requirements regarding the content of the antistatic agent, a hydrophobic lubricant (oil), water, and optional agent, giving the properties of cohesion, as well as in the regulation of friction fiber/fiber and fiber/metal. These molding finishes the additional advantage that they act as auxiliary agents in the screening process and thereby provide the necessary friction fiber/fiber and fiber/metal to achieve sufficient combing fibers. The result is procesy with uniform distribution of fibers, even when using relatively high speed combing.In the method of the present invention the major part or even the entire antistaticity under hoods and preferably avoided. The reason is that the cationic antistatic agents usually form a stable foam after mixing, and, in addition, they are relatively high viscosity. Therefore, the number of cationic antistatic agent, it is preferable to maintain a minimum at the second stage of the molding trim to reduce the viscosity and to eliminate or reduce the formation of air bubbles, as both these factors lead to non-uniform application of the finishing composition. If the second finishing composition contains a cationic antistatic agent, it is present preferably in an amount of at most 20%, more preferably at most 10%, based on the total weight of the active compound in the composition of the second finish.The total concentration of active components (i.e., an antistatic agent, a hydrophobic lubricant (oil), emulsifier, agent, giving the cohesive properties) are generally lower in the first part finishes (usually about 0.7 to 2.5% of the active substances) than in the second part finishes (usually about 4-12% of active substance), and the viscosity of the composition of the first finishing therefore tend to be lower. Therefore, it is advantageous to use any components with high viscosity and d is alwaysin agent is a wax or a silicon compound, it is applied only at the stage of drawing. However, if hydrophobic sizing is the condensation products of fatty acid amides can also be applied at the stage of molding. There are several reasons for choosing this approach. First of all, the use of wax as a hydrophobic sizing at the stage of formation leads to problems associated with the stage of molding, and with the stage of drawing.1. During molding the friction fiber/metal increases, and part of the wax components will Deposit on various parts of the machines that will be in contact with bunches of threads. The deposition of wax during the molding will also result in stickiness bundles of filaments, the filaments can stick together. If this happens, the fiber bundles will be difficult to remove from containers/tanks in which the beams are stored until the desired number is ready for simultaneous stretching, when they will need to stretch in the two-stage process.2. During stretching wax deposits will form on the heated rollers and other parts of the machine, which will be in contact with the beams. This is due to the fact that the bundles of filaments are heated in the process of drawing. When the et is easy to Deposit on the rollers, and so D. If this happens, the friction between the bundles of filaments and the surface of the rollers will drop to a level below that necessary to maintain process parameters hoods required to extrude fibers. And if the fibers will slide along the surface of the rollers, it is obvious that they will not stretch.The use of silicon compounds as hydrophobic sizing in the forming process will also lead to problems for both molding and extrusion:
1. During molding silicone to reduce friction between the fibers and metal, so that the bundles of filaments are more likely to slip along the various feed rollers, not to move forward through these rollers. The result will be impossible to pull fibers from the Spinneret with a given and constant speed. This occurs especially at high speeds, which are usually used for molding.2. During stretching the silicone applied at the stage of formation, will lead to the same negative effect as wax. Friction between a bunch of threads and tension rollers will decrease, which will lead to the well known problem of slippage associated with silicone.Videocase totalnogo cationic antistatic agent and a very small amount (if at all to use) agent, giving cohesion properties at the stage of forming (i.e., without hydrophobic sizing in any significant quantity). Cationic antistatic agent must have sufficient antistatic properties and must inform the cohesive properties of the filaments, and should not have such a molecular weight, which could cause problems with deposits on the mechanisms.Cationic antistatic agents, which are used in accordance with the present invention, different specific advantage, which is due to the fact that the polyolefins, and particularly polypropylene, in the process according to the method of "long" forming, partially oxidized on the surface. So, although it is known that polyolefins are hydrophobic materials, in some cases, they differ in surface properties, which are not, strictly speaking, hydrophobic. As a result of such partial oxidation of some hydroxyl and carboxyl groups as well as groups of aldehydes and ketones, are on the surface. Besides the fact that they are polar and therefore hydrophilic, associated with the polymer groups are also anionic. This means that they will repel uberawsomeshow, less efficient coating an antistatic agent on the surface of the fibers, and, thus, worsen antistatic properties, and there will be a risk that the agglomerates antistatic agent will Deposit on the equipment in the screening process. In addition, you may receive the parcel on the surface, which are relatively hydrophilic, and other sites that are hydrophobic. The presence of such hydrophilic areas will lead to the tendency of liquids to penetrate the non-woven fabric, thereby nullifying hydrophobic properties. In the case of cationic (positively charged) antistatic agents, however, oppositely charged (i.e., negative) groups on the polymer surface provides uniform distribution of the antistatic agent on the surface of the fibers.This, in turn, contributes to the efficiency of cationic agents, providing superior antistatic characteristics necessary to ensure the screening of the obtained fibers with high speed, such as 200 m/min.Because relatively small amounts of cationic antistatic agent sufficient to achieve the desired antistatic effect, fiber antistatic agent. Consequently, it is possible to reduce the number of hydrophobic lubricant (e.g. silicone), which would otherwise add to make the fibers more hydrophilic character. As mentioned previously, the use of silicone compounds, which tends to make the surface of the fibers some lubricity, has several disadvantages from the point of view of reducing friction fiber/fiber and fiber/metal. In the treated silicone fibers tend to become difficult texturename and therefore also difficult to comb with high speeds.Cationic antistatic agents have the added advantage that they are less sensitive to moisture than the commonly used anionic salts alkylphosphates, during subsequent processing of the fibers. As a result of this sensitivity, anti-static agents on the basis of salts of alkylphosphates, combing fibers treated with these agents usually should be carried out under conditions of controlled humidity (for example, 65%).Cationic antistatic agents used in accordance with the present invention, are typical Quaternary ammonium salts. Such cationic anthistamine or hydroxyethylmethylcellulose salt hydroxypropionic acid, or salts of Quaternary ammonium as ammonium salt steerimplements (Ahmed, Polypropylene Fibers - Science and Fechnology, Elsevier Scientific Publiching Co. , 1982, p.375). Condensation products of amines of fatty acids provide satisfactory anti-static properties, and friction in wet conditions, which contributes to the achievement of good texturing in the camera to make the crimp.The pH value of the previously known finishes in the molding process containing cationic antistatic agent or a condensate of fatty acid amides, typically slightly acidic, usually below 4. In these conditions, the amide nitrogen often is protonated and in this case can function as a cationic antistatic agent. This protonation is also contributing to the increase in the stability of the dispersion. However, at higher pH values, for example 5-6, the amide group is not protonated, amide does not become cationic in nature. For applications in which it is not important that the product does not irritate the skin, such as for technical applications, such as fiber for carpets, these amides are often used at low pH values. It is also related to the fact that low pH values tend to prevent the growth of germs and reduce the possibility is that it is important to avoid irritation of the skin, such amides are preferably used at higher pH values, in order to avoid caused by acid skin irritation. In those cases where the acid necessary to stabilize the emulsion or dispersion, it is preferable to use acetic acid or other volatile acid, which, at least in part will evaporate during the drying process of drawing, so that the pH of the coating finish on the treated fibers will be high enough to avoid skin irritation caused by acid.Cationic antistatic agent of the present invention must therefore have a pH (10% aqueous solution) not less than 4.0. More preferably, the pH was not less than 4.5, for example from 4.5 to 6.5, namely 5.0-6.0.Another factor that can cause skin irritation or eye cationic antistatic agents of the type of Quaternary ammonium salts is available groups, secondary or tertiary amine. Preferred cationic antistatic agents for use in accordance with the present invention are such end groups, which are modified with long alkyl chains.Cationic antistatic agents nastojaschimi terminal groups of the tertiary amine or ester groups, in particular from compounds of General formula I
