Method of regeneration of bottom sediments of kasutajanimi and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the oil industry and can be used for the destruction of bottom sediments of kasutajanimi by introducing the fuel supplied to the combustion. The method includes dispersing the recovered sediments in the process of mixing with the heated oil. Dispersion and mixing are produced in three stages. In the first stage, the dispersion and low-speed stirring is carried out by mechanical means, the second high mechanical means of ensuring the development of the cavitation process, while the third using a flow-through hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. The technical result of the invention is to improve performance and reduce the cost of regeneration. 2 C. and 7 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to the field of regeneration of waste using environmentally friendly technologies and can be used for the destruction of bottom sediments of kasutajanimi by introducing the fuel supplied to the combustion.

Sediments from the oil are high-viscosity oil black, watered, and Natoi temperature they are reminiscent of pasta and almost has no fluidity.

For example, studied a sample of fuel oil contained moisture 19%, solids 35,8%, and also had a high ash content (6,29%). From the comparison of the values of mechanical impurities and ash can be seen that a significant part of the mechanical impurities is a combustible substance.

The viscosity of the samples was extremely high, and even if 100oC she was several times higher than the viscosity of the oil at 30oC. If you exclude high ash content, calorific value of bottom sediments approaching the calorific value of fuel oil. Therefore, according to this indicator sediments are a good fuel. However, due to the high viscosity, ash content and high content of moisture and mechanical impurities, this product can not be burned by the standard technology.

At the same time, according to estimates of the U.S. Agency for environmental protection 4-5 litres of heating oil or fuel oil deposits can contaminate 3.5-4 million liters of water (http://www.cogen.ait..th/fsdp/fsdpkis2.htm, 1998 ).

Fuel oil is a complex chemical composition the composition of high molecular weight, hetero-organic (containing molecular chains cycles, which in addition to carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms are 300 to 3000.

In the process of production, transportation and refining of oil in its composition are solid mineral admixtures, alkali metal salts dissolved in water extracted from the reservoir with oil. When transporting, storing and processing oil is added to the products of deterioration, including corrosion, pipelines, tanks and equipment. All these highly undesirable components ultimately remain in the oil.

Contained in oil of resin-asphaltene substances (CAB), have very complex structure and chemical composition, are transferred to the oil in its original form or in the process of thermal cracking are transformed into asphaltenes.

Further compaction of asphaltenes and their condensation in oil cracking lead to the formation of carbenes and carboids, located in the oil in solid form. From the other CAB carboids differ that do not dissolve in any solvent, and therefore they are usually referred to as coke.

Asphaltenes, as well as other resin - asphaltene compounds are natural surfactants, tend to coagulate and education groups are relatively unstable associates and micelles. Raznoobraziyu of complexes, the existence of which is caused by intermolecular forces (van der Waals).

The particles contained in the dispersed oil phase include high-melting paraffin hydrocarbons, carbenes, carboids, solid mineral admixtures, globules of water with dissolved mineral salts, the gas bubbles.

Disperse particles adsorb on the surface of the surface-active components of the oil. The resulting molecular layer creates a structural-mechanical barrier, which increases the stability of the oil. Structural complex, consisting of dispersed particles (core facility) and the adsorbed layer of polar molecules, surrounded by molecules of the dispersion medium is a solvate layer, oriented in relation to the dispersed particle. The thickness of a solvate layer up to ten times the size of the dispersed particles. In the dispersed phase of oil goes in the colloid-dispersed state having a reduced tendency to coagulation and precipitation.

Because of the complex chemical structure of the oil there perturbing forces intermolecular interactions, leading to its destabilization. The result of destabilization javlyautsya at the bottom of storage tanks. These processes are natural, however their intensity depends on the temperature and rate of flow of fuel.

To perform operations related to the storage of fuel oil required heating it to 60...90oC and related transportation of the fuel oil spray nozzles 120...130oC. the increase In process temperature intensifies the destabilization of oil, and defending or insufficient speed contribute to the growth of the intensity of coagulation carbenes and carboids and their deposition.

Deposition CAB and mineral impurities leads to the formation of viscous stubborn deposits in the fuel oil tanks. Particles carboids and mineral impurities cause abrasive wear of pumps, valves, injectors.

A method of obtaining liquid fuels from polyolefin waste, i.e., essentially the way to the regeneration of waste by burning (http:// www.femirc. org.pl/oferty/ ofe45.htm, 1998). In this way in a preheated 350 to 450oC polyolefin weight enter neoreality catalyst.

However, the process of chemical decomposition of fuel oil sludge flows extremely slowly that it is not possible to use the known method for rigenerazione municipal waste, biomass and coal dust (http: //www.nedo.go.jp/itd. grant-e/JITU/JE007.htm, 1998).

