The pulse generator on inductive energy storage


H03K3/537 - PULSE TECHNIQUE (measuring pulse characteristics G01R; mechanical counters having an electrical input G06M; information storage devices in general G11; sample-and-hold arrangements in electric analogue stores G11C0027020000; construction of switches involving contact making and breaking for generation of pulses, e.g. by using a moving magnet, H01H; static conversion of electric power H02M; generation of oscillations by circuits employing active elements which operate in a non-switching manner H03B; modulating sinusoidal oscillations with pulses H03C, H04L; discriminator circuits involving pulse counting H03D; automatic control of generators H03L; starting, synchronisation, or stabilisation of generators where the type of generator is irrelevant or unspecified H03L; coding, decoding or code conversion, in general H03M)
H03K3/53 - PULSE TECHNIQUE (measuring pulse characteristics G01R; mechanical counters having an electrical input G06M; information storage devices in general G11; sample-and-hold arrangements in electric analogue stores G11C0027020000; construction of switches involving contact making and breaking for generation of pulses, e.g. by using a moving magnet, H01H; static conversion of electric power H02M; generation of oscillations by circuits employing active elements which operate in a non-switching manner H03B; modulating sinusoidal oscillations with pulses H03C, H04L; discriminator circuits involving pulse counting H03D; automatic control of generators H03L; starting, synchronisation, or stabilisation of generators where the type of generator is irrelevant or unspecified H03L; coding, decoding or code conversion, in general H03M)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a pulse technique. The pulse generator on inductive energy storage contains the first synchronous pulse generator voltage, ungrounded output of which is connected to the first output of the inductive energy storage. The second output of the drive through the arrester is connected to the load, and with the first output winding of the transformer. The second output winding is grounded. Similarly, the second synchronous generator voltage pulses connected to the inductive energy storage, and the load winding of the transformer. The unipolar output of each generator and current pulses connected chain of serially connected respectively breaker and winding, and circuit breaker and the transformer. The Hall sensor is connected to the input of the control unit, the first output of which is connected to control inputs of oscillators, the second output - control inputs of oscillators, third and fourth outputs - control inputs, respectively, of the breakers, and the fifth and sixth, with the control electrode, respectively arresters. Effect: increased efficiency of energy transfer from the drives in the power of the pulsed electron beam accelerators, sources of x-ray and neutron radiation, lasers, and devices for surface treatment of various materials.

From the prior art known to the pulse generator for inductive energy storage (see Sargent. G. et al, Rev. Scient. Inst. v. 30, N 11, 1965, p. 1032) that contains the current source, at least two inductive drive and two breaker connected in series, and a load circuit with a spark gap-obsticales and the load in series.

The disadvantage of this generator is the low efficiency of energy transfer to the load, and the efficiency the less, the greater the number of stages.

Also known pulse generator for inductive energy storage (see USSR author's certificate N 635605, CL H 03 K 3/53, 1977), taken as a prototype, containing a current source, two of the inductive energy storage, two breakaway, discharger and the load, with one pole of the current source is connected to the first output load connected in series through the first inductive energy storage and a spark gap, and a second output load via the first switch, the second pole of the current source is connected to the second output load, h is the gap - through the second isolator.

The disadvantage of this pulse generator for inductive energy storage is that it does not provide a highly efficient transfer of energy from the inductive drive to the load, because the switching time is large enough - order units of milliseconds.

In addition, the generator does not provide a high frequency pulse.

The present invention is directed to the solution of the technical problem to improve the efficiency of energy transfer from the drive to the load by reducing the switching time of the pump current of the energy storage to the load to (1-5)10-6sec, which essentially increases the efficiency of the device, as well as to increase the pulse repetition frequency: 1-10 kHz.

The problem is solved by the fact that the pulse generator for inductive energy storage, containing two of the inductive energy storage, two breakaway, discharger and the load, according to the invention additionally contains two identical synchronous generator of voltage pulses, the same two unipolar pulse generator current, the second spark gap, a control unit, a Hall sensor, and the transformer is uchenykh windings, when the winding of each pair having a greater number of turns, is the primary, and the other additional ungrounded output of each synchronous generator voltage pulses connected to the first output of the respective inductive energy store, the latter findings are connected to the load via a corresponding gap, and respectively with the first and second findings of the main windings, other pins are grounded, the output of each unipolar pulse generator current is connected by a chain of series-connected additional winding and switch, Hall sensor disposed between the core and the windings of the transformer and is connected by its output to the input of the control unit, the first output of which is connected to control inputs of the first synchronous pulse generator voltage and the first unipolar pulse generator current, the second output control unit connected to control inputs of the second synchronous pulse generator voltage and the second unipolar pulse generator current, third and fourth outputs of the control unit connected to control inputs respectively of the first and second breaker, and the fifth and sixth outputs of the control unit with the coils of the main winding at least on the order exceeded the number of turns of the additional winding.

This embodiment of the pulse generator to the inductive storage allows for use in a chain of additional windings regular contact breakers with times of switching 10-3s to increase the efficiency of energy transfer from the inductive drives in the load pulse changes the magnitude of the inductive reactance of the circuit of the main transformer.

Indeed, the open circuit additional winding due to current flowing through its primary winding, is alternating magnetization of the transformer core (its transition from a saturated state with the induction of a magnetic field equal to, for example, B0in a saturated condition, but with the induction of a magnetic field (B0). In the process of magnetization reversal of the core inductance of the primary winding of the first stepwise increases ind/n~ 104again, whereddynamic magnetic permeability of the material 9 of the core is unsaturated condition, andn- the magnetic permeability of the core material in a saturated state, and then (in the re-magnetization of the core in the other direction) inductance also decreases rapidly until ichibanya core, equal (1-5)106sec? changed according to the law, is close to a rectangular pulse of very short duration, which leads to improving the efficiency of energy transfer to the load.

The introduction of a control unit and Hall sensor allows to increase the pulse repetition rate due to the possibility of feeding currents in the primary and secondary windings of one pair at the time when the transition process in the primary winding of the other pair is not over. In other words, by the time of the establishment of the idle mode in the circuit of one of the inductive energy storage pumping of the second inductive energy store has ended.

In Fig. 1 shows a schematic diagram of the proposed generator of Fig. 2 - the time dependence of the output voltages and currents.

The pulse generator on inductive energy storage contains the first synchronous generator 1 pulse voltage, the first inductive drive 2 energy, the first discharger 3, load 4, the second spark gap 5, the second inductive drive 6 energy, the second synchronous generator 7 voltage pulses (identical respectively to the generator 1 and drive 2), the transformer 8 with a core of material with a narrow pramool is 11 and second 12 breakers, the first 13 and second 14 unipolar pulse generator current sensor 15 of the Lobby, and the control block 16. The sensor 15 Hall is placed between the windings of the transformer 8 and the core.

Ungrounded output of the synchronous generator 1 pulse voltage is connected to the first output of the inductive storage 2 energy, the second terminal through which the spark gap 3 is connected to the load 4, and with the first output of the primary winding 9 of the transformer 8, the second terminal of which is grounded. Similarly ungrounded output of the synchronous generator 7 of the voltage pulses is connected to the first output of the inductive storage 6, the second terminal through which the spark gap 5 is connected to the load 4, and with the second output of the primary winding 9 of the transformer 8, the first output of which is grounded. Load 4 may be either common to both inductive drives 2 and 6 energy, or separate for each drive (in the drawing shown by the dotted line).

The output of the first unipolar generator 13 current pulses connected in series United isolator 11 and the additional winding 10, with her first lead grounded. Similarly to the output of the second unipolar pulse generator current 14 connected in series is as the output of the sensor 15 Hall is connected to the input of the control block 16, the first output of which is connected with the control input of the generator 1 and generator 13, the second output with the control input of the generator 7 and the generator 14, the third and fourth outputs, respectively to control inputs of the breakers 11 and 12, and the fifth and sixth outputs with control electrodes respectively arresters 3 and 5.

In Fig. 2 the following symbols are used: U1and U13- output signal, respectively, of the generator 1 and 13, I9, I9', I10, I10'- the currents in the respective windings 9, 9', 10 and 10' of the transformer 8; U7and U14- output signal, respectively, of the generator 7 and 14; Unthe voltage at the load 4; UXthe signal from the sensor 15 of the Lobby.

The pulse generator on inductive energy storage works as follows. In the initial moment of time the core of the transformer 8 is located either in the unsaturated state, or in any other state. At time t0(Fig.2) the command "start" on the first and third outputs of the control unit are formed the control signals, which are received respectively to the control inputs of oscillators 1 and 13, and run, and the control input of the isolator 11, turning it into a closed state. In the parameters of the scheme, as well as the number of turns W9and W10accordingly, in the windings 9 and 10 are calculated so that the increase of the current in the counter is enabled windings 9 and 10 occurred on the same law and executed by the ratio:

I9(t) W9- I10(t) W10= 0, (1)

thus W9> W10.

Durationoand the amplitude of the starting (first) of pulses at the outputs of the generators 1 and 13 is less than the subsequent production of pulses (see Fig. 2). At the end of the first pulse (i.e., at time intervals equal tooafter the command "start") on the third output unit 16 of the control signal is formed at the opening of the circuit breaker 11. Simultaneously with the fifth output unit 16 of the control signal at the control electrode of a spark gap 3. At this time the current in the winding 9 reaches the peak value. Upon actuation of the circuit breaker 11, the current in the winding 10 of the transformer 8 falls rapidly to zero, and the core is magnetized to saturation by the current flowing through the winding 9 of the transformer 8. Here it should be noted that for the exclusion of very strong magnetization of the core by the current flowing through the coil 9, a signal to the control electrode of a spark gap 3. As a result, the time interval according to Elaida in the load (Fig. 2 shows dotted curve) through the spark gap 3. The signal at the output of the sensor 15 Hall first increases due to the magnetization of the transformer core 8, and then decreases as the current in the winding 9, according to the exponential law with a time constant defined by the ohmic resistance of tyres in the winding 9 and the inductive storage 2 energy, and the inductance of the considered circuit. Thus, the signal at the output of the sensor 15 Hall corresponds to the magnitude of the magnetic field in the transformer core 8, and its sign is the direction of the magnetic field. In the control block 16 is allocated first component of the output signal from the sensor 15 Hall, for which in Other words, the further processing is subjected to the signal from the sensor 15 Hall only during those time intervals when its value modulo decreases in time. When the signal from the sensor 15 Hall a given value on the second and fourth outputs of the control block 16 are formed in the control signals, which are received respectively on the control inputs, respectively, of the generator 7, 14 and circuit breaker 12. As a result, the outputs of the generators 7 and 14 pulses, respectively, voltage and current with a duration ofturns W9'and W10'accordingly, in the windings 9' and 10' are calculated so that the increase of the current in the counter is enabled windings 9' and 10' occurred on the same law and executed by the ratio:

I9'(t) W9'- I10'(t) W10'= 0 (2)

similar to (1), W9'= W9and W10'= W10.

As a result, in the windings 9 and 10 will not be picking up the mutual induction electromotive force, and the condition of the transformer core 8 will be determined only discontinuous current in the winding 9. When the fall of the current in the winding 9 to zero the magnetic field strength is also reduced to zero, and the output signal from the sensor 15 Hall will also be equal to zero. In the moment of achieving the output signal of the sensor 15 Hall-zero values in the fourth and sixth outputs of the block 16 control signals are formed on the actuation of the circuit breaker 12 and the ignition spark gap 5. Upon actuation of the circuit breaker 12, the current in the winding 10 of the transformer falls rapidly to zero. As a result, the magnetization of the transformer core 8 will be determined by the current flowing through the coil 9'. Since the direction of the magnetic field generated by current in the winding 9', has the opposite direction of the magnetic field strength, and to achieve break the magnetization curve of the core comes out of saturation state, and the inductance of the winding 9' increases ind/nwhered= 105dynamic magnetic permeability of the core is unsaturated condition, andn= 2-7 - magnetic permeability of the core in a saturated condition.

The change of reactance in the oscillator circuit 7 during the alternating magnetization of the core causes a jump of the potential at the point of connection elements 6, 9, and 5 to each other. The result is the breakdown of a spark gap 5, since its control electrode signal, and switching the pump current of the inductive storage 6 to the load 4. It should be noted here that the jump of the potential difference on the winding 9' will not cause an arc in the circuit breaker 12, since the number of turns in the winding 9' (in the preferred embodiment) is greater than the number of turns in the coil 10'. In addition, you will not experience breakdown and spark gap 3, since its control electrode is not signaled.

After reaching the magnetic field intensity value corresponding to the bend of the magnetization curve of the core in the other direction to the magnetization inductance coil 9' is again reduced to the previous value corresponding to the magnetic permeability of the core isbut as described above, for a given value of diminishing in time module output signal from the sensor 15 Hall formed the control signals on the first and third outputs of the control block 16. As a result, the outputs of the generators 1 and 13 are formed, respectively, a voltage pulse with a duration of1and the current pulse of the same duration, and, in addition, the winding 10 of the transformer 8 is connected to the generator 13. Because in this case the condition (1), the state of the core is determined only by the magnitude of the current in the winding 9'. In the moment of achieving the output signal of the sensor 15 Hall a zero value at the third output of the control block 16, a signal is generated to actuate the circuit breaker 11, and the fifth output signal received at a control electrode of a spark gap 3. Upon actuation of the circuit breaker 11, the current in the coil 10 decreases quickly to zero, and the magnetization of the transformer core will be determined by the current flowing through the coil 9. The magnetization switching of a core (because the currents in the windings 9 and 9' have opposite direction) there is an increase in inductive reactance in the oscillator circuit 1, the breakdown of a spark gap 3 (since its control electrode signal is not equal to zero), and therefore, switching the pump current and the energy containing two of the inductive energy storage, two breakaway, discharger and the load, characterized in that it further comprises two identical synchronous generator of voltage pulses, the same two unipolar pulse generator current, the second spark gap, a control unit, a Hall sensor and transformer, made in the form posted on the core from a material with a narrow loop of magnetization of two pairs of counter included windings, and the winding of each pair having a greater number of turns, is the primary, and the other additional ungrounded output of each synchronous generator voltage pulses connected to the first output of the respective inductive energy store, the latter findings are connected to the load via a corresponding gap, and respectively with the first and second findings of the main windings, other pins are grounded, the output of each unipolar pulse generator current is connected by a chain of series-connected additional winding and switch, Hall sensor disposed between the core and the windings of the transformer and is connected by its output to the input of the control unit, the first output of which is connected to the control input of the Torah, the output control unit connected to control inputs of the second synchronous pulse generator voltage and the second unipolar pulse generator current, the third to the fourth output control unit connected to control inputs respectively of the first and second breaker, and the fifth and sixth outputs of the control unit - with control electrode respectively, the first and second spark gap.

2. Generator under item 1, characterized in that the number of turns of the primary winding of at least one order of magnitude larger than the number of turns of the additional winding.

 

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