< / BR>where Z1and Z2represent Alk-CONH-, (Alk)-N-Alk-COO-, or H, where Alkrepresents a linear aliphatic alkyl or alkenylphenol group containing 10 to 24 carbon atoms, or a mixture of more than one of these groups, provided that both Z1and Z2cannot be H;
R1represents H, CH3, alkyl containing up to 24 carbon atoms, or ester dimetilfenola fatty acids;
R2represents H or CH3;
n is an integer greater than 0;
m is an integer greater than 0; and
X-is a counterion.In addition to the above exceptions, i.e., Z1and Z2can not be both H, Z1and Z2may be the same or different.Other possibilities for modification of end groups associated with essential or taksigrup, for example compounds of the General formula II:
< / BR>where R1represents H, CH3, alkyl containing up to 24 carbon atoms, or a complex of dimethyl ester of fatty acid;
R2represents H or CH3;
each R3independently represents H, methyl, ethyl or Alk-carbonyl, geoda, or a mixture of more than one such group;
n is an integer greater than 0;
m is an integer greater than 0;
y is an integer greater than 0; and
X_represents a counterion.In the above compounds of formulas I and II Alkis, in particular, the alkyl group containing 12-22 carbon atoms, preferably 14-20 carbon atoms, for example 16-18 carbon atoms; n is usually 1 to 4, if R3is alkyl, it preferably represents alkyl containing 10-24 carbon atoms; m is usually 1 to 10; y is usually equal to 1 to 20; and X-usually represents acetate, citrate, lactate, methosulfate or chloride ion.Cationic antistatic agents are often in the form of oligo-cationic compounds, i.e. compounds with multiple groups, Quaternary ammonium compounds, usually less than 10 such groups, as a greater number of such groups can lead to poly-component, high viscosity, which, in turn, will lead to problems achieving a uniform distribution of finishes in the processes of forming the fibers. Antistatic compounds for use in the method of the present invention should therefore have a mole is the Eney, than 2000.A common characteristic of cationic antistatic agents used in accordance with the method of the present invention, is that they are non-irritating compounds. The term "non-irritating" refers to the fact that they should be classified as "non-irritating" tests for irritation of the skin or eyes. Among the test methods available for this purpose, it is necessary to specify those disclosed in OECD Guideline 404 N: "Acute Dermal Irritation/Corrosion", May 1981 and OECD Guideline 405 N: "Acute Eye Irritation/Corrision" Feb. 1987, and conducted on rabbits. Classification can be done in accordance with the descriptions in the Official Journal of the European Communities, 257, 1983.The second team finishes in the spinning process may contain a minimal amount of antistatic agent to make the fibers sufficient antistatic characteristics, so that you can comb through without problems of education of static electricity, but it can also, depending on the nature of hydrophobic sizing used in the second stage finishes, as well as anti-static agent used in the first stage, applying finish, not contain an antistatic agent.The viscosity of the dispersion which leads to a low viscosity, providing a thin and uniform coating component finishes on the surface of the fibers. This, in turn, provides the fibers with homogeneous characteristics of friction between the fibers and fiber and metal, that provides a uniform texturing in the process of making the tortuosity and the subsequent obtaining of uniform procesov the screening process. The end result is a dense non-woven material with good hydrophobicity. However, it is important to note that ultrafine particles, for example with a diameter of less than about 0.1 μm, can lead to an increase in viscosity. Therefore, the particle size in the dispersions for application of finishing in the molding process should preferably be in the range of 0.1 to 5 μm, more preferably 0.1 to 2 μm.In General, the average size of the dispersed particles should be significantly less than the diameter of the fibers. For a typical thin fibers with a diameter of, for example, 15-20 μm, this means that the size of the particles in the dispersion finishing composition should be preferably at most about 5 microns, more preferably at most about 2 microns, and more preferably at most about 1 μm. In practice, the average particle size typically dekotora extent on the nature of both materials.The desired small particle size dispersion can be obtained in two ways. The first is to use relatively large quantities of emulsifier. However, this is undesirable, as it leads to problems of increasing hydrophilicity, which for obvious reasons is not desirable for hydrophobic fibers. The second way is to obtain particles of a small size and it is preferred, which is carried out by mechanical means in the process of obtaining dispersions, for example through the use of homogenizers, dispensers, devices with high shear or due to high-speed mixers.Although it is desirable that the amount of emulsifier was reduced to a minimum, emulsifying agents are required to create and maintain a stable dispersion of very fine dispersed particles (typically the average size is less than 2 μm) or stable emulsion droplets, and therefore necessary, as such, in limited quantities. Therefore, the emulsifiers are usually present in amount less than 10 wt%, more often less than about 8 wt%, for example 4-7 wt%. Ideally, the amount of emulsifier should be small as possible, or even it should not be excluded. In the latter case, in otsutstvet agent, as lignosulfate. Another reason for maintaining the quantity of emulsifier small as possible is that it helps to provide the necessary treatment phase (phase treatment see below).The emulsifier should not, for obvious reasons, to be particularly hydrophilic and, obviously, he must be compatible with the point of view of electric charge with the selected antistatic agent (agents) and hydrophobic sizing (sizing). Suitable emulsifiers are, for example, a complex alkalemia esters of fatty acids, alkalemia amides of fatty acids, alkylether and ethoxylated long-chain alcohols (fatty alcohols). More usually the preferred emulsifying compounds contain a cationic group with one or two (preferably two) chain fatty acids, for example with 8-22 carbon atoms, usually from 12 to 20 carbon atoms, and more usually from 16-18 carbon atoms. They can be saturated or unsaturated, although the preferred chain saturated fatty acids. Commercially available products are often mixtures containing emulsifying compounds with chains of fatty acids of different lengths, such as in coconut oil, palm oil is low. In particular, the viscosity of the second finishing composition should be preferably at most 7 Masek, more preferably at most 5 Masek, more preferably at most 3 Masek, and most preferably at most 2 Masek that determine, for example, by using a viscometer at 23oC and a shear rate of 2.0 sec-1using viscometer COWETA.It is important that after the application finishes that represent the dispersion or emulsion in water, and they form a water continuous phase, the active compound in the finishing composition is able to dissipate in a uniform layer on the surface of the fibers. For this to happen, the temperature should be above the melting temperature of the main active compounds in a dispersion, and a sufficient amount of water must evaporate to cause the contacting phases. The treatment phase may occur before giving tortuosity using steam or infrared radiation as heat source and should occur at the latest in the drying chamber after giving tortuosity. However, it is preferable that the contacting phases occurred before kempervennen, so this leads to the uniform distribution of the comp is going to even texturing. In addition, it improves the uniformity of procesov in subsequent scans, which ultimately will lead to improved hydrophobic properties, in particular, will improve the penetration time for the final nonwoven fabric. Another advantage of ensuring a uniformly high degree of texturing is that it is a necessary condition for high-speed screening.The antistatic agent may be added protivovspenivayushchie agent. Protivovspenivayushchie agent is, for example, a silicone compound, such as dimethylsiloxane or polydimethylsiloxane, and usually it is added in amounts