A method of manufacturing a nutritional tablets for growing plants
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in the manufacture of extruded food tablets for growing seedlings of agricultural and flower crops, as well as organic fertilizers for the main filling of soil in home gardens and in greenhouses. As a substrate for tablets use peat and bird droppings, and drying is carried out until the air-dry condition of the substrate. Then milled peat to particle size 1.0 mm to 8.0 mm, and bird droppings - to 0.5-2.5 mm Then peat and bird droppings are mixed in the mixer from the calculation of 3.0-3.5: 1.0 to 1.5 and pressed into tablets. Tablets in its composition are in optimal quantities and the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and some trace elements without adding costly mineral fertilizers. The resulting product is environmentally friendly, convenient for packing and shipping. 3 C.p. f-crystals. The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in the manufacture of extruded food tablets for growing seedlings of agricultural and flower crops, as well as organic fertilizers for osprey production of extruded substrates, including separation of extraneous inclusions, shredding peat and its drying in the fluidized bed, peat milled to average particle size of 0.5-2.5 mm Dried peat is mixed with mineral additives as binders using bitumen emulsion /A. with. N 397165 and 1701728, MKI A 0 G 9/10/.Known methods for producing granulated peat, including grinding, drying of milled peat to a moisture content of 45-55%, mixing and pushing through cylindrical holes /A. with. 1747466, and.with. 664988, C 10 F 7/04/.However, the known methods do not provide adequate quality due to low strength, small volume of substrate and low chemical composition due to the inertia of peat without biologically active components.The closest technical solution to the proposed method is a method for the production of briquettes peat nutrient for growing seedlings, including shredding peat until the particle size of 1-5 mm, mixing the components to obtain peat-mineral mixture and drying in the fluidized bed at 30-40oC to a moisture content of 20-30%, presovanje /A. with. 397165, A 01 G 9/10/.However, this method has the following disadvantages: low quality due to the additional use of mineral supplements in the form of mineral fertilizers, containing a small admixture of heavy metals.It is known that peat in severedbytes the state does not have the right to grow plants nourishing properties.The present invention is to obtain high quality, organic nutrient tablets, high strength and convenient for packaging and transport due to small volume.The objective is realized in that the method includes grinding the substrate, drying, mixing, pressing, as the substrate, two components are used - peat and bird droppings; the drying is carried out before grinding, and carry it to air-dry state of the substrate, and then crushed, mixed and pressed under pressure /60 MPa/ tablets. Grinding is carried out until the particle size: peat from 1.0 to 8.0 mm, bird droppings from 0.5 to 2.5 mm, the Mixing of these components of the calculation of 3.0 - 3.5 : 1.0 to 1.5 spend mixer.The method is as follows.Pure peat moss and bird droppings are dried to air-dry state to provide tablets high strength, then crushed in the crusher to the size of the particles of peat from 1.0 to 8.0 mm, bird droppings 0.5 to 2.5 mm Shredding peat to an increase in bird droppings less than 0.5 or more than 2.5 mm reduces the nutrient regime in connection with uneven adsorption processes of peat.After grinding peat and manure are mixed in the mixer from the calculation of 3.0 - 3.5 : 1.0 to 1.5. The resulting mixture was unloaded in a conical hopper to congestion, from which it enters the matrix camera, and pressed under high pressure into tablets, possibly pressing and other types of briquettes. Further, the products are fed to the filling, and then stored.Experimentally revealed that the most favorable impact on the growth and development of plants has fractional composition of peat 1.0 mm to 8.0 mm, and a litter of 0.5 : 2.5 mm At a ratio of peat: litter 3.0 to 3.5 : 1.0 to 1.5 tablets in its composition are in the optimal quantity and ratio of macro - and micronutrients /nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum and other elements of/ without the addition of expensive mineral components in the form of fertilizers. The resulting products are ecologically pure, biologically active substrate with high water-holding capacity, degree of homogenization, "gently and gradually /in "installments"/, mineralizes, works on plant nutrition. The obtained products are manufactured in the form of an experimental batch and tested on the experimental training farm fields N 1 Omgaw.For growing seedlings tablet is placed into the container /putsa plants or placed seeds of vegetable and flower crops. Morphometry tablets have high environmental and agrochemical parameters on the chemical composition of most agronomic, economic and bio-energetic effect. Dry TFT has a mass of 0.05 - 0.250 kg, a size of 65 mm in diameter and 15 to 30 mm height, during storage and transportation do not change the strength, form and set properties. The proposed method of manufacturing morphometric tablets the cheapest and most environmentally justified. When hydration tablet fast /5 - 7 min and 7-fold increases in volume with the formation of optimal parameters of water, air, nutrient regimes, necessary for normal growth of plants. 1. A method of manufacturing a nutritional tablets for growing plants, comprising grinding the substrate, drying, mixing, pressing, characterized in that the substrate is prepared from two components: peat and bird droppings, the drying is carried out before grinding, and carry it to air-dry state of the substrate, and then crushed, mixed and pressed under high pressure.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the grinding is carried out until the particle size: peat 1.0 mm to 8.0 mm, bird droppings 0.5 to 2.5 mm3. The method according to p. 1 that distinguishes the tablet.4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the pressing can be implemented in different types of briquettes.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, creation of lands for plant cultivation on flat plots.
