# The way to determine the quality of dry feed

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field definition quality dry food for dogs and cats. The technical result is the reduction of time on the selection of samples, analysis of their standard methods and the development of calibration equations, one for analysis of dry food designed for dogs and cats, at the same time on all quality indicators. To do this, take samples of dry feed for dogs and cats of different countries manufacturers, prepared from the total sample with regard to color, shape and size of granules, the average sample, grind it, peel off each sample, spectra of diffuse reflection in the IR analyzer and simultaneously analyze their standard chemical methods for nitrogen with subsequent conversion to crude protein content crude fiber, crude fat, crude ash, calcium, phosphorus, salt and moisture. Enter to the spectrum of each sample data on the content of each of these quality indicators, expect a single calibration equation the fractional method of least squares using the second derivative and determine the optimal wavelengths and ratios for each of the above 8 quality indicators. 1 is roductive animals and can be used to determine the quality of dry food for dogs and cats at feed mills, bakeries, nurseries, laboratories, veterinary and agrochemical service, etc. at any stage of their preparation and feeding.Currently, the economy of developed countries, widespread normalized feeding unproductive animals, such as dogs and cats. Developed and used various recipes of dry food for dogs and cats of all ages, breeds and assignments. In complete feed include a variety of ingredients: grain cereals and legumes, poultry, cattle, rabbit, ocean and river fish, meat and bone and fish meal, dried milk, dried vegetables, vitamin and mineral supplements, antibiotics and other Feed is prepared mostly in the form of granules having different color, size and shape. She also differ by the smell. All foods are usually high cost.The quality control of the actual chemical composition and nutritional value of dry feed for dogs and cats is of great importance in the preparation and rational sceliphrinae production.There is a method of determining the quality of dry food, particularly animal feed, standard methods involving wet ashing of sample sample acid in the determination of nitrogen, dry ashing at the definition of "crude ash, calcium and phosphorus, the sample extraction samples ether in the definition of "raw" fat, etc. This method is time-consuming to perform, on the analysis of each sample for full zootechnical diagram spend 2 - 3 days, this requires the use of chemical reagents, chemical ware, expensive devices and equipment. In addition, this method is not safe for performers (1).The closest (prototype) is a method of determining the quality of dry feed, for example, feed for farm animals, method of diffuse reflectance samples in the near infrared spectral region (750 to 2500 nm) using infrared analyzers.The method includes sample preparation, removal of the spectrum and the calculation of the contents of components of quality according to a predetermined calibration equation. At the same time can be defined a number of indicators of quality, which is normalized feeding: the moisture content, the content of raw protein, raw to the ako development of calibration equations, at which carry out the analysis requires a large amount of work on the selection of samples feed, preparing them for the analyses of standard chemical methods.Thus, in the development of calibration equations to determine the quality of animal feed intended for farmed animals, in particular pigs were selected and analyzed over 450 samples from different areas of the country with regard to species, sex and age groups, feeding norms and composition of feed depending on the ratio of ingredients. In this work it was spent around 1 year.Preparation of control samples to verify the obtained calibration equations took about 3 months.Theory and practice found that the development of calibration equations in the analysis of feed by method of the near infrared spectroscopy is conducted by each species of farm animals and poultry separately, and this work requires a lot of time on the sampling, preparation and analysis analysis of standard chemical methods (4).The purpose of the invention is the reduction of time on the selection, analysis and development of calibration equations, one for analysis of dry feed, the prioritization decision differs from the known the analysis of dry feed for different animal species such as dogs and cats, carried out on a single calibration equations, and the preparation of samples of dry feed to the analysis by the method of IR-spectroscopy carried out depending on the color, size and shape of the granules.This objective is achieved in that take samples of feed for dogs and cats, are prepared for analysis of the average sample of each of them depending on the percentage of the mass of granules, differing in color, size and shape, are ground in a mill with the diameter of the holes of the sieve of 1 mm, placed in a cuvette, remove the IR spectra of diffuse reflection in the near-field spectrum in the IR analyzer, enter the data of chemical analysis for each indicator, expect a single calibration equation the fractional method of least squares. Then remove the IR spectrum of the analyzed sample of dry food and a single calibration equations to analyze key indicators of quality, regardless of who is the feed - dogs or cats.A distinctive feature of the proposed method is that the determination of optical wavelengths when receiving a single calibration equation to the bottom of the spectrum, instead of direct values of optical density, allows high accuracy to analyze dry food for cats and dogs of all ages, breeds and assignments on the content of the main indicators of quality. Preparation of the average sample dry fodder with regard to the ratio in weight of the feed granules of various colors, size and shape also increases the accuracy of the results compared with the known method. The sampling and analysis of dry feed for dogs and cats at a single calibration calibration equations spend time in 3 - 4 times less than in the development of calibration equations for each species separately.The accuracy of the results of the analysis of dry feed for dogs and cats by the method of IR-spectroscopy on single calibration equations is not lower than the calibration equations for each species separately.The method is as follows.Example 1. Select the 68 samples of dry feed, 40 (forty) for dogs and twenty-eight (28) for cats. The ratio of samples of dry feed for dogs and cats in the series to develop a single calibration equation was 1:0.7, respectively.In fact mania)2. Bonzo (Germany)