less than 1 wt%, more often less than about 0.5 wt%, for example, about 0.25 wt%. You can also use other protivovspenivayushchie agents based on silicone.The nature of the process dictates some restrictions on the relative amount of any of the waxes, the condensation products of fatty acid amides or polydiorganosiloxane present as hydrophobic sizing. An excessive amount of wax or the condensation products of fatty acid amides will increase the friction between the fibers and especially the friction between the fibers and the metal in the chamber to give the tortuous the friction will also be harmful for high-speed screening. It is important to caused by friction heat in the screening process was minimal, particularly when combing with high speeds. Excessive polydiorganosiloxane reduces friction in the chamber for imparting crimp and during scratching. Fiber to the excess amount of polydiorganosiloxane will slip and they will be difficult to pull and comb through. These fibers are difficult to texture in the camera to give tortuosity, as it requires a minimum of friction fiber/metal.Similarly, it is obvious that considerations of hydrophobicity dictate certain limits of the ratio between the amount of antistatic agent, on the one hand, and hydrophobic sizing is on the other side.The composition for treatment in the molding process in the molding Department (first finishing composition) must therefore be anti-static and a sizing composition to be as far as possible hydrophobic. For the purpose of oiling it may not necessarily contain a hydrophobic sizing type of the condensation products of fatty acid amides. If you use condensation products of fatty acid amides in the second part of the decoration, predpochtitel opony sizing" select from
i) the condensation products of fatty acid amides,
ii) hydrocarbon waxes, and
iii) polydiorganosiloxane.The definitions of these terms will be explained next. However, it should be noted that the term "hydrophobic sizing" refers to compounds that affect the friction [fiber/fiber and fiber/metal] fibers, and that "sizing" can also refer to compounds, particularly waxes, which increase the friction.The term "condensation products of fatty acid amides" refers to compounds based on mono - and diamines, in particular
the compounds of General formula III:
< / BR>and to compounds of General formula IV:
< / BR>where each Alkindependently represents a linear aliphatic alkyl or alkenylphenol the group consisting of 10-24 carbon atoms, or a mixture of more than one such group,
n is an integer more than 0, and
m is an integer more than 0.In the compounds of formulas III and IV Alkin particular represents an alkyl group containing 12-22 carbon atoms, preferably 14-20 carbon atoms, for example 16-18 carbon atoms; n is usually 1 to 4, and m is usually equal to 1-10.Condensation products Mesa natural fatty acids, often have different length chains. In addition, such compounds may contain small amounts of unreacted fatty acids or amines. The temperature range of the melting point of these compounds differs depending on the structure and molecular weight. For the purposes of the present invention, the preferred temperature in the range of 40-100oC, in particular 60 to 90oC.The hydrocarbon wax used in the second composition of the finishing coating of the present invention, in particular, are paraffin wax or microcrystalline wax. However, you can also use natural waxes such as vegetable waxes or animal origin.Paraffin wax is a mixture of crystalline hydrocarbon, which at room temperature is solid and which is obtained from light oil fractions, known as "pressable wax distillate".Paraffin wax is usually composed mainly of hydrocarbons with an unbranched chain and some branched hydrocarbons (isoparaffins). Microcrystalline paraffin wax, which is a mixture of hydrocarbons that are solid p is usually consists of, mainly branched hydrocarbons (isoparaffins) and naphthenes (with large side chains) along with a small number of unbranched hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons.The melting temperature of the paraffin waxes are typically in the range of 45 - 65oC, whereas the interval for microcrystalline waxes is usually about 50 -- 95oC. (temperature curing hydrocarbon waxes usually about 2o-3oC below the melting temperature).In the context of the present invention, the term "hydrocarbon wax" refers to a paraffin or microcrystalline waxes of natural or synthetic origin, in particular waxes with a melting point in the range 40 - 120oC, for example 40 - 90oC, which corresponds to an average molecular weight of about 250-900 (according to the high-temperature gas gel chromatography using, for example, trichlorobenzene as a solvent, or according to mass spectrometry), or mixtures of waxes containing, mainly, paraffin or microcrystalline waxes with a melting point in the above interval. Although the wax or mixture of waxes with a relatively low campechana ease and uniformity of distribution of wax on the surface of the fiber without the use of too high temperatures, it is believed, however, that waxes and wax mixtures with a higher melting temperature, for example up to about 120oC, also suitable for some applications. Preferred hydrocarbon waxes are, in particular, the melting temperature in the range of 50 - 80oC, which corresponds to an average molecular weight in the range of about 400-800, for example a melting point in the range 55o-75oC. For wax, the melting temperature of which lie outside the specified ranges, the second finishing coat is usually applied at a temperature in the range 25o-60oC, for example 40o-55oC (fibers typically have a slightly higher temperature during application of the second finishes).As waxes typically consist of mixtures of different hydrocarbons, it may be in the case of waxes used in the method of the present invention. Therefore, the term "wax" refers generally to a mixture of waxes of various types, some of the more which can be waxes with higher or lower molecular weights and above the melting temperature, if only the melting temperature of the whole mixture fall within these intervals.The wax may also soderjasimi melting temperature, for example, up to about 120oC. Hydrocarbon resins are synthetically through radical polymerization of hydrocarbon waxes containing aromatic hydrocarbons.For mixtures of waxes containing other components than the hydrocarbon wax with a melting point in the range 40o-80oC, for example a hydrocarbon wax with a higher melting point or a hydrocarbon resin, the amount of such other components is usually not more than 40 wt%. from a mixture of waxes, preferably not more than 30 wt%. a mixture of waxes, and most preferably not more than 20 wt%. a mixture of waxes.As mentioned earlier, are also considered as components of the waxes in the second stage finish application of the present invention can be used waxes of vegetable or animal origin. Although natural waxes can contain various components, many of them the main component are hydrocarbons. One of interest waxes is beeswax, which contains a mixture of hydrocarbons, complex monoufia, diesters and Trifonov, complex hydroxymelatonin, complex gidroksipropafenon, free acids, complex monoamino acids and sloski of animal origin, interest resulting from the activities of crickets, locusts and cockroaches.Waxes of different plant species contain as the major part of the hydrocarbons, mainly in the form of unbranched alkanes with odd numbers of carbon atoms. However, branched alkanes and alkenes, as reported, are likely to be present in many vegetable waxes. In addition, some vegetable waxes, such as beeswax Carnauba palm, contain a relatively small percentage of unbranched alkanes. Like waxes of animal origin vegetable waxes also contain varying amounts of other components, including complex mono - and diesters, complex hydroxyether, polyesters, primary and secondary alcohols, acids, aldehydes, ketones, etc.Natural waxes used for the purposes of this invention should have a melting point that lies in the previously mentioned interval for hydrocarbon waxes.In accordance with the present invention it was found that the friction properties between the fibers and between the fibers and the metal can be adjusted, and hydrophobic properties can be improved if the composition of the second finishes coderage is not necessary to contain a small amount, for example, up to 15 wt%, preferably less than 10 wt%. for example 1-8 wt%, usually 2-5 wt%, calculated on the total weight of the active component of the second decorative coatings, silicone compound. For fibers intended for use in non-woven materials, which are very desirable high degree of hydrophobicity, and for which high speed combing is not critical or necessary, the content of the silicone components may be higher, for example up to 10% weight. or 15% weight. However, the levels, for example, up to 20-25% of the weight. will tend to cause slippage of fibers with very low friction between the fibers and the metal, and which can be processed only using carefully selected combination of other components of the composition of finishing in the screening process.Polydiorganosiloxane is, in particular, polydiorganosiloxane General formula V:
