(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the electrical heating technique, in particular to convection heaters, and is designed for air heating of residential premises in the cold season. The heaters includes a casing shaped 1 with an inlet 2 and outlet 3 holes, a support 4, in parallel inside the casing of the vertical elements representing each separately equalizer 5 is secured on the insulating substrate and the flat heater 6, and the current-carrying device 7. The outer flat surface of the heater 6 of each equalizer 5 through a heat-resistant insulator is covered with a layer 8 of material reflecting the radiant energy of at least 90-95%, while the alignment is performed with respect to the height H to the width In the optimal range defined by the inequality of 0.5<N/a<1.5, the ratio of the width to the distance between the alignment t within 5V/t18, and the ratio of the surface area of each equalizer Finto the surface area of the heater fnis 5<F/fn<15, and the ratio of the height H of the equalizer to the distance h from the floor to cut the inlet is selected in the range of 3.5<N/h<35. Technically the CLASS="ptx2">The alleged invention relates to electrical heating technique, in particular to convection heaters, and is designed for air heating of residential premises in the cold season.Known electric, comprising a housing consisting of an outer and inner shells arranged one within the other and connected by a jumper, a common outlet in the upper part of the housing and the heater, made in the form of the magnetic circuit (EN 2047053 C1, 1996).The main disadvantage of these convection heaters - design complexity, reducing reliability.In addition, the high temperature of the outer surface of heaters, up to 90 - 100oC, complicates its operation because of the possibility of burn in case of accidental contact and reducing the service life of structural elements, reduction of performance, durability and reliability.On the other hand, the high temperature of the outer surface causes the phenomenon of thermal decomposition and dry sublimation of organic dust, accompanied by the release of harmful substances, in particular of carbon monoxide CO is a very toxic (carbon monoxide) gas with no color, no smell, easily bind with hemoglobin croizat, that thermal decomposition dust begins at a temperature of 65 - 70oC and intensively flows on the surface having a temperature of more than 80oC.Thus, consider the convection heaters, and the like do not meet sanitary-hygienic requirements for violating environmental air living quarters.Conducted patent research has shown that the closest to the technical essence and the achieved effect is heaters, comprising a housing shaped with the inlet and outlet ports, supports, placed in parallel inside of the vertical heating elements representing each separately equalizer with a fixed insulating substrate and a flat heater, and a current-carrying device (EN 2037275 C1,1995).This convector is selected as a prototype of the proposed heaters.The disadvantage of the prototype is sufficiently high, the temperature of the outer surface of the shell, which may result in decomposition of dust and violation of environmental air. In addition, studies have shown that you are very close to the location ugodnog is where the heaters work in a "vacuum" mode, that is, sucks the dust from the floor surface, it decomposes and feeds into a heated room, thereby violating environmental air space. When this mode dramatically increases the resistance of the inlet, which reduces the efficiency and reliability of the heaters. Another disadvantage of the prototype is that the flat surface of the heater approaches the model of the "black body" and has a maximum radiantly-absorption ability, which causes local temperature rise of the insulating substrate, the heater and equalizer under them. This fact during operation of the heaters may eventually lead to local thermal deformation and destruction.These drawbacks are generally lower reliability, durability and environmentally friendly operation of the heaters.The technical result of the invention is to increase reliability, durability and sustainability of the work of the heaters.The technical result is achieved by the fact that the heaters containing casing-shaped with the inlet and outlet ports, supports, placed in parallel inside the housing of the vertical elements and a flat heater, and the current-carrying device according to the invention, the outer surface of the flat heater of each equalizer through a heat-resistant insulator is covered with a layer of material that reflects radiant energy of not less than 90 - 95%, while the alignment is performed with the ratio of height H to the width In the optimal range defined by the inequality of 0.5 < H/< 1.5, the ratio of the width to the distance between the alignment t within a 5 B/t 18, and the ratio of the surface area of each equalizer Finto the surface area of the heater fnis 5 < F/f < 15, moreover, the ratio of the height H of the equalizer to the distance h from the floor to cut the inlet is selected in the range of 3.5 < H/h < 35.The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:
- Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 depicts the heaters (top view and front);
- Fig. 3 - heater with cover.The heaters includes a casing shaped 1 with an inlet 2 and outlet 3 holes, a support 4, in parallel inside the casing of the vertical elements representing each separately equalizer 5 is secured on the insulating substrate and the flat heater 6, and the current-carrying device 7.In the emer heat-resistant glass, covered with a layer 8 of material reflecting the radiant energy of at least 90-95%. As such material can be used: silver, gold, copper, anodized aluminum, etc. Between the two equalizer 5 is formed by the straight chamber 9 connected to the input 2 and output 3 holes. Input 2 hole open and the outlet 3 is closed on top with decorative lattice (in the drawing conventionally not shown). The lattice has a minimum resistance to the passage of heated air.Between the outer surface of the balancer and the inner wall of the casing formed by the peripheral flow chambers 10 and 11. The casing 1 is fixed on the lateral posts 12 and 13 of the heaters.The heaters operates as follows.After connecting the heaters to the mains by means of the feed device 7 in the initial heat up the heater 6 and the equalizer 5. Then the cold air heated space through the inlet 2 under the action of free convection is sucked in once-through chamber 9, where the heat transfer by radiation, convection and