SUBSTANCE: method involves growing layer of desired plant crop in soil layer; separating portion of said layer of any size together with soil layer comprising crop roots penetrated into soil; removing soil layer from said portions to obtain plant crop portions with fully open roots; providing container for plant and placing porous layer therein; laying said plant portions onto porous layer; locating container in predetermined place onto flat surface and cultivating plant crop with the use of irrigation and other operations.
EFFECT: provision for creating light-weight, reliable, high-quality layer of plantation plats.
19 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to plant growing and can be used for growing seedlings of various plants in hot or green houses and for planting in open ground by intensive technologies. Mixture for seedling pot fabrication includes: tobacco dust at the following ratio of ingredients of the target product, wt %: tobacco dust - 70-80; sawdust - 10-18, cattle manure - 5-10, river sand- 2-5, water at condition, that humidity of mixture does not exceed 60-70 %, mineral fertilisers - 1.0-8.0 kg per 1 t of dry mixture depending on kind of seedlings. Manufacture of pots for seedlings out of tobacco dust facilitates utilising tobacco wastes replacing expensive raw material - peat, and reducing cost of pots. Pots out of tobacco dust have sufficient, optimal for seedling rooting period of decay in humid soil; also upon decay in soil tobacco dust increases its microbiological activity.
EFFECT: pots facilitate preserving root system of plants at re-plantation, additional nutrition of seedlings and protection from pests.
SUBSTANCE: device includes two semi-membranes with a pair of holes oppositely placed at equal distances from the end, and a bottom. The semi-membranes are made cylindrical in shape so that assembly their arc length on both sides from the axis is longer than the length of the half-circle on the value of "A". On one side symmetrically outward from the axis there is a ""-shaped flange with length "2A", and the holes are made diametrically opposed on both sides, and the latches are inserted into them. The disk leans on the latches forming the bottom of the device.
EFFECT: device has a simple design, it is easy to disassemble, it enables to remove easily the soil with the plant and transfer it to the place of transplantation, and after disassembly the device requires little space for storage.
SUBSTANCE: peat container according to the first invention comprises a wall and a bottom. The wall and the bottom are made using peat, the binder. The binder is made in the form of a mixture of water and peat, and a mixture of water and peat is at least once passed through a dispersing agent at a differential pressure in the dispersing agent of 0.1·105 Pa to 25·105 Pa. The peat container according to the second invention comprises a wall and a bottom. The wall and the bottom are made using peat, the binder. The binder is made in the form of a mixture of water, peat, and hydrophobic substance, such as octadecylamine. The mixture of water, peat, hydrophobic substance is at least once passed through the dispersing agent at a differential pressure in the dispersing agent of 0.1·105 Pa to 25·105 Pa.
EFFECT: with this implementation of both inventions the container hardness is increased, which enables to maintain its integrity during transportation, storage and use for its intended purpose; the container resistance to moisture is increased which enables to increase the time of dissolving wall and bottom of the container in the ground and the time of useful effect on plants.