< / BR>where each R independently represents an alkyl group containing 1-4 carbon atoms, phenyl or H,
n represents an integer from 500 to 3000, and
X is HE, methyl, ethyl, H, O-methyl or O-acetyl,
The preferred polydiorganosiloxane is polydimethylsiloxane.Hydrophone with characteristics nonwettability have a contact angle of more than 90o(when measuring, for example, using the method of Wilhelmi (Wilhelmy) power for wettability individual fibers). It is believed that relatively less hydrophobic fibers of the present invention will have a contact angle somewhat greater than 90owhile strongly hydrophobic fibers have a contact angle that approaches 180o(contact angle 180ois theoretical maximum for full Nesmachniy).Regulation of the technological characteristics of the production of fibers, i.e., friction between the fibers and between fibers and metal, can be achieved by varying the number of polydiorganosiloxane in the second finishing surface. Fibers obtained in the absence of polydiorganosiloxane will have more friction between fibers and between fibers and metal.As mentioned earlier, one of the main advantages of the fibers of the present invention is that they are suitable for high-speed search of the area that is of particular interest for polypropylene fibers. Thus, the fiber of the present invention can be processed to a uniform procesov with high speed carding machine, for example about 80 m/min, usually crippa at least 175 m/min or even 225 m/min, or more. The rate of screening, selected in each case will depend on such factors as the type of fiber (e.g., polypropylene, polyethylene, a two-component mixture, and so on) and the nature of the non-woven cloth, which you want to receive. The search is usually performed in the process nezameshchennogo combing.Polypropylene fiber of the present invention, preferably, can be combed with speeds of at least 100 m/min, preferably 150 m/min, more preferably at least 200 m/min, to obtain procesov that can be termowizyjne in non-woven material in which the ratio of tensile strength in the direction of movement of the fabric and the tensile strength in the transverse direction is at most 7, preferably at most 5 (method definition specified below). Two-component polypropylene/polyethylene fibers of the present invention preferably can be combed with a speed of combing at least 80 m/min, preferably 100 m/min, to obtain procesov that can be termowizyjne to obtain a nonwoven fabric, in which the relationship between the tensile strength in the direction of movement of the fabric in the car and so is retene, preferably, it is possible to comb with a speed of at least 80 m/min, procesy that can be termowizyjne to obtain a nonwoven fabric, in which the relationship between the tensile strength in the direction of movement of the fabric in the machine and tensile strength in the transverse direction is at most 5. In all cases, the lack of orientation of fibers in proceso, expressed as the ratio between the two strengths of the gap should be as close as possible to 1.Durability of different nonwoven materials can be compared, but using the so-called index of shvatyvaemost, which compensates for differences in the orientation of the fibers and which is calculated as follows, based on the strengths of the gap of non-woven material, defined in the direction of movement in the machine and transverse directions. Standardized screening test to determine the tensile strength of nonwoven material is as follows.Of about 95-105 kg fibers get procesy weighing at least 15 kg, with a weight of 20-25 g/m2procesov by combing with the selected speed for optimal tuning of rollers in relation to the homogeneity of procesov. Then these webs is P>oC in the temperature range selected in accordance with the type of fiber. For polypropylene fibers get procesy with a specific weight of about 20 g/m2by termowizyjne at temperatures in the range 145o-157oC, using the pressure of the calender 64 Newton/mm and a typical speed scans of 100 m/min For polyethylene fibers get procesy with a specific gravity of about 25 g/m2by termowizyjne at a temperature in the range of 126o-132oC, when the pressure of the calender 40 Newton/mm and a typical speed scans of 80 m/min For two-component fibers with polypropylene middle and PE sheath receive procesy with a specific weight of 20 g/m2by termowizyjne at temperatures in the range of 137 is 147oC, when the pressure of the calender 40 Newton/mm and a typical speed scans of 80 m/min. and Then determine the tensile strength for procesov in the direction of motion in the machine and transverse direction, and the measurement is carried out in accordance with the test recommended by EDANA: Nonwovens Tensile Strength (endurance Tests for non-woven materials), February 20, 1989, which is based on ISO 9073-3: 1989 ("Determination of tensile strength and elongation"); however, for the purposes of the present invention for each of the temperatures binding, moreover, the rate of shvatyvaemost defined as the square root of the product of the strength in the direction of motion in the machine and transverse directions. To obtain a standard measure of shvatyvaemost for standard nonwoven fabric with a unit weight of 20 g/m2(BJ20) calculated the rate of shvatyvaemost for this sample is multiplied by 20 and divided by the actual weight in g/m2thereby compensating for the fact that the strength of the nonwoven fabric depends on specific gravity.For fibers based on polypropylene rate shvatyvaemost (BJ20must be at least 15 Newtons/5 cm when the search carried out at a speed of 100 m/min, and preferably at least 17 Newtons/5 cm when a search carried out with a speed of at least 150 m/minFor fibers based on polyethylene index shvatyvaemost (BJ20must be at least 7 Newtons/5 cm when combing with a speed of 80 m/min, and preferably at least 10 Newtons/5 cm when combing with a speed of 80 m/min.For two-component fibers consisting of the middle and shell, in which the middle - on the basis of polypropylene, and the shell - based pelirocco 80 m/min, and preferably at least 10 Newtons/5 cm at a speed of 80 m/min.The viscosity of the compositions for decorative coatings in the molding process can be determined by using a Brookfield viscometer model LVT DV11, equipped with a UL adaptor. This viscometer sample type (concentric cylinder), and even the low viscosity of the finishing coating can be defined at different degrees of shift. The viscosity is determined at a temperature of 23oC and the degree of shift of 2.0 sec-1.Hydrophobic properties of nonwoven materials produced from fibers of the present invention, can be tested in accordance with different methods. They include test repulsion (repellency), the test time of absorption, the test time of penetration of the fluid and test the runoff. The test of time to absorb the liquid can also be used to determine the hydrophobic properties of the fibers, as will be indicated below.Test the repellency is carried out in accordance with the EDANA recommended test to determine repellently nonwovens (N 120.1-80), soaking the samples for at least 2 hours at a temperature of 23oC and 50% relative humidity. water through the non-woven material with increasing water pressure. In short, the sample of non-woven material of circular cross section with the desired specific gravity (usually about 22 g/cm2) and a diameter of 60 mm test pressure of water column, the weight of which increases with the speed of 3 cm/min, and the repellency of the nonwoven material is defined as the weight of the water column at the time when the third drop of water passes through the sample.In the above test the repellency of the nonwoven material containing fibers of the present invention must demonstrate repellency of at least 1.5 cm For nonwoven materials produced from fibers with an average degree of hydrophobicity, the repellency should be at least 2.5 cm, usually at least a 3.0 cm For non-woven materials containing highly hydrophobic fibers, the repellency must be at least 3.5 cm, more preferably at least 4.0 cm, for example at least about 5.0, seeOther suitable test method for determining the hydrophobic properties of nonwovens is a test at the time of absorption liquid in accordance with the EDANA recommended test for absorption of non-woven materials (N 10.1-72). This test involves determining the time required for complete wetting of the strip sample but water) from a height of 25 cm Non-woven samples for use in this test for the purposes of the present invention maintain at least 2 hours at a temperature of 23oC and a relative humidity of 50%.The above test on the absorption liquid can be used with some minor changes to determine the hydrophobic properties of the fibers. To determine the absorptive capacity of the fiber samples procesov with a specific gravity of about 10 g/m2produced from fibers to be tested by screening with a speed of 15 m/min, and samples weighing 5 g then cut from procesov. The rest of the test carried out in accordance with the test procedure EDNA (N 10.1-72). When testing or non-woven fabric or fiber absorbtion time is defined as the time interval from the moment when the wire basket containing the sample nonwoven fabric or fiber, reaches the liquid, until the moment when the sample completely disappears under the surface of the liquid.In the above described test procedure to determine the absorptive capacity in the water time wetting (i.e., the time of absorption) for a sample of hydrophobic fibers should be at least about 1 hour, preferably at least ocne should be at least about 24 hours.The following test to determine the hydrophobic properties of nonwoven materials is a test for time liquid (EDANA recommended test: penetration time of fluid through the non-woven material cover (simulated urine), N 150.2-93). In this test determines the time required for a known volume of liquid to penetrate through the nonwoven material. The liquid is poured on the surface of the test piece of non-woven covering material with the edges bent up, which is in contact with below them the standard absorbent pad. The test is designed to compare the time of penetration for various non-woven coating materials.Samples of nonwoven material for the purposes of the present invention maintain at least 2 hours at a temperature of 23oC and 50% relative humidity. 