There is a method of regeneration of municipal waste, in which 75% of waste is crushed with 25% of shale oil and served on burning (http://www.peatsorb.com/index3.htm, 1998).

However, the known method can be used only for the solid part of the sediment, thus, its scope is limited. In addition, when applying the crushed solid waste incinerated in the atmosphere invalid number of nitrogen oxides and other harmful substances.

There is a method of regeneration of waste oils in which the oil and surfactant injected into a comminuted wood pulp with the aim of obtaining colloidal solution (application France N 2519019, C 01 L 1.00, 1983).

However, this method is quite expensive and low performance, as connected with the dissolution of biomass.

The closest to the invention is a method of regeneration oil deposits, including the introduction of additives and heating of the sediments, followed by the introduction of heated oil in the amount of 80-90% and a transmittance 1-2 times through disperser, which serves 10-20% water (see and.with. N 1791673, F 23 G 7/05, 1990).

However, the introduction in the work method, which however does not allow to regenerate high viscosity and close to solid deposits. At the same time, the insufficient degree of dispersion leads to the fact that the combustion mixture cossutta nozzle and a heating surface of boilers, and increase harmful emissions into the atmosphere.

For grinding hard materials (coke, lignite and other) in the presence of hydrocarbon liquids and water before applying for combustion is known to use ball mills (see UK patent N 1600865, C 01 L 1/00, 1978).

However, the degree of dispersion of solid particles and water when it is low (particle size of 0.15-2 mm), which leads to an increase in harmful emissions.

Also known hydrodynamic cavitation mixer, in the case of which is placed a swirler (body cavitation). In the mixture, the gel serves coal dust with a particle size of 20-40 microns, the water and organic liquid, for example oil, and get a suspension (see RF patent N 2097408, C 01 L 1/32, 1994).

The complexity of the use of this device for the regeneration of the bottom sediments is that the high viscosity of the deposits cannot be fed into the zone of cavitation at high flow velocities, and velocity variations lead to crashee line supply of oil, dispersant and pump, as well as capacity for sediment and water fuel emulsion.

As already mentioned, this device is inefficient and does not allow to regenerate high viscosity and close to solid deposits.

Thus, the technical result expected from using the proposed method and devices is increasing productivity and reducing the cost of regeneration sediment while maintaining high environmental performance, the possibility of regeneration of highly viscous sediment.

This result is achieved in that in the method of regeneration of bottom sediments of kasutajanimi, including the dispersion of the recovered sediments in the process of mixing with the heated oil, dispersion and mixing are produced in three stages, with the first stage dispersion and stirring is carried out with a low shear mechanical means, the second high mechanical means of ensuring the development of the cavitation process, while the third using a flow-through hydrodynamic cavitation activator.

At the first stage, the amount of fuel oil heated to a temperature of 60 - Giovane and mixing in the first stage is carried out at a shear rate of 102-103with-1and when the shear stresses of 103...105PA, at the second stage - when the cavitation numbers to 2, and PA third when cavitation numbers 4-6.

This result is also achieved in that the device for implementing the method containing the line of feed of oil, dispersant and pump, equipped with extruder with a feed neck, a perforated hollow worm and side hollow pins are offset from the holes of the worm, and an activator, and a dispersant made in the form of a rotary mixer, the inlet of the hollow stator which is made with a swirl and a sloped pipe supplying heated oil, and the output of the extruder is connected to the inlet pipe of the hollow stator rotary mixer, the output of which is connected through the pump with the inlet of the activator, and the cavity of the worm and the pins of the extruder, inclined tube feeding the heated oil rotary mixer and the input of the activator connected to respective mains supply heated oil.

The trigger can be executed with the confuser, cone wave cavitation body, forming is performed with the one most remote from the axis of the body cavitation point.

Chrome tabs, made with radial slots, and depressions with limited side surfaces of rotation, while the median diameters of the projections and depressions of the stator is equal to the median diameters of the response of the depressions and protrusions of the rotor, and the radial depth of the slots on the protrusions of the stator and rotor is selected from the conditions of complete overlap in the axial direction by the protrusions of the rotor and stator, respectively.

This diametrical cross section of the protrusions can be made trapezoidal, with the location of the smaller base of the trapezoid on the free end of the ledge.

It is also the sum of angles at a higher base-line to choose in the range 170 - 155o.

In addition, the stator of the rotary mixer can be made with the possibility of an adjustable fixed axial movement.

In Fig. 1 shows a General view of an apparatus for implementing the method of Fig. 2-4 illustrate the performance of the extruder, the activator and the rotary mixer, respectively.

The device (Fig. 1) comprises a hopper 1 for recyclable waste, the extruder 2 with the boot neck 3, a rotary mixer 4 and the activator 5, at the entrance of which is installed centrifugal pump 6 driven electrodiathermy valves 10, position 11 marked the supply line to the steam required for cleaning of the installation, and the valve 12 to allow the sample collection.