3. The Vrolijk (Germany)

4. Omega 211 (Germany)

5. Omega 400092 (Germany)

6. Doko classic (Germany)

7. Doko Diener (Germany)

8. Omega extra (Germany)

9. Omega Pappy (Germany)

10. Omega-Law (Germany)

11. Doggie Junior (Germany)

12. Doggie Stora (Germany)

13. Pedigri (Germany)

14. Pedigrees (Germany)

15. Bonzo kit (Germany)

16. Milord (England)

17. Miocene (Italy)

18. Cappi (Poland)

19. Pedigri (Poland)

20. Alpo (USA)

21. Alpo Pappy food (USA)

22. Purine Pappy Chow (USA)

23. Purina Dog Chow (USA)

24. Purina Pro plan (USA)

25. Purine Tone dog (USA)

26. Purine Mainstay (USA)

27. Concord (Russia)

28. Friend (Russia)

29. Cappi (Russia Mars-joint production.)

30. Pedigri for puppies (Russia Mars-joint production.)

31. Pedigri for adult dogs (Russia Mars-joint production.)

32. Elite (Russia)

33. Friskis (France)

34. Litin (Finland)

35. La Boheme (Finland)

36. Bento (Finland)

37. How-how (Finland)

38. Alpha dog (Finland)

39. Baron (Finland)

40. Fido

and for cats:

1. Whiskas, cold cuts (Russia MA is based (Russia Mars-joint PR-in)

4. Kitikat fish (Russia Mars-joint PR-in)

5. Kitekat with beef (Russia Mars-joint PR-in)

6. Kitikat with chicken (Russia Mars-joint PR-in)

7. Elite (Russia)

8. Concord (Russia)

9. Omega (Germany)

10. Omega extra (Germany)

11. Cutty (Germany)

12. Alpha cat (Germany)

13. Whiskas (Germany)

14. M & e Gatto (Italy)

15. Friskis Grand menu (France)

16. Friskis the equilibrium (France)

17. CIMS-miso (Finland)

18. Primacy-3 (Finland)

19. Primacy-5 (Finland)

20. Bento (Finland)

21. Bowl (Finland)

22. Deliss (Finland)

23. Purina cat Chow (USA)

24. Purina Pro plan (USA)

25. Purine Tone cat (USA)

26. Keith N Kaboodle (USA)

27. Tone (USA)

28. Fluff (Russia)

Conduct organoleptic evaluation of dry feed for dogs, primarily by color, size and shape of the granules.In samples with heterogeneous granule mass of the sample is weighed, it consists of samples depending on the color, size and shape of the granules. Each such sample is weighed, calculate its percentage to the total mass of the sample. The average sample feed analysis by the method of IR-spectroscopy and chemical method ready is 5 represent the mass of granules heterogeneous composition in the form of coils, cylinders, wheels, rings, flakes, etc. the Weight of each package feed is on average 400 g For standard chemical analysis methods and by the method of IR-spectroscopy required mass of 100-150 g (average sample). It consists of as follows: the mass of a sample of 400 g constitute a separate sample with regard to color, shape and size of granules, weigh each of them, expect the percentage to the initial mass and take away the amount needed for the average sample weighing 100-150 g, as indicated above.In samples with a homogeneous composition of pellets the average sample prepared by its separation of the total sample mass. And in the first and in the second case, the weight average sample dry food should be at least 100-150 g necessary for carrying out chemical analyses and the IR method.Selected average sample dry food is ground in the mill "Cyclone" hole diameter of sieve of 1 mm, mix thoroughly, put in a jar with a glass stopper and store in the refrigerator.From each of the thus prepared specimen weighed to determine moisture, total nitrogen, crude fibre, crude fat, crude ash, calcium, phosphorus and salt. At the same time, rasmala the near infrared region is removed using a computerized spectrophotometer model 4500 firm NIRSystems (USA). The spectrophotometer provides scanning range 1300-2398 nm. After removal of the spectra to the spectral data of each sample is injected, the results of chemical analyses on the above indicators, which characterize the chemical composition and quality of dry feed.The range of the content of crude protein in dry feed for dogs and cats listed above, the results of chemical analyses ranged from 11.0 to 35.5%, crude fiber - 2.0-7.0%, crude fat - 4.8-22.0%, crude ash - 2.4-11.8%, calcium - 0.4-1.86, phosphorus - 0.3-1.34, salt - 0-4.62 and moisture - 5.5-15.5% respectively. Calculate the calibration equation for the above mentioned indicators of the quality of the feed and select the optimal wavelengths for each of the indicators.The task of statistical processing of the spectral information is reduced to the calculation of the coefficients of the equation of multiple linear regression of the following form:

Y = B(0) + B(1)X1 + B(2)X2 + ... + B(N)Xn,

where Y is defined indicator of the quality of dry food;

B(0), B(1), B(2) ... B(n) are coefficients of the regression equation;

X1, X2, ... Xn are the explanatory variables at the wavelengths 1, 2 ... n, respectively.As independent variables use the values of the first or second described" protein have the following coefficients and wavelengths (table. 1. Table. 1-9, see the end of the description).As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated according to an interval of 8 nm.The content of crude protein in samples of dry feed for dogs and cats, set the standard method, ranges from 11.0 to 35.5%, averaging 25.31%.The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of P=0,99.The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of the definition of "crude" protein on spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value was 0.58%, which confirms the possibility of the definition of "crude" protein IR method.It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis of dry feed, in these conditions, the standard method allows deviations from the average to 1.2%. In sweatpantsmom to determine crude protein in dry feed for dogs and cats.The best calibration equation to determine the content of raw fiber has the following coefficients and wavelengths (table. 2).As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated at the interval of 8 nm.The content of crude fiber in samples of dry food on the results of chemical analyses ranged from 2.0