5 ml of the test solution (0.9% aqueous NaCl solution, "simulating urine") poured on the sample (usually with a specific weight of 22 g/m2) determine the period of time required for the liquid to penetrate through the nonwoven material with the help of electronic devices. In the test for penetration of the liquid non-woven material according to the method of the present invention has preferably at least 120 seconds. For non-woven materials containing vysokolegirovannye fiber penetration time is preferably at least about 5 minutes.The hydrophobic non-woven materials can also be determined by evaluating the percentage of runoff in accordance with the following procedure:
Runoff determine, using "synthetic urine" (68-72 Dyne/cm; and 19.4 g of urea, 8 g NaCl, 0.54 g MgSO4(anhydrous), 1.18 g CaCl26H2O, 970,9 g demineralized water). The test involves pouring 25 ml of the test fluid 3.75 seconds on the test material (31 cm in the direction of movement in the car and 14 cm in the transverse direction), containing top layer non-woven surface material and the bottom layer of filter paper, and the test material is placed under an angle of 10 degrees from the horizontal direction, and the tray-collector placed under the lower end of the test material. Surface material is placed in the direction of motion in the car, with the edges bent up. The percentage of runoff is defined as the amount of test fluid gathered in the tray-compilation, expressed in percent of the original 25 ml of liquid. Hydrophobic non-woven material with good hydrophobicity gives a method to determine at least 95%. For mA is re 98%, and maybe even 99% or more (which is almost equal to 0% penetration). In addition to the hydrophobicity of the fibers used in the method of the present invention to obtain non-woven materials, the percentage of runoff is also to some extent depends on the weight of the material, and more dense materials give a somewhat higher proportion of runoff, and above the percentage of runoff based on non-woven materials with a specific weight of 20 g/m2.Examples
Fibers and nonwovens obtained as follows:
Polyolefin raw material (polypropylene) formed into fibers using conventional molding (long molding) using speed molding 1500-2000 m/min, resulting in a receive beam of a few hundred threads. After the abrupt cooling air thread handle with a sliding (lick) roll the first team finishes containing the antistatic agent.The variance of the first finishes receive a first mixing the appropriate mixture Novostat 1105 or Beistat ZXO (from CHT R. Beitlich GmbH, Germany) or an appropriate mixture of Silastol VP33G213/1 or VP33G213/2 (Schill and Seilasher GmbH, Germany) in different ratios. Quantity (active ingredient in RAS products and about 0.12 to 0.16% VP33G213 products. In addition, about 0.07 and 0.12% of hydrophobic sizing (Novolub 2440 or Beilub 6993, CHT R. Beitlich GmbH, Germany) is applied at the first finishing surface, in some cases, as in example 10 to about 0.20% of a hydrophobic sizing Beilub 6995 (CHT R. Beitlich GmbH, Germany) is applied at the first finishing surface.Products Novostat/Beistat contain mainly salt of Quaternary ammonium end groups, functionalized inorganic salts of fatty acids. They correspond to the compounds covered by the General formula I above, where Z1and Z2represent Alk-CONH-. The counterion in these products is acetate. The main difference between these products is their pH, and pH Beistat is 5-6, and Novostat this value is set to 4 when the active concentration of 10%.Products VP33G213 each contain two cationic antistatic agent, both of which are salts of Quaternary ammonium end groups, functionalized inorganic salts of fatty acids corresponding to the compounds covered by the General formula I (see above), where Z1and Z2represent either Alk-CONH-, or (Alk)2-N. Use different counterions, including the acetate, chloride and methosulfate.It should be noted that all anglesto reacted in the process of condensation.Products Novolub/Beilub contain mainly condensation products of fatty acid amides corresponding to the compounds covered by the General formula IV (see earlier), and the melting temperature of the condensate has a value of about 80oC. the Main difference between the two products lies in the size of their particles, and Novolub has an average particle size of about 3-8 microns, whereas Beilub has submicron (less than 1 micron average particle size. Product Beilub has a pH of 5-6, Novolub has a pH of about 4-5 with 10% concentration of the active component.In comparative examples 1 and 3 antistatic agent is anionic and comprises neutralized C16-C18alcohol esters of phosphoric acid, the main part of which consists of neutralized stearyl alcohol complex ester of phosphoric acid (Silastol 203, Shill and Seilacher GmbH, Germany).The threads pull out of line in the two-stage process, using a combination of hot rollers and a furnace with hot air at a temperature in the range of 115 -135oC. Relationship hoods are typically in the range from 1.05:1 to 1.5:1. Then stretch yarn process (with sliding rollers) different formulations of the second finishes. The second finishing pockery cases, cationic antistatic agents. In two examples (3 and 8) the composition of the second decorative coating also contains polydimethylsiloxane (silicone).For hydrophobic sizing type of the condensation products of fatty acid amides (examples 2,4,5,8,9 and 10) dispersion (unless otherwise indicated) are obtained using an appropriate mixture of Novolub 2440, Beilub 6993 or Beilub 6995. In the composition of example 2 contains Novostat 1105. In example 8 Beilub 6993 mixed with cationic emulsified with polydimethylsiloxane in the form of an appropriate mixture ZVP73 (CHT R. Beitlich GmbH, Germany), and in example 3, the polydimethylsiloxane is present in the form of corresponding mixtures Silastol 5072 (Schill and Seilacher GmbH, Germany). Typical hydrophobic sizing (and any anti-static agent), applied in the second finishing surface, 0.15-0.35% of the weight. based on the weight of fibers.For hydrophobic sizing type wax (examples 6 and 7) dispersion prepared using the appropriate mixture VP33G216 as wax components, which in some cases mixed with VP33G213/2 as an antistatic agent (all from Schill & Seilacher GmbH, Germany).Typical applied wax components (and any antistatic agent is about 0.5% weight. the weight of the fibers. Himself the saturated hydrocarbon waxes with melting points 55oC and an average molecular weight of about 500.Then thread trimerous (give them tortuosity) in the chamber to impart a crimp, and then annealed in a furnace at a temperature of about 120oC to reduce stress fibers during the process of termowizyjne and to enable hydrophobic components of the second finishes evenly distributed on the surface of the filaments. Then staple fibers produced by cutting threads into segments of desired length.All fibers were woven with Tonino 2,2-2,4 denier in examples 1-9 and 1.7 denier in example 10, the strength of the fibers was 1.8-2.1 snewton/denier and an elongation at break 350-420%, the length of the segments was 41 or 45 mm Fineness of the finished fiber is determined in accordance with DIN 53812/2, the elongation and strength of the fibers is determined in accordance with DIN 53816, and frequency curves determined in accordance with ASTM D 3937-82.Nonwoven materials produced from different fibers, channel-surfing with a different speed and thermally connecting procesy at different temperatures (see table 2). For each of the samples of non-woven materials determine the tensile strength and elongation in the direction of movement in the car and in the transverse direction is, as stated previously, on the basis of measurements of tensile strength. For comparison purposes the performance of shvatyvaemost