The extruder 2 is made with hollow pins 13 and the worm 14. The latter is also made hollow, with holes 15 is offset from the pins 13 (Fig. 2).

Activator 5 (hydrodynamic cavitation - Fig. 3) made with confuser 16 and the diffuser 17, between which is placed a cylindrical housing 18. Connecting activator 5 is performed using the output 19 input 20 of the flanges. For wavy body 21 cavitation in Fig.3 shows the area 22 of cavitation. The body 21 is set console on the axis 23, is fixed between the frames 24 by a nut 25. The purpose of the activator is a chemical and physico-chemical activation of the mixture, expressed, in particular, in reducing the surface tension forces.

Rotary mixer 4 (Fig. 4) includes a housing 26 in the cavity of which is placed a hollow stator 27 and the rotor 28 with annular projections 29. The stator 27 is executed with the input axis of the pipe 30, which is designed with a sloped pipe 31. In the pumping part 32 of the mixer 4 to the shaft 33 is set to the impeller 34. The pipe 30 is connected with the body of the stator 27 through the diffuser 35. In Fig. 4 shows vyhodnocovani) 38 (figs. 1).

At the exit of the extruder 2 is a filter 39 through which the powdered mixture is fed into the output nozzle 40, and the young man 41 is returnable, and through him, the larger particles can again be fed into the hopper 3. The position of the stator 27 is regulated by the mechanism of small displacements 42, providing adjustable fixed offset of the stator 27 (Fig. 4). When the trapezoidal shape of the protrusions 29 mechanism 42 provides simultaneous adjustment of the axial and radial clearance between the stator 27 and the rotor 28. Between the projections 29 of the stator (rotor) is placed in the cavity 43, the protrusions 29 a radial slot 44. Position 45 is indicated diametrical cross section of the ledge.

The basis of the method is the destruction of aggregated and weighted dispersed components of sediments encountered during storage of the oil, due to the action of high shear stresses in the high-speed stream, including upon the occurrence of cavitation effect.

The method is implemented in three stages (three series-connected units) by hydro-mechanical processing (GMOs) mixtures of bottom sediments with fresh hot oil. The share of fresh oil at each stage increases. The content of oil in cm means you should understand mechanical stirrer, which does not occur cavitation under high mechanical means combined means that along with mechanical stirring (implemented typically the rotating rotor) is the development of the cavitation process.

The implementation of the method let us consider one example of the operation of the device.

Sediments come through hopper bucket (bin) 1 in the neck 3 and under its own weight fall on a rotating worm 14 of the extruder 2. In the area of extrusion processing through pins 13 and the cavity of the worm 14 is pumped heated to a temperature of 60...70oC fresh oil, where it is mixed with sediments. Here the mixture passes the first phase of hydromechanical high-intensity processing, in which it is homogenized and becomes fluid.

Under the action occurred in the extruder 2 head gomogenizirovannogo the mixture through the nozzles 40 and 30 is fed into the rotary mixer 4, where through an inclined pipe 31 is supplied preheated to a temperature of 60...70oC fresh oil, which is mixed with the swirling flow of the axial tube 30. Received the diluted mixture into the space between the stator 27 and the rotor 28 is surrounding the cavitation flow. In the cavitation effects and multiple impacts jets mix with the tabs 29 contained inclusions are crushed to a size 15...30 microns.

For the effective operation of the mixer 4, the clearance between the stator 27 and the rotor 28 should be no more than 2 mm in order to avoid jamming of the mixer 4 large mechanical inclusions provided by filtering the mixture through the holes 8 in the housing 2 with a diameter of 2 mm is Deposited on the filter surface particles difficultly enough cleaned off the worm 3 and transported in the pipe 41, and the treated mixture through pipe 12 is supplied to the inlet mixer 4.

The processed mixture gets to the impeller 34 pumping part 32 and is transported under pressure PA suction pipe of a centrifugal pump 6, there under pressure is supplied preheated to 60...70oC fresh oil. When the output of the pump 6, the mixture enters the activator 4, a hydrodynamic cavitation apparatus (HCA), which is subjected to final GMOs in hard cavitation field, resulting in chemical and physical activation mixture. As a result, the sizes of the dispersed phase decreases to 5...8 microns.

Under the cavitation process is understood as education places liquid, where the pressure falls below a certain critical pressure (pkr) due to the high velocities of flow. Usually the process of cavitation occurs when the pressure is slightly less than the saturated vapor pressure at a given temperature. In liquid boiler fuel role of cavitation nuclei play the particles of the dispersed phase: solid fraction of carboids and mineral impurities, globules of water, gas bubbles.

The gas or vapor bubbles moving with the flow and getting into the area of the pressure p<p krgreatly expanded due to the fact that the pressure of the contained gas and steam is more than the sum of the effects of surface tension and liquid pressure. As a result, the length of the stream from the low pressure area is created, filled with moving bubbles.

After moving into the zone of high pressure growth of the bubbles stopped, and they begin to decline. If the bubble contains a lot of gas (steam), then reaches a minimum radius he recovers and makes several cycles of damped oscillations. If gas (steam) is small, the bubble collapses completely in the first period of life.

The collapse of cavitation Puerto occurs simultaneously and collapses lots of bubbles, the phenomenon is accompanied by a powerful wave process with a continuous range of frequencies from a few hundred to thousands of Hertz kilohertz. In the cavitation region occur hydrodynamic disturbances in the form of a strong pulse compression (micro waves) and mikropotokami generated pulsating bubbles.

Generated by postoperational relaxation flow energy intensive granulate particles of the dispersed phase to the size of 1...5 microns, substantially reducing the rate of their deposition.

The cavitation number is called the value = 2(P1-Pkr)/21where P1- the pressure at the inlet; Pkr- pressure in the narrowest cross-section; is the density,1- speed in the narrowest cross-section.

Three-stage processing of mixtures caused by the need to gradually reduce the viscosity of sediment by manual mixing them with fresh oil. However, the performance of each subsequent unit installation exceed the performance of the previous several times. Due to the different viscosity of the mixture at each stage of processing the devices used different designs, the intensity of the hydrodynamic effect which increases as p the components of bottom sediments is their mechanical destruction in the range from mechanical crushing of the particles of the dispersed phase (carbenes, the carboids, mineral particles, globules of water) to mechanicing heavy hydrocarbons and hetero-organic components of the sediment.

Mechanical dispersion of the particles increases their interfacial surface. Contained in abundance in fresh oil surface - active substances (surfactants) adsorbed on the newly formed surfaces. The resulting structural-mechanical barrier stabilizes the particles of the dispersed phase, i.e. prevents their aggregation and sedimentation.

As a result of mechanicing heavy organic components of the sediment arise fragments of molecules, free radicals which have a high chemical activity. Active cracking products interact with surfactant fresh oil, forming compounds that enhance the stability of the fuel. Mechanicing also reduces the branching paraffin structures.

Thus, the bottom oil deposits, representing viscous unstable system with a high content of coarse abrasive inclusions and water, in the three-stage GMO mixed with fresh heated fuel converted into colloidal disperse system suitable to sigani the dispersion of the recovered sediments in the process of mixing with the heated oil, characterized in that the dispersion and mixing are produced in three stages, with the first stage dispersion and stirring is carried out with a low shear mechanical means, the second high mechanical means of ensuring the development of the cavitation process, while the third using a flow-through hydrodynamic cavitation activator.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the first stage the amount of oil, heated to 60 - 70oC in a mixture of support in the range of 50 - 75%, the second - 67 - 85% and 95 third - 96,3%.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the dispersion and mixing in the first stage is carried out at a shear rate of 102- 103with-1when the shear stresses of 103- 105PA, at the second stage - when the cavitation numbers to 2, while the third when cavitation numbers 4 to 6.

4. The device for implementing the method of regeneration of bottom sediments of kasutajanimi containing line supply of oil, dispersant and the pump, characterized in that it is equipped with extruder with a feed neck, a perforated hollow worm and side hollow pins are offset from the holes of worm, ispolnen with a swirl and a sloped pipe supplying heated oil, thus the output of the extruder is connected to the inlet pipe of the hollow stator rotary mixer, the output of which is connected through the pump with the inlet of the activator, and the cavity of the worm and the pins of the extruder, inclined tube feeding the heated oil rotary mixer and the input of the activator connected to respective mains supply heated oil.

5. The device according to p. 4, characterized in that the activator is made with the confuser, cone wave cavitation body, forming is performed with the one most remote from the axis of the body cavitation point.

6. The device according to p. 4, characterized in that the rotor and stator of the rotary mixer is made with alternating annular concentric projections made with radial slots, and depressions with limited side surfaces of rotation, while the median diameters of the projections and depressions of the stator is equal to the median diameters of the response of the depressions and protrusions of the rotor, and the radial depth of the slots on the protrusions of the stator and rotor is selected from the conditions of complete overlap in the axial direction by the protrusions of the rotor and stator, respectively.

7. The device according to p. 6, characterized in that the diametrical cross section of the protrusions can be vol 8. The device according to p. 7, characterized in that the sum of angles at a higher base-line is chosen in the range 170 - 155o.

9. The device according to p. 4, characterized in that the stator of the rotary mixer is made with the possibility of an adjustable fixed displacement.

 

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