2 cl, 17 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: pot is made of a material which decomposes under the influence of moisture. The pot comprises a wall 1 and a bottom 2. On the inner/outer surface of the wall/bottom a layer of water soluble adhesive substance 3 is applied, and then - a layer of mineral fertiliser 4, taken in a volume ratio of 1:2-2:1. The wall of the pot is provided with folded edges 5 attached to its outer surface. On the edges a layer of water soluble adhesive substance is applied, and then - a layer of mineral fertiliser taken in a volume ratio of 1:2-2:1. According to the second embodiment, the pot is made of a material which decomposes under the influence of moisture. The pot comprises a wall 1 and a bottom 2. On the inner/outer surface of the wall/bottom a layer of a mixture 6 of water soluble adhesive substance and mineral fertiliser is applied, taken in a volume ratio of 1:2-2:1. The wall of the pot is provided with folded edges 5 attached to its outer surface. On the edges a layer of a mixture 6 of water soluble adhesive and mineral fertiliser is applied, taken in a volume ratio of 1:2-2:1.
EFFECT: implementation extends the useful properties of the pot for growing sprouts.
SUBSTANCE: mass for manufacturing pot for growing seedlings comprises material that decomposes under the influence of moisture, a binder, a mineral fertiliser. The novelty of the invention is that the fluffed paper is used as a material which decomposes under the influence of moisture, and PVA glue as binder, at that the components are in the following ratio, wt %: fluffed paper 98, PVA glue 1, mineral potash fertiliser 1. Also, as a material which decomposes under the influence of moisture the fluffed paper and textile fibrous dust and fluff are used, and starch glue - as binder, at that the components are in the following ratio, wt %: fluffed paper 43; textile fibrous dust and fluff 40; starch glue 7; mineral nitrogen fertiliser 10. In addition, as a material which decomposes under the influence of moisture the textile fibrous dust and fluff are used, and liquid glass as binder, at that the components are in the following ratio, wt %: textile fibrous dust and fluff 75; liquid glass 10; mineral phosphate fertiliser 15.
EFFECT: increased intensity of plant development.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. In the method lotus is grown in artificial conditions by selection of two containers one of which is placed in the other so that the inner container height is 10-30 cm less than the outer container height. At that in the inner container the planting ground is placed, in which lotus rhizomes are lowered to a depth of 5-15 cm. The soil surface is covered with the drain, which is used as a layer of washed river sand. A layer of fine washed stone with particle diameter of not more than 1 cm is applied on its top, then the container is filled with water. Planting and growing of lotuses in the container can be carried out throughout the year, regardless of the season.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the growth rate of lotus in artificial conditions by growing in containers.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to flexible polyurethane foam, which is characterised by density of 25-70 kg/m3 according to measurement in accordance with ISO 845, compression deformation at 40% (NSD) of 5-15 kPa according to measurement in accordance with ISO 3386/1 under the condition of measuring hardness during the first cycle, volume increase at water saturation (%) of at most 25, and water buffer capacity of 40-60%. The invention also describes production and use of said polyurethane foam, as well as a plant growth medium, a green wall and/or a green roof, having said foam material.
EFFECT: obtaining flexible polyurethane foam having better stability at 100% water saturation and water buffer capacity coupled with high compression deformation at low density.
7 cl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: in this method the seeding is carried out at a depth of 1.5-2.0 cm, in specially prepared vegetative pots filled with expanded clay, soil substrate with the addition of biopack: high peat - 30%, soddy podzolic soil - 23%, river sand - 10%, biohumus - 37%, followed by water irrigation, surface leveling and further maintaining the substrate humidity of 60-70%, air temperature of 22-25°C, soil temperature of 20-23°C, air humidity of 70-80%, illumination of not less than 4500 lux.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of Echinacea purpurea seedling, to increase the yield of seedlings, and to reduce its vulnerability to diseases and pests.
SUBSTANCE: method of growing vegetables and gourds comprises placing the seeds in a mixture of soil and fertiliser in the pot decomposing in soil, seed germination and embedding the pot into the soil. The pot is made of clay minerals with sorption and ion-exchange properties. The fertiliser is used as sorption-active silt deposit recycled by enzyme-cavitation method. Before placing in a pot the seed is soaked in electrochemically activated solution, after which the mixture of soil and fertiliser is adjusted to a moisture content of 70-80%. Along with this, the further is additionally used as granular minerals-ionites. In preparation of the activated solution the concentrate of liquid complex fertiliser is added to the source water in an amount of 2-3% by volume. During the vegetation period of vegetable crops they are watered with the activated water.
EFFECT: method of cultivation of vegetables and gourds provides obtaining stable yields under dry conditions and on poor lands with limited crop rotations, reduction of the anthropogenic load on the soil, saving the seed material and fertilisers, improving the consumer properties of fruits of cultivated crops.
4 cl, 6 dwg