turn, as mentioned earlier, in comparison to standard nonwoven fabric with a unit weight of 20 g/m2(BJ20). In addition, determine the percentage of Oceania, penetration and repellency, and use the techniques described earlier.Processelement, i.e. the suitability of the fibers to search, detect, using a simple test of the cohesion of procesov. This test is carried out, determining the length finely combed through procesy with a specific gravity of about 10 g/m2can survive in almost a horizontal position before they break under their own weight, and the length of procesov increase at a rate of about 15 m/min Is carried out, removing procesy with the carding machine in a horizontal direction with a speed of 15 m/min, which is the rate of screening for this test.High processelement is the result of high friction fiber/fiber that provides long cohesion of procesov. The friction between the fibers depends on such factors as the composition of the second decorative coating and the degree of texturing, and what I processively factor; if it is too high or too low, the fiber will be difficult to move through carlocasino machine.Polyolefin fibers, which are well adapted for scraping, usually capable of withstanding approximately 1.5 m or more, for example 1.5 to 2.5 m above the test for determining the length of cohesion of procesov. Fiber designed for high-speed screening, should preferably be able to withstand a few more, such as at least 2,0 mThe following table presents the properties of the various fibers obtained as described above, along with the properties of nonwoven materials produced from these fibers.In table 1, in addition to fiber type, specify the following characteristics of the fiber: the number of the applied first and second finishes (the active ingredient wt.% the weight of the fibers), the full amount of the applied finishes (the full content of the active substance in percent by weight of the fibers), the viscosity of the second decorative coating composition (active substance) only applied finishes (wt.% antistatic agent, a hydrophobic lubricant and silicone, and the rest of aktivnosti.spremiste for fibers.Table 2 presents the following characteristics of nonwoven materials produced from fibers table 1: speed search of the area (m/min), temperature binding (0oC), the maximum tensile strength in the direction of the machine (MD-max; Newtons/5 cm), the maximum tensile strength in the cross direction (CD max; Newtons/5 cm), the maximum rate of shvatyvaemost (BJ-max), the standard measure of shvatyvaemost (BJ20), specific weight (g/m2), the percentage of Oceania, repellency (cm), permeability and rough classification of processively. The table given at the end of the description.The following are some additional comments related to the various tests.Example 1 (comparative example)
Does not contain silicone fibre is obtained using the compositions of finishing coatings, anionic antistatic agents (neutralized C16-C18alcohol ester of phosphoric acid, the bulk of which is neutralized stearyl alcohol ester of phosphoric acid). The length of the cohesion of procesov 1,75 mComparing the results of example 1 and examples 4, 5 and 7 shows the effect from anionic to cationic antistatic AG is of fluid fibers increases from about 10 minutes (example 1) to from 1 hour to more than 24 hours for other examples. For non-woven fibers water-repellent properties increase from 1.5 cm 3-5 cm (repellency) and time of infiltration with less than 10 seconds to more than 300 seconds (it should be noted that all the tests for leakage stopped after 300 seconds if the liquid does not penetrate through the nonwoven material). Thus, replacing the anionic antistatic agent, a cationic antistatic agent, get a sharp improvement in the hydrophilic properties.Example 2 (comparative example)
Fibers produced using the antistatic agent in the second composition of the finishing coating, which has a very high viscosity (34 nasec) and which forms a significant amount of stable foam, which creates problems when applying the right amount. It also leads to poor allocation of finishing the surface of the fiber, which can be seen from the results of the hydrophobicity of the fibers (time soaking liquid) and non-woven material (permeability 11 sec, repellent water 0.5 cm). These values are much worse than, for example, in examples 4 and 8, in which the viscosity is much lower.Example 3 (comparative example)
Containing silicone fiber, obtained using the same antistate limited cohesion of procesov, and so only the average processamento. "Normal" speed scans of 100 m/min gives a good hydrophobicity (permeability of more than 300 sec), whereas a slightly higher rate of screening 151 m/min leads to a significantly lower permeability, only 41 seconds, due to poor distribution of fibers in procesach. The length of the cohesion of procesov 1.75 seeWhen comparing example 3 with examples 4, 5b and 5c reveals the influence of the use of active anti-static agent without silicone or only with a small amount of silicone. In all these examples, the hydrophobic properties are very good, and the repellency to water more than 3 cm, and permeability of more than 300 seconds (although permeability is only 41 seconds to a nonwoven material produced from the fibers of example 3b, combed through with a speed of 151 m/min), but the use of cationic antistatic agent and without silicone or only with a small amount of silicone in the last examples leads to greater friction between the fibers. This is evident from the fact that the higher the cohesion of procesov examples 5b and 5c with 2.25 and 2.0 m, respectively, compared to a maximum of 1.75 m in example 3). With regard to example 4, it should be noted that although the value of the Ohm, what nonwoven materials of example 3, get, using the maximum possible pressure in the chamber to impart a crimp, then as in example 4, get them using the close to the minimum pressure in the chamber to impart a crimp. Thus, using a higher pressure in the chamber to impart a crimp in example 4, the result values of the cohesion of procesov comparable with the values in examples 5b and 5c.Superior friction characteristics to fibers allow the search faster: for example, the maximum 151 m/min for fibers of example 3, whereas the fibers of example 9 can be combed with a speed of 200 m/min, receiving high-quality homogeneous non-woven material, and you can even comb with a speed of 230 m/min While the hydrophobic properties of the fibers of the present invention (for example, example 9a) at very high speeds combing is not as good as at lower speeds, they are quite acceptable for many applications.Example 4
Mixtures for finishing coatings are used in different quantities. Good hydrophobicity, although hydrophobicity is slightly worse with increasing viscosity of the compositions of the finishing coats. Fiber is kimirovanie), i.e., temperature sufficiently above the melting temperature of sizing to ensure complete melting of the components of the sizing.Example 5
Differences in texturing associated with differences in particle size, viscosity and pressure in the chamber to impart a crimp and lead to differences in hydrophobicity of non-woven materials, even if the properties of the fibers in other respects almost identical.Example 5 shows the receiving fibers using steam heating after application of the second composition of finishes, but before kempervennen. This creates increased friction between the fibers, expressed as the cohesion of procesov that, in turn, allows the use of higher speed combing. Moreover, the low viscosity of the second composition of the finishing coating (examples 5b and 5c) leads to excellent hydrophobic properties (permeability and repellents).Example 6
Example 6 shows a fiber treated with a cationic emulsifying wax component, such as a hydrophobic sizing. Hydrophobic properties of the medium. Compared to the same fiber of example 7b adding a relatively small amount of antistatic AG is the first finishes use a mixture of two cationic antistatic agents, at the same wax component used in the composition of the second finishes. In example 7a of the second decorative coating contains an antistatic agent (VP33G213), and the second finishes in example 7b does not contain it. As fibers and nonwovens, demonstrate the hydrophobicity and strength from good to excellent, with the results of example 7b is slightly better from the point of view of hydrophobicity than for example 7a.Example 8
Similar to examples 4 and 5, although with a small addition of cationic emulsified polydimethylsiloxane. The addition of silicon leads to a slightly improved hydrophobicity.Example 9
