The method of cultivation of agricultural crops

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for use in agriculture in the cultivation of agricultural crops. The invention includes the layout of the site, forming in the fall or in the summer after harvest of the preceding culture narrow (45 cm) ranges by digging with application of organic and mineral fertilizers at a depth of 25-30 cm, leaving a wide (75-105 cm) passages, remaining always in the same place. On the day of planting or sowing on ridge conduct furrow width of 30-35 cm, the inner space of which has a concave hemispherical surface with a slight slope length, soil distribute evenly along its edges. Landing (planting) produced in 2 staggered rows with identical distances between plants, with the inner sides of the furrow, leaving the aisle not already 30 see the Plants are fed with organic and / or mineral fertilizers and, if necessary, Spud. The aisles contain dry and cut the weeds. In the ranks of weeds covered with soil from the edges. The invention allows to save water, fertilizer, faster to use organic fertilizers in the root zone, reduce costs, namely, the technology of cultivation of agricultural crops.

There is a method of cultivation of agricultural crops in kN.: B. N. Matveev, M. I. Rubtsov. Vegetable growing. M: Agropromizdat, 1985, pp. 143 - 146, including the placing of plants on the field rows (narrow or wide) or ribbons, which can be two-, three-, four - and multi-line, square power approach to elongated rectangle and apply the following 2-line schemes: - 120 + 60; 100 + 40; 90 + 50; 80 + 60; 62 + 8; 58 + 12; 50 + 20.

However, this method of host plants is not uniform for different crops, soils and climatic zones, and does not exclude the complex care of plants, including multiple processing different guns, weed control, etc.

Also known standardized method of cultivation of different crops in narrow (45 cm) long ridges, bounded by walls that are at the same level with a wide (75 - 105 cm) passes under strict horizontality, the food here is a mixture composed of industrial fertilizers, watering held frequently, and in hot and dry weather almost every day, ridges and passes never me who. 2 - 54, "Summer 1994" N 2 (15), PP 12 - 14 - prototype).

The disadvantages of this method are the exclusion of organic fertilizers, resulting in worsening of the physical properties of the soil, reduces water retention capacity of her, and this caused very frequent watering. /If you increase the content of soil organic matter increases and the size of the smallest capacity of the soil. (KN. : "Soil survey", M, 1959, pp. 308 - 313)/. The location of the ridges and passes on the same level does not preclude saturation of the passages moisture due to exposure and promotes the growth of weeds, and the absence of even a slight slope accelerates this process and contributes to undesirable increase of irrigation norms. In addition to these defects, the method does not allow such an important technique, as hilling, contributing to the destruction of weeds and the formation of adventitious roots.

The goal is to improve reliability, increase soil fertility and the lowest moisture content more effectively to combat weeds, save irrigation water and fertilizer.

The task is the fact that the seeding and planting of various crops spend twostroke on narrow ridges with midor is there to increase fertility, the smallest increase of moisture content (HB), the reduction of water consumption, and the wide (75 - 105 cm) passes above the water level in the furrow with no hit on them and prevents weed growth. Retrieved from furrow the soil evenly distributed on both edges, then, as the germination of weeds this soil is used for cultivating plants, while in one operation weeds on the edge of a destroyed mechanically, but in the ranks and on the bottom of the furrow by filling them with soil. Simultaneously with hilling possible inclusion in the ranks of the organic (loose or liquid) fertilizer that provides the necessary power plants, but also helps preserve moisture in the root zone.

In Fig. 1 shows a portion of the field with the placement of the ridges and passes, a view in plan; Fig. 2 is a cross section of a narrow ridge, prepared for seeding (planting) of Fig.3 - the same incision after planting and hilling plants.

Example. For cultivation of various crops in this way in the first place determine the future location of the ridges so that they had a weak slope length, in order to avoid stagnation of water when watering, then mark on the area of the narrow ridge width 45 cm with prob 105 cm (in the prototype shown the passages 105, 90 and not less than 75 cm).

Along the axis of the future ridges of available methods and tools form a swath of crop residues and other organic materials, here are made of organic and mineral fertilizers (manure, poultry litter, fly ash etc). It should be noted that the ridges and passes never change seats and perekidyvayutsya only ridge. Digging ridges with organic materials to produce autumn (plowing), but you can at any time during the growing season, as harvest and release them for planting subsequent crops. Digging ridges carried out to a depth of 25 - 30 cm, while organic fertilizers 3, located in the roll evenly worked into the soil to the depth of plowing, so as to not come to the surface during the subsequent device furrow to a depth of 20 cm, which is formed on the day of sowing seeds or planting seedlings produced on both sides of the furrow with a row spacing of 30 - 35 cm, is the same for most crops. The distance between individual plants within a row must be identical and optimal for each culture. The location of the plants on the ridge preferably in a checkerboard pattern. Retrieved when the device furrow soil 4 rawnet for hilling plants 5, when the weeds on the edge of a destroyed mechanically, but in rows and row - by filling them with soil 4. The introduction of the rows of plants fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers 3 possible simultaneously with hilling.

Using the proposed method of cultivation of agricultural crops allows the economical use of irrigation water, fertilizers, used to improve soil fertility in the shortest possible time organic fertilizer in the root zone, contributes to the gradual liberation of the land from weeds, reduce 3 times square and the cost of tillage.

We conducted field experiments the volumetric weight of the soil when growing 12 different crops decreased from 1.40 g/cm3to 1.26 g/cm3. From the experimental plots obtained yields per 1 ha:

Early potatoes - 531 C

Carrot - 760 C

Cucumbers - 1380 kg

Cabbage - 766 CA

The method of cultivation of agricultural plants, standardized for different crops, soils and climatic zones, in which the plan area, form a narrow (45 cm) range, make fertilizer and dig over them, leaving a wide (75-105 cm) passages, never changing meadow culture) distances between individual plants, leaving the aisle not already 30 cm, fed and watered them, and passages contain dry and cut the weeds, characterized in that the shape and dig up the ridge with the application of organic and mineral fertilizers at a depth of 25-35 cm in the fall (or summer after harvest of the preceding culture), and on the day of landing on it spend a groove width of 30-35 cm, the inner space of which has a concave hemispherical surface with a slight slope length, soil extract and distribute evenly along its edges, the plants are planted (sown) on the inner side of the furrow, fed organic and (or) mineral fertilizers and at the same time cultivating them.

 

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