Sorbent material for removal of the oil pollution
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to sorbent materials for the removal of the oil pollution. The material includes two outer fibrous layers, each of which is pre-bonded hypoproteinemia, and an intermediate layer of synthetic fibers between the outer layers. All layers are bonded together by hypoproteinemia. While the outer layers are made of polypropylene, and an intermediate layer of polypropylene or polyester fibers, and the outer fibrous layers are made thicker than the intermediate fibrous layer. The technical result of the invention is the possibility of holding oil and reusable material. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The technical field to which the invention relates.The invention relates to materials for liquidation of emergency floods of oil and mineral oil on the surface of the water and the land. The preferred materials for cleaning and removal of oily liquids, when not effectively end the use of heavy equipment or in combination with last for purification of surfaces. The materials can be used as a preventive transport, pipelines of any company whose activities are connected with the use of oily liquids).Art
Known sorbent material, described in U.S. patent N 4340486 on CL 210-693, publ. on 3 July 1982 and N 3607741 on CL 210-36, publ. September 4, 1971, consisting of cellulose fibers, enclosed in a net, to absorb oil stains from the surface of the water.Famous U.S. patent N 4006079 on CL 210-39, publ. February 2, 1977, protecting materials from glass fibers, enclosed in a net, for absorbing ability.With good sorption properties of these materials have low strength and lack buoyancy.Known sorting non-woven material, as described in the application EPO N 0287264 in class. D 04 H 1/46, published. 88.10.19. According to this application proposed a material consisting of two layers of short cotton fibers and an intermediate non-woven fabric of synthetic fibers between the layers.The intermediate non-woven material is a material obtained from a melt of the polymer. All three layers are connected by hypoproteinemia.To remove oil from contaminated surface of such a Mat is spread stalkivalsa properties provides processing Mata special chemicals.The disadvantage of this material is the use of short fibers that can be separated during operation of the Mat, contaminating the collected liquid.In its essence and the achieved result, the specified non-woven material closest to the invention and taken as a prototype.The invention
The figure schematically presents a cross section of the sorption material according to the invention.Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention.As shown in the drawing, the material according to the invention includes two outer layers 1 made of polypropylene fibers, pre-bonded beams 3 fibers by hypoproteinemia, and the intermediate layer 2 between them from polypro is. Due to this structure, the material of the outer fibrous layers 1 is made thicker than the intermediate layer.When using cloth made of such material is placed on a spot of oil or oil on the surface of water or land in such a way that the surface layer 1 comes into contact with the contamination, which is sucked inside the open pores of the layer 1, and fills them, moving to the layer 2, is distributed throughout the volume.Since layer 1, compacted due to the impact of bundles of fibers 3 and 4, has a less developed total surface is then compared to layer 2 that is handled by the impact beam 4, the pollution getting into layer 2 and extending in the volume with a larger total surface area of pores, kept them within the required time. Then the cloth is removed from the contaminated surface and pressed to extract the collected oil.Depending on the rheological properties of sorbed oil outer fibrous layers 1 made of polypropylene, and the intermediate fibrous layer 2 is made of polypropylene or polyester fibers with a linear density of 0.1 to 0.68 Tex, preferably of 0.17-0.68 techno linear density, same with the linear density of the fibers of the intermediate layer.In the collection of the middle fraction oil is preferable application of the intermediate layer 2 made of fibers with a higher linear density in relation to the fibers of the outer layers 1.In this case, increasing the retention effect of the collected oil as difficult to reverse the movement of contamination from the layer 2 with a large pore diameter of the layer 1 with a smaller diameter inner pores.During the renovations, the distribution of fuel and so on, the bed of such material is placed on the protected from contact with the oil surface otsilindrovannoy outer side of one of the layers 1 and the outer surface of the other layer 1 is up. Pollution, falling on the surface of the processed or unprocessed layer 1, pre-bonded hypoproteinemia due to the beams 3, flows into it and moves to the layer 2, divided by the entire volume of the layers 1 or 2, fastened together by hypoproteinemia through bundles of fibers 4, and accumulating at the surface layer 1 is subjected to processing calendered. Because by calendering a significant portion or all of the pores of the outer layer 1 is closed, he mill is provided with the movement of heavy objects on the surface of the litter, it is preferable to apply the Mat of material, in which both outer surfaces of the material processed by calendering. This facilitates, on the one hand, the strengthening of the material and on the other hand, an increase in its resistance to fracture under the action of friction forces in the contact zone.So, for example, to collect spill middle fraction oil (waste oil) takes the napkin from the material in which layers 1 formed of polypropylene fibers of 0.1-0.29 Tex., pre-bonded hypoproteinemia beams 3 fibers, and the intermediate layer 2 is made of polypropylene fibers 0,68 Tex. all layers are bonded together by hypoproteinemia beams 4 fibers.To collect spills of light fractions of petroleum products (gasoline) takes the napkin from the material in which layers 1 formed of polypropylene fibers of 0.1-0.29 Tex., pre-bonded hypoproteinemia fascicles of 3, and an intermediate layer of polypropylene fibers of 0.1-0.29 Tex. and all the layers are bonded together by hypoproteinemia the fiber bundles 4.To collect spills of heavy oil fractions (oil) is taken napkin from a material in which layers 1 formed of polypropylene palaeoeconomy fibers 0,68 Tex., all layers are bonded together by hypoproteinemia the fiber bundles 4.Extracting oil is easily accomplished by any mechanical means, in particular by pressing the sting shaft. This wipes out such material can be used multiple times.Perhaps the use of polypropylene fibers with a linear density of less than 0.1 Tex. and more 0,68 Tex. However, in the first case, the difficult process of fibers on the carding and haloperidolum equipment, and the second is sharply reduced holding capacity of the material in relation to petroleum and petroleum products.The term "fibrous layer" means a layer formed of loosely arranged fibers using known mechanical hollowbrook devices. The formation and bonding of these layers hypoproteinemia is carried out in a single process on a known needle units type AYIN or AIL (e.g. M. D. Perepelkina and other "Mechanical technology for the production of nonwovens" M "Light industry", 1973, S. 431-433), etc. equipment. 1. Sorbent material for removal of the oil pollution, including two outer fibrous layers, each of the fibers, located between these outer layers, bonded together by hypoproteinemia, characterized in that the outer layers are made of polypropylene, and an intermediate layer of polypropylene or polyester fibers, and the outer fibrous layers are made thicker than the intermediate fibrous layer.2. Sorbent material under item 1, characterized in that the linear density of the fibers of the outer layers of the same material with a linear density of the fibers of the intermediate layer.3. Sorbent material under item 1, characterized in that the intermediate layer is made of coarser fibers than fibers of the outer layers.4. Sorbing material on PP.1 and 2, characterized in that its surface on one or both outer sides processed by calendering.
FIELD: textile industry.
SUBSTANCE: three-dimensional nonwoven fibrous textile material is composed of netted woven carcass and layers of fibrous cloths arranged at both sides of carcass and mechanically attached thereto. Carcass is produced from thermoplastic weft threads with linear density of 29-72 tex and thermoplastic warp threads with linear density of 14-20 tex and surface density of 80-220 g/m2. Said threads are preliminarily subjected to shrinkage. Method involves applying onto melted netted woven carcass layers of fibrous materials and mechanically attaching said layer in alternation to each side; applying onto each side of carcass at least one layer of fibrous cloth and attaching it by needle stitching; subjecting nonwoven material to thermal processing at temperature of 80-1580C under pressure of 0.3-0.6 MPa for 40-120 min.
EFFECT: improved organoliptical properties and improved appearance of material.
FIELD: textile industry, in particular, versions of nonwoven fibrous material made in the form of needle stitched web.
SUBSTANCE: material is manufactured from mixture of high-melting point and various low-melting point fibers, with main fiber being two-component polyester fiber of "core-coat" type. Polymer of "coat" has melting temperature substantially lower than polymer of "core". According to first version, low-melting point fiber used is staple two-component polyester fiber of "core-coat" type having thickness of 0.4-1.0 tex, length of 50-90 mm and melting temperature of "coat" polymer of 105-115 C. High-melting point fiber is staple polyester fiber having thickness of 0.3-1.7 tex, length of 60-90 mm and melting temperature of 240-260 C. Ratio of fibers in mixture, wt%, is: staple two-component polyester fiber of "core-coat" type 30-70; staple polyester fiber the balance to 100. According to second version, nonwoven fabric additionally comprises auxiliary staple polypropylene fiber having thickness of 0.6-1.7 tex, length of 50-90 mm and melting temperature of 150-160 C. Ratio of fibers in mixture is, wt%: staple two-component polyester fiber of "core-coat" type 30-70; staple polypropylene fiber 5-20; staple polyester fiber the balance to 100.
EFFECT: improved operating properties and form stability of parts manufactured from nonwoven fibrous material under conditions of changing temperature loadings.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: chemical and light industry, in particular, production of viscose staple fiber containing antibacterial preparation for manufacture of non-woven material used for manufacture of air filters.
SUBSTANCE: method involves washing formed viscose threads; squeezing to provide 50%-content of α-cellulose; treating with aqueous catamine solution having mass concentration of 15-40 g/dm3; providing two-staged washing procedure in countercurrent of softened water at feeding and discharge temperature difference making 4-6 C at first stage and 3-5 C at second stage. Temperature of aqueous catamine solution is 18-30 C. Resultant thread has linear density of single fibers of 0.17-0.22 tex and mass fraction of 0.6-4.0% of catamine. Thread is subjected to drying process at temperature of drying drum surface of 80-90 C, followed by corrugation and cutting into 60-70 mm long fibers. Method further involves fixing resultant fibrous web by stitching process on substrate of thermally secured polypropylene having surface density of 10-30 g/m2.
EFFECT: enhanced antibacterial properties and reduced aerodynamic resistance of resultant material allowing blowing-off of fibers from filter layer by flow of air under filtering process to be prevented.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: reinforcement and protection of ground surfaces such as ground planning embankment slopes, automobile and railway roads, open pits, dry slopes of earth-fill dams etc from erosion processes by quick recovery of soil and plant layer.
SUBSTANCE: biomat is formed as multiple-layer, at least three-layer, structure including layers of cloth comprising artificial chemical fibers, and intermediate layer placed between each two cloth layers and secured therewith, said intermediate layer comprising plant seeds. Natural fibers are added into cloth so as to form mixture of natural and synthetic fibers, said mixture containing at least 15-50 wt% of synthetic fibers and 50-85 wt% of natural fibers from materials which form upon decomposition nutritive medium for plants, and surface density of cloth ranging between 250 and 800 g/m2. Apart from seeds of plants presented in cloth structure in an amount of 60-150 g/m2, cloth additionally contains nutrient mixture consisting of fertilizers, plant growth promoters and soil forming additives selected with soil-ground conditions of region where biomat is to be utilized and composition of used seeds being taken into consideration. Content of nutrient mixture is 20-90 g/m2. Also, natural or artificial sorbing substances are introduced into biomat structure in an amount of 30-600 g/m2 by embedding of these substances into cloth or composition of intermediate layer. Biomat may be readily unrolled on any ground surface and serves as artificial soil layer.
EFFECT: high moisture retention capacity providing formation of stable soil and ground covering, improved protection of ground surface from erosion processes, retention of plant seeds during growing, efficient development of root system during vegetation and high vitality of plant covering during formation thereof.
7 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is manufactured out of thermostable or heat resistant fibres and may be used for manufacturing parts out of thermal structural composite material. Carbon nanotubes are in-built into fibre structure by means of their growing on the heat-resistant fibres of the basis.
EFFECT: provides more well-ordered tightening of parts and improvement of mechanical qualities.
31 cl, 6 dwg, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an apparatus for colourless patterning of a textile fabric made of mutually interlaced and thus strengthened natural or synthetic fibres, preferably of a nonwoven fabric such as a wadding web, which is also dried in the case of a wet treatment such as hydrodynamic needling. The apparatus comprises a housing and a revolving drum provided therein, whereby the textile fabric is pressed by an overpressure and underpressure against the drum having perforations so that the cross-sectional areas of the perforations generate a picture pattern on the textile fabric, wherein an external peripheral surface of the drum being subject to drawing is provided with perforations depicting an image, which perforations act in diverse pattern-imparting fashions on the textile fabric resting thereon. Moreover, the drum and its external peripheral surface are microperforated as a whole and thus fluid-permeable, and the pattern-imparting perforations are sized larger than the microperforation of the surface supporting the textile fabric, Moreover, the textile fabric is capable of leading the fluid away from the entire surface in a region of the pictorial pattern and also beyond peripheral regions of the pictorial pattern.
EFFECT: providing a method with which a pattern can be continuously imposed on a nonwoven fabric in the course of treatment.
11 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: textile; paper.
SUBSTANCE: presented bed for implementation of hydrocrowding process is manufactured by means of including in it depressed fibres during its manufacturing or forming of depressed fibres by means of calendering or grinding of initial fabric. Including of depressed fibres into bed at manufacturing of nonwoven fabrics provides higher crowding of fibres forming nonwoven fabrics.
EFFECT: creation of more rugged finished nonwoven material.
20 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: textile; paper; process.
SUBSTANCE: method provides forming of composition nonwoven material with surface layer, underlayer and wireframe interlayer made of polymer material, at that received structure is passed through shafting. In the course of protective material receiving surface layer and underlayer form with surface density 200-400 g/m2, at that thickness of wireframe interlayer is 100-250 micron. Layers binding is implemented by means of passing through tightly pressured shafting, at that ratio of shafts diameters is 1:[6-8], big shaft is heated till temperature 180-250°C, and its rotational velocity is 1.2-4 rpm. Finished nonwoven material is enrolled and held at temperature 18-24°C during at least three days.
EFFECT: improvement of material physical properties; reduction of ecological stress to environment and reduction of material and technical consumption at its recovery.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to nonwoven material technology and can as a base of building, finishing and other similar materials. Method for making nonwoven needled felt involves pulverisation and emulsification of mixture, rest, hackle webbing, cure, dipping in binder, drying, and cooling. Thus rest is followed with straight and cross hackling packed within at least five web layers needle-punched over two stages. Besides before the second stage, reinforcing filament is added, while material is pull-up smoothed, glazed and dipped in binder, dried and processed in cold glazer.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of method for making nonwoven needled felt with improved application performance.
12 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: engineering procedures.
SUBSTANCE: one version of the method consists that the cloth is placed on porous substrate movable on the straight or rotating about the axis. At least one side of the cloth is processed with some water jets rowed perpendicularly to cloth moving direction. Herewith a row is formed with one-section jets and at least other section jets different from the first one.
EFFECT: improved surface properties of the product.
33 cl, 17 dwg