Test for high-speed searching. Good uniformity and hydrophobicity of procesov at 180-200 m/min Cohesion of procesov corresponds to the length of 2.25 m Comparison with example 3, in which the fiber was impossible to comb with a speed of more than 151 m/min and in which even at this speed, get uneven Procesi. The fibres of these examples get in conditions analogous to example 5c, but their texture under conditions that provide a higher friction between the fibers (higher pressure in the chamber to give a convoluted at a speed of 200 m/min.Example 10.In this example, a relatively larger number (0,20%) of hydrophobic sizing type fatty acid amides put on a thin (1.7 denier) fibers in the first finishes, which gives a uniform coating hydrophobic sizing on the fibers. During the first application finishes the width of the bundle of fibers is greater than during application of the second decorative coating, and therefore it is possible to achieve a more uniform distribution of the lubricant, causing it in the first finishes.Causing the fibers with a thin titer is the number of finishes that are applied to fibers with a higher titer, get a more uniform finish coat fibers and improved uniformity of nonwoven materials formed of these fibers. The relatively high content of hydrophobic lubricant in the composition of the first decorative coating provides improved cohesion and more high technology fibers in the screening process.Fibers with a high titer can be combined with other fibers, which have a higher titers, to achieve a high technology product. 1. A method of obtaining a private thread of the first decorative coating during forming, containing at least one antistatic agent, pulling threads, apply a second decorative coatings in the form of a dispersion containing at least one hydrophobic sizing, making threads tortuosity, drying and cutting of threads to obtain staple fibers, characterized in that the antistatic agent is used, the Quaternary ammonium salt having a pH of at least 4 in 10% aqueous solution, and as a hydrophobic sizing - condensation products of fatty acid amides, containing 10 to 24 carbon atoms or a natural or synthetic hydrocarbon wax with a melting point of 40 to 120oWith or mixture of waxes containing at least one hydrocarbon wax with a melting point of 40 to 120oC.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the first decorative coating additionally contains a hydrophobic sizing, the condensation products of fatty acid amides on the basis of mono - and/or diamines and chain fatty acid containing 10 to 24 carbon atoms.3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the composition of the second decorative coating additionally contains a cationic antistatic agent in an amount of at most 20 wt.% in p the PP.1 - 3, wherein the antistatic agent is a Quaternary ammonium salt selected from the compounds of General formula I
< / BR>where Z1and Z2is Alk-CONH-, (Alk)2-N-Alk-COO - or N, and Alk represents a linear aliphatic alkyl or alkenylphenol group containing 10 to 24 carbon atoms, or a mixture of more than one of these groups, provided that both Z1and Z2cannot be H;
R1represents N, CH3, alkyl containing up to 24 carbon atoms or complex dimethylpropyl ester of fatty acid;
R2represents N or CH3;
n represents an integer from 1 to 4;
m is an integer from 1 to 10;
X-is a counterion,
and the compound of General formula II
< / BR>where R1represents N, CH3, alkyl containing up to 24 carbon atoms, or a complex dimethylpropyl ester of fatty acid;
R2represents N or CH3;
each R3independently represents H, methyl, ethyl or Alk-carbonyl, where Alk represents a linear aliphatic alkyl or alkenylphenol group containing 10 to 24 carbon atoms, or a mixture of more than one such group;
n represents the-represents a counterion.5. The method according to p. 4, wherein Alk represents an alkyl group containing 14 to 20 carbon atoms, when R3is alkyl, this alkyl contains 10 to 24 carbon atoms, and X-is acetate, citrate, lactate, methosulfate or chlorine ion.6. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the viscosity of the second decorative coating is at most 5 MPa, at definition by using a viscometer sample type 23oWith and the degree of shift of 2.0 with-1.7. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 - 6, characterized in that the dispersed hydrophobic sizing in the second part of the finishing coating is in the form of particles or droplets with an average size of 0.1 - 5 μm.8. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 7, characterized in that the hydrophobic sizing is the condensation products of fatty acid amides selected from the compounds of General formula III
< / BR>and compounds of the General formula IV
< / BR>where each Alk is independently represents a linear aliphatic alkyl or alkenylphenol group containing 10 to 24 carbon atoms, or a mixture of more than one such group,
n represents an integer from 1 to 4;
m t is, terasul 14 to 20 carbon atoms.10. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 9, characterized in that the molecular weight of the cationic antistatic agent is at least 500 and less than 10000.11. The method according to p. 1, wherein the hydrocarbon wax or mixture of waxes have a melting point in the range 40 - 90oC.12. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 - 11, characterized in that the number of finishes in forming, applied to the fiber (weight of active substance per weight of fiber), is at most 0.6 per cent.13. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 - 12, characterized in that the total amount of cationic antistatic agent applied to the fiber (weight of active substance per weight of fiber), is the greater of 0.15%.14. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 - 13, characterized in that the second composition of the finishing coating contains an emulsifier in an amount less than 10 wt.% in the calculation of the mass of the active substance composition of the second finishes.15. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 14, characterized in that the composition of the second decorative coating additionally contains polydiorganosiloxane in the amount up to 15 wt.%.16. The composition p is
< / BR>where each R independently represents an alkyl group containing 1 to 4 carbon atoms, phenyl, or N;
n represents an integer in the range of 500 - 3000;
X is HE, methyl, ethyl, N -, O-methyl or O-acetyl.17. The method according to p. 16, characterized in that polydiorganosiloxane is polydimethylsiloxane.18. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 17, characterized in that the fiber is produced by a long molding process.19. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 18, characterized in that the conducting stage heating after applying the second finishes and before kempervennen, and the temperature at this stage is above the melting temperature of the hydrophobic sizing.20. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 19, characterized in that the fibers are polypropylene fibers.21. Textured, sweeping, staple fibers of polyolefin or copolymer, characterized in that obtained by the method of any of paragraphs.1 - 20.22. Hydrophobic non-woven material of the comb textured staple fibers made of polyolefin or copolymer, characterized in that it contains fibers obtained according to any one of paragraphs.1 - 20.
FIELD: the invention refers to the technology of receiving shaped polymer article with a structure having elastic properties suitable for using in quality of filtering materials.
SUBSTANCE: the shaped article out of polymer with elastic structure has a three-dimensional structure with cavities formed by twisting and picking up adjusting loops and spirals of threads and/or hollow continuous threads and/or shortened threads made of mixture of polyophelin polymer with vinyl acetate , ethylene copolymer with vinyl acetate and block-copolymer polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene. The article has high blow-durable properties and capabilities to bear load.
EFFECT: provides elastic properties suitable for using in quality of filtering materials.
11 cl, 19 dwg, 12 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: production of non-woven materials from polyester composite filaments.
SUBSTANCE: material is formed from short composite filaments made from polyester polymer, prepared from the following catalyst, and polymer providing linking by fusing. Catalyst includes: mixture of component of phosphorous compound of formulation (III) and component of titanium compound of formulation (I), and/or product of reaction of titanium alkoxide and carbonic acid of formulation (II), or acid anhydride; and/or product of reaction of component of phosphorous compound of formulation (V) and component of titanium compound containing titanium alkoxide (IV) of formulation (IV), and/or product of reaction of titanium alkoxide and carbonic acid, of formulation (II) or anhydride thereof.
EFFECT: improved color tint and increased strength of filaments.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 19 ex
FIELD: polymer fibers.
SUBSTANCE: polyester fiber is prepared by catalytic polycondensation involving aromatic dicarboxylate. Catalyst contains a mixture of (i) titanium compound ingredient containing titanium alkoxide and at least one product of reaction of titanium alkoxide and a specific carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid anhydride and (ii) specific phosphorus compound ingredient. Catalyst can also be constituted by product of reaction of titanium compound and specific phosphorus compound.
