The method of producing cyclohexane

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: petrochemistry. Essence: benzene, containing as impurities sulfur compounds hydronaut at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of catalysts, located in two zones. In the first work cycle area include copper, the second Nickel-chromium catalyst in their volumetric ratio(30 - 50) : (70 - 50). Preferably use seraiki copper-chromium-zinc-aluminum catalyst NTC-4, or copper-zinc cement-containing catalyst NTC-10, as well as Nickel-chromium or Nickel-alumina-chrome KG catalyst, the hydrogenation is carried out at a temperature of 140 to 180C., a pressure of 0.1 - 2.0 MPa. The technical result - the simplification of technology, optimization of the hydrogenation process while improving the environment of production. 3 C.p. f-crystals,4 PL.

The invention relates to a method of hydrogenation of benzene and can be used in the chemical industry, in particular in the production of cyclohexane, caprolactam and adipic acid obtained by oxidation of cyclohexane.

There is a method of hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane at to150-200oand a pressure of 1-100 atmospheres for Nickel-Hromovka this technology is non-uniform heat throughout the volume of the catalyst and reduce the service life of the catalyst under the action of sulfur compounds, incoming raw materials.

The closest of those known to offer the technical essence is a method of producing cyclohexane by hydrogenation of benzene at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a Nickel-chromium catalyst, a dilute copper-magnesium zones in the ratio 1: 1 /SU 319206, 05.03.79/. This method uses the benzene coming from forcontacting cleanup.

The disadvantages of this method include the need for preliminary partial purification of sulfur benzene in forcontacting apparatus on the copper contacts. In addition, the hydrogenation process in the poisoning of the catalyst is impaired ratio of dilution, resulting in malfunction of the catalyst and, as a consequence, the technological regime with the performance of the process. Also for the hydrogenation process may use only those gases, the content of hydrogen in which at least 60%.

The task is to create an efficient method of producing cyclohexane from benzene containing as impurities sulfur compounds characterized by the simplicity of the technology by eliminating process prior is the possibility of using for hydrogenation of the hydrogen-containing off-gases, i.e. re-engage them in the process cycle.

This task is solved in that in the method of producing cyclohexane by hydrogenation of benzene at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of Nickel-chromium and copper-containing catalysts, disposable zones, these catalysts have two zones, the first one technological cycle place of copper, and the second Nickel-chromium catalysts for their volumetric ratio (30-50):(10-50).

Of the known copper-containing catalysts, it is preferable to use zeroimage catalyst NTC-4, produced by THE 113-03-399-82 and containing (%): Cu 51-57, Cr2O312,5-15,5, ZnO 9,5-12,5, Al2O317,6-21,6.

Other preferred copper-containing catalyst is a copper-zinc cement-containing catalyst NTC-10 (TU 113-03-31-44-87) containing calcined sample in terms of oxide (%): Cu 35-45, Zn 25-35, Al at least 16, Ca 5-11.

Of the known Nickel-containing catalysts in this way can be used, in particular, a Nickel-chromium catalyst (OST 113-03-314-86) that contains the following: Ni no less than 48%, Cr3O3not less than 27%, and the Nickel-alumina-chromium catalyst KG (TU 6-OE.

The process is conducted at traditional hydrogenation of physical parameters. Preferred is a temperature of 140-180oC and a pressure of 0.1-2 MPa.

According to the invention the method consists in the following.

The original benzene containing thiophene and other sulfur compounds, is mixed with hydrogen-rich recycle gas (hydrogen content of from 5 to 100%). As the latter can be used, in particular, nitrogen-hydrogen mixture, the exhaust gas of the main unit of the hydrogenation of benzene. Thus obtained mixture is supplied at a pressure of 5-20 psi system heat exchangers. Heating the mixture produced in the heat exchanger, the reaction mixture leaving the reactor unit. Finally evaporation of the benzene and heating the gas mixture occurs in the evaporator, which serves water vapor.

Gas-vapor mixture of benzene and hydrogen-containing gas is supplied into the reaction apparatus desulfurization and hydrogenation filled in the first zone copper-containing catalyst and the second Nickel-containing catalyst. The invention is illustrated but not limited by the following examples:

Example 1. The process of obtaining cyclohexane by hydrogenation of benzene containing kacee zone catalysts, which in the first zone using a catalyst NTC-4, and the second zone is a Nickel-chromium catalyst. The ratio of the volume of catalyst in the reactor is 1: 1. The volumetric rate of flow of the liquid benzene by evaporation is 1.0-1.25 hours-1and the feed rate of hydrogen in the reactor 500 h-1. The process of hydrogenation is carried out at pressures of 0.1-1.8 MPa and a temperature of 125-180oC. during the process of hydrogenation determine the content of cyclohexane hydrogenation product (liquid product) at the outlet of the reactor and the sulfur on the catalyst and the concentration of thiophene in the product.

A similar process of hydrogenation of benzene is carried out in the same conditions, but using in the capacity of a reactor, a homogeneous mixture of copper and magnesium Mr-2 and a Nickel-chromium catalyst at a ratio of 1:1. Comparing the results of the hydrogenation of benzene are shown in table 1.

From table 1 it is seen that the proposed method is significantly higher (up to 4 times) the sulfur on the catalyst achieves cyclohexane higher thiophene chemical purity, with its higher content in the products of hydrogenation.

Example 2. The process of obtaining the CEC is th vapor with hydrogen through the reactor, filled in two zones of the catalyst, which in the first zone using a catalyst NTC-10, and the second zone is a Nickel-chromium catalyst. The ratio of the volume of catalyst in the reactor 3: 7. The volumetric rate of flow of the liquid benzene by evaporation, the flow rate of hydrogen in the reactor, the pressure and the temperature in the reactor correspond to the conditions of example 1.

A similar process of hydrogenation of benzene is carried out in the same conditions, but using in the capacity of a reactor, a homogeneous mixture of copper and magnesium Mr-2 and a Nickel-chromium catalyst at a ratio of 1:1. Comparing the results of the hydrogenation of benzene are shown in table 2.

From table 2 it is seen that the proposed method is significantly higher (up to 3 times) the sulfur on the catalyst achieves cyclohexane higher thiophene chemical purity, with its higher content in the products of hydrogenation.

Example 3. The process of obtaining cyclohexane by hydrogenation of benzene containing as an impurity of 0.0005 wt%. thiophene, lead by passing the mixture of vapors with hydrogen through a reactor filled in two zones catalysts, which are in the first zone using the reactor 4:6. The volumetric rate of flow of the liquid benzene by evaporation, the flow rate of hydrogen in the reactor, the pressure and the temperature in the reactor corresponds to the conditions of example 1.

A similar process of hydrogenation of benzene is carried out in the same conditions, but using as a load reactor homogeneous mixture MP-2 and a Nickel-chromium catalyst at a ratio of 1:1. Comparing the results of the hydrogenation of benzene are shown in table 3.

From table 3 it can be seen that the proposed method is significantly higher (up to 2.3 times) the sulfur on the catalyst achieves cyclohexane higher thiophene chemical purity, with its higher content in the products of hydrogenation.

Example 4. The process of obtaining cyclohexane by hydrogenation of benzene containing as an impurity of 0.0005 wt%. thiophene, lead by passing the mixture of vapors with the nitrogen-hydrogen mixture through a reactor filled in two zones catalysts, which are in the first zone using a catalyst NTC-4, and the second zone of Nickel-alumina-chromium catalyst. The ratio of the volume of catalyst in the reactor is 1:1. The volumetric rate of flow of the liquid benzene by evaporation, the feed rate of the nitrogen-Vorniceni during the experiments were conducted determination of hydrogen concentration in the gas at the inlet to the reactor outlet gas from the reactor.

The results of the hydrogenation of benzene nitrogen-hydrogen mixture are given in table 4.

From table 4 it is seen that the concentration of cyclohexane in the reaction products depends on the sulfur content in the catalyst, and the ratio of hydrogen to benzene. However, if the ratio of hydrogen to benzene his stoichiometric value (3:1) achieves high concentration of cyclohexane. The lack of hydrogen concentration of cyclohexane in the products of hydrogenation is reduced. A similar decrease is observed under other equal conditions and in cases of growth of sulfur on the catalyst.

In all cases there is a deep-depletion of hydrogen (95%) of the nitrogen-hydrogen mixture fed to the reactor for the hydrogenation of benzene. In addition, it is seen that during the hydrogenation of benzene containing thiophene, the growth of sulfur on the catalyst is significantly ahead of the growth of the content of thiophene in the hydrogenation products, ensuring a high content of sulfur on the catalyst high chemical purity of the thiophene obtained in the process of hydrogenation of cyclohexane.

1. The method of producing cyclohexane by hydrogenation of benzene containing as PR is holding catalysts, disposable zones, characterized in that the catalysts are placed in two zones, the first of which technological cycle include copper, and the second Nickel-chromium catalyst in their volumetric ratio(30 - 50) : (70 - 50).

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that a copper-containing catalyst is used seraiki copper-chromium-zinc-aluminum catalyst NTC-4, or copper-zinc cement-containing catalyst NTC-10.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as a Nickel-containing catalyst used Nickel-chromium or Nickel-alumina-chromium catalyst KG.

4. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the hydrogenation of benzene is carried out at a temperature of 140 - 180oC and a pressure of 0.1 - 2.0 MPa.

 

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24 cl, 3 ex, 14 tbl

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