thermal conductivity of air is heated, rises up and through the outlet 3 of the heaters Peno-hygienic and environmental conditions.With increasing temperature equalizer air heated room is sucked in the peripheral flow chambers 10 and 11.The heat transfer from the outer heated surface of each equalizer to the air is carried out mainly by radiation and convection. When this air is heated and rises from the peripheral flow chambers 10 and 11 is fed into a heated room.The driving force that causes air entrainment in the flow and peripheral flow chamber, heat is the gravitational pressure arising due to the difference of densities coming from the bottom through the inlet of the cold and warm out of the outlet of the air entering the heated premises.Peripheral conduit cameras with optimal speed to dissipate heat from the outer surface of each of the equalizer and to transfer this heat together with warm air in a heated room.Such constructive execution of the heaters allows you to get a triple effect:
first, an optimum cooling of the outer surface of the equalizer, because osushestvlyaetsya, which increases the efficiency and reliability of electric convector;
- thirdly, because of the low thermal conductivity of air moving through the peripheral flow chambers, the outer wall of the casing is heated less, therefore, has a low temperature, which increases the sustainability of the operation of the heaters.At low temperatures the outer surface of the casing, such as 55 - 60oC, thermal decomposition of organic dust does not occur, dry sublimation does not occur, the air is not burned, creates thermal comfort and provide the best hygienic and environmental conditions necessary for man.In addition, low calorific elements of design, reliability and durability of the heaters increase.The fact that the flat surface of the heater of each equalizer through a heat-resistant insulator, such as heat-resistant glass, caused by film technology, covered by a layer of material that reflects radiant energy, for example, anodized aluminum, allows you to:
- create a structure with a surface that reflects at least 95% of the total incident radiant energy and absorbing no more than 5%.This provision is of univates approaching isothermal, that improves the efficiency, reliability and durability of the heaters;
- to provide the best quick heating of the equalizer without thermal shock that can bring the alignment of the system, which increases the durability and reliability of the heaters;
- completely avoid the occurrence of local overheating, thermal deformation and destruction of heaters and alignment;
- to provide high temperature resistance, serviceability, durability and reliability of the proposed heaters.Floor heaters and the equalizer can be made from different materials having heat resistance, but with close pogloshchenia-radiative abilities, teploprovodnostyu and temperature extensions.Among such materials may be included, for example, anodized aluminum, gold, copper (oxidized), tin, silver, platinum, etc.The use of different materials with similar thermal and optical properties provides only an approximate simulation in the case where the coating and the equalizer is made of the same material, such as anodized aluminum.Cover the tats experimental studies of the proposed heaters showed the implementation of each of the equalizer with respect to its height H to the width B in the range of 0.5 < H/< 1.5, and the ratio of the width to the distance t between the alignment within a 5 B/t 18 allows you to create compact heaters with small dimensions, high reliability, durability, environmental friendliness and meet the requirements of modern standards.The optimal ratio of the surface area of each equalizer Finthe square fnheater surface lying within a 5 < Find/fn< 15, provides the exception of possible local overheating and thermal damage, at the same time reduces thermal inertia and improves performance of the heaters, the latter quickly goes to the nominal mode.This increases the reliability of the heaters.The execution of heaters with respect to the height H of the equalizer to the distance h from the floor to cut the inlet or input sections flow and peripheral flow chambers within 3.5 < H/h < 35 eliminates the negative impact of the proximity of the floor to the work of the heaters to eliminate the "vacuum" mode of its operation and excessive heat is the effectiveness and durability of the heaters.Thus, from these studies essential features of the claimed invention should be that the proposed set of features provides a substantial positive effect of improved reliability, durability and ecological operation of the heaters. This conclusion is confirmed by positive test results proposed heaters.Comparative evaluation of reliability, durability and ecological compatibility of the proposed heaters in comparison with the known types of oil-filled electric radiators, electric heaters, air heaters and convection heaters, established in recent years in countries such as the CIS, Russia, Ukraine, USA, UK, Germany, France, Switzerland, Norway, Canada, Australia, Japan and others shows that the proposed heaters according to the achieved level is much higher than the world standard.Thus, the claimed heaters, thanks to the combination of essential features set forth in the claims, as research has shown, ensures high reliability, durability and environmental friendliness of work, meets criterion is highly competitive on the world market, and this increases the priority of the Russian Federation in the field of technology.Considering all these facts, the serial production of the claimed heaters is expected soon. The heaters containing casing-shaped with the inlet and outlet ports, supports, placed in parallel inside the housing of the vertical elements representing each separately equalizer with a fixed insulating substrate and a flat heater, and a current-carrying device, characterized in that in it the external surface of the flat heater of each equalizer through a heat-resistant insulator is covered with a layer of material that reflects radiant energy of not less than 90 - 95%, while the alignment is performed with respect to the height H to the width In the optimal range defined by the inequality of 0.5 < N/a < 1,5, the ratio of the width to the distance between the alignment t within a 5 B/t 18, and the ratio of the surface of each equalizer F of the surface area of the heater fnis 5 < Fin/fn< 15, moreover, the ratio of the height H of the equalizer to the distance h from the floor to cut the inlet is selected in the range of 3.5 < H/h < 35.
FIELD: electric heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: electric heater comprises casing made of a plate, plastic heating member glued to the plate, commutation leads, thermostatic switch, and fastening members. The back side of the heating member is provided with a protecting panel. The plate is made of marble. The protecting panel is made of gypsum-fiber. The commutation leads and thermostatic switch are arranged in the space between the two parts of the heating member at the center of the electric heater. The fastening members are arranged in the space between the gypsum-fiber panel and heating member.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device relates to non-wired type heaters and intends for saunas and baths as well as for heating rooms of any purpose including living and agricultural spaces and summer houses. Electric heater has heat-dissipating panel made of marble, resistive heating element, metal base disposed between the heat-dissipating panel and the heating element. The base is connected with earth. Heater also has gypsum-fiber protective panel fastened to back side of heating element, thermal switches and commutation outputs. Heating element with lateral gaps in resistive layer id used for the heater. Commutation outputs each of which is connected with thermal switch are disposed in lateral space in the center of electric heater and are installed in distribution box. Metal base, resistive heating element and heat-dissipating panel are connected to each other by thermo-resistive silicon glue. Fixing units are fitted inside metal base, in spaces of gypsum-fiber panel and resistive heating element. Heat-dissipating panel is made of profiled sections having different geometric shapes.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation and heat convective heat transfer; reduced cost; reduced fire risk.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heat transfer.
SUBSTANCE: Assembly for warming surfaces, in particular, landing strips of space ships has electric heating elements disposed between two surfaces. One surface has to be a metal sheet with cells inside which cells the heating elements are installed. The heating elements are made of high electric resistance wire. The wire is inserted into mica plastic. Second surface is made of heat-insulating material. The plates are inserted in cells and are retained onto pins welded to metal sheet.
EFFECT: reduced labor input of mounting process; simplified design.
FIELD: civil engineering, in particular, outer engineering equipment of buildings and structures heated with the aim of thawing of snow and ice, applicable in deckings, water drains, cornices and similar building constructions, whose shape is exhausted by the shape of the panel or cover.
SUBSTANCE: the heated load-bearing member in the form of a panel has a frame, current-conducting shield and a hermetically sealed electric heater with contact wires for the power supply network. The frame is laminated of a composite material and has layers used as the reinforcing material, the layers are made of crossing and/or interwoven rayons, at least one layer of low-density material, at least one current-conducting shield and at least one hermetically sealed insulated electric heater, with their contact and earth wires brought outside, are placed between the frame layers made of crossing and/or interwoven rayons. A polymeric binder is used as the matrix combining all the frame layers and the mentioned current-conducting shield and the hermetically sealed electric heater, if necessary, the frame is provided with a protective and/or decorative coating fastened on the outside.
EFFECT: enhanced operating reliability and expanded field of use.
24 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in designs of floor electro-warmed panels for young plants of animals. System of multi-zone three-planimetric differentiated thermoregulation of floor electro-warmed panels for young plants of animals consists of three heating contours of rectangular form. All contours cover each other in concentric manner, and one is located in panel centre, another - along its perimeter, and the third occupies intermediate position between them. In zone of arrangement of each contour on two temperature sensors are placed, connected to thermoregulator, capable to control of heating on average indicator between two sensors in such a manner that at simultaneous thermoregulation in several zones temperature drop from panel centre to its periphery is compensated.
EFFECT: increase of thermoregulation efficiency; prevention of heat losses from panel centre to its periphery; possibility of panel adaptation to animals being on it; maintenance of panel adaptation to take-up by animals of various area of working surface; possibility of heating temperature changing depending on animals age and biological species.
1 cl, 1 dwg