EFFECT: enabled preparation of material characterized by satisfactory color tone and excellent suitability for knitting or weaving and dyeing.
5 cl, 2 tbl, 39 ex
FIELD: polymer fibers.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabrication of fibrous articles, in particular fibrous structures from polyesters. These structures are obtained from polyester fiber prepared in presence of catalyst, which comprises (A) mixture consisting of (i) component in the form of Ti compound formed from one or several compounds selected from titanium alkoxides described by presented below general formula (I) and products of reaction between those alkoxides and carboxylic acids described by general formula (II) or their anhydrides and (ii) component in the form of P compound consisting of compound having general formula (III) and/or (B) product obtained by reaction between component in the form of Ti compound formed from one or several compounds selected from titanium alkoxides described by general formula (IV) and product of reaction between those alkoxides and carboxylic acids described by general formula (II) or their anhydrides, and component in the form of P compound consisting of compound having general formula (V).
EFFECT: improved color tones and moldability.
13 cl, 6 tbl, 59 ex
FIELD: polymer fibers.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of producing high-quality polyester fibers with modified section characterized by satisfactory color tone and excellent moldability and suitable for textile industry. Polyester fibers characterized by deformed section are prepared from polyester polymer. Polymer is prepared via polycondensation of aromatic dicarboxylic acid ester in presence of catalyst comprising mixture of titanium compound-based component and phosphorus compound-based component. The former includes at least one titanium alkoxide or product of reaction between this alkoxide and specific carboxylic acid or its anhydride. The latter is compound of general formula III and/or product of reaction between titanium compound-based component and phosphorus compound-based component depicted by general formula IV.
EFFECT: improved color tone and quality without napping manifestations.
15 cl, 9 dwg, 11 tbl, 52 ex
FIELD: polymer fibers.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of producing high-quality mixed yarns constituted by polyester fibers having different degrees of shrinkage and characterized by good color tone and lack of napping, which allow the yarns to be applied in textile industry. Ester used to produce yarn is prepared by using catalyst comprising, in the first embodiment of invention, mixture consisting of (i) Ti compound component composed by one or several specimens selected from Ti alkoxides of general formula I and products of reaction between these alkoxides and carboxylic acids of general formula II or their anhydrides and (ii) phosphorus compound component consisting of a compound depicted by general formula III. According to second embodiment, catalyst comprises product prepared by reaction between Ti compound component composed by one or several specimens selected from Ti alkoxides of general formula I and products of reaction between these alkoxides and carboxylic acids of general formula II or their anhydrides and (ii) phosphorus compound component of general formula IV.
EFFECT: enlarged resource for polymer fibers.
10 cl, 4 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to antibacterial medication, consisting of silver-containing particles of aluminium sulfate hydroxide, represented by the following formulae (X-I) or (Y-I): (AgaBb-a)bAlcAx(SO4)y(OH)z·pH2O (X-I), where a, b, c, x, y, z and p satisfy inequalities 0.00001≤a<0.5; 0.7≤b≤1.35; 2.7<c<3.3; 0.001≤x≤0.5; 1.7<y<2.5; 4<z<7 and 0≤p≤5, respectively, B represents at least one univalent cation selected from group, consisting of Na+, NH4 +, K+ and H3O+, total value (1b+3c), obtained by multiplication of valencies by number of cation moles, satisfies inequality 8<(1b+3c)<12, and A represents anion of organic acid; [AgaBb-a]b[M3-cAlc](SO4)y(OH)2-pH2O (Y- I), where a, b, c, y, z and p satisfy inequalities 0.00001≤a<0.5; 0.8≤b≤1.35; 2.5≤c≤3; 1.7<y<2.5; 4<z<7 and 0≤p≤5, respectively, B represents at least one univalent cation, selected from group consisting of Na+, NH4 +, K+ and H3O+, and M represents Ti or Zn. Said antibacterial medication of claimed invention, after its mixing with resin, is used to obtain antibacterial polymer composition, used for production of moulded products, film, nonwoven material, coating, sealant, as well as antifungal medications, antibacterial paper, antibacterial deodorants in form of sprays and agrochemicals. Method of obtaining said antibacterial medication includes stages: addition of water alkali solution, which has univalent cation, and organic acid to mixed solution of aluminium sulfate and/or nitrate, which has univalent cation, in order to initiate hydrothermal reaction with obtaining particles of aluminium sulfate hydroxide, which contain anion of organic acid; and contact of obtained particles with silver-containing water solution in mixing, in order to initiate reaction of ion exchange of several cations of said particles with silver ions.
EFFECT: obtaining antibacterial medication, which possesses high degree of dispersancy, transparency, whiteness and excellent antibacterial properties, especially ability to preserve its antibacterial activity after contact with water.
43 cl, 35 tbl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: material has weight referred to an area unit of less than 60 g/m2, contains less than 15 g/m2 of adhesive substance and less than 5 g/m2 of the binder. The material also contains a layer with a weight referred to an area unit of not more than 45 g/m2, including a mixture of fibres of more than 30 g/m2 and not more than 10 g/m2 of burning inhibitor. Application of structures is described, which contain the specified acoustic material and the perforated metal ceiling element and having, when measured in compliance with DIN EN 13823, the value of SMOGRA of not more than 30 m2/s2 and the value of TSP(600 s) of not more than 50 m2.
EFFECT: absence of problems in processing and production of least possible amount of smoke in case of fire.
9 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: sheet 2 based on microfibre structure comprises microfibers 1 the diameter of each of which is no more than 3000 nm, and is formed from a mixture which is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol of resin based on acetated polyvinyl alcohol and insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol of fluorine-based resin. The invention enables to create a sheet to use it as a filter with high filtration characteristics with respect to oil mist.
EFFECT: creation of the sheet based on microfibre structure for use it as a filter.
8 cl, 2 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: method of production of canvas in one version comprises the stages: preparing a mixture comprising a thermoplastic resin and processing aid containing N-substituted amine hindered succinimide oligomer, stirring the mixture in the melt, and the melt viscosity of the mixture of the processing aid and the thermoplastic resin is lower than the melt viscosity of the thermoplastic resin without processing aid and forming the canvas of molten mixture. Also a second version of the method of manufacturing an electret canvas is provided, comprising the stages: preparing a mixture of a thermoplastic resin and processing aid containing N-substituted amine hindered succinimide oligomer, stirring the mixture in the melt, forming the canvas of molten mixture and electrostatic charging of the canvas. The electret filter material comprises microfiber nonwoven canvas comprising a mixture of thermoplastic resin and an additive that promotes charging, containing N-substituted amine hindered succinimide oligomer. This provides processing of polymer olefin materials used in production of products of hot melt extrusion, namely polymer canvas, which include film and non-woven fiber canvas, and also polymer canvas in the form of electret products, especially film for food, air filters, filtering protective masks, respirators and electrostatic elements used in electro-acoustic devices, such as microphones, headphones and electrostatic recording devices.
EFFECT: co-administration of a thermoplastic resin and a processing aid in the form of N-substituted amine hindered succinimide oligomer provides facilitation of canvas forming.
25 cl, 4 tbl, 26 ex
FIELD: textile industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of manufacturing sewing threads, in particular to treating sewing threads with composition to impart sweet-smelling properties, and can be used at thread enterprises manufacturing synthetic and cotton threads, which can be used for sewing clothes. Composition contains, wt %: paraffin 25-55, stearin 18-32, low-molecular weight methylvinylsiloxane rubber 20-33, bee wax 3-6, triethanolamine 3.5-4.9, and aromatizer 0.05-0,5.
EFFECT: improved consumer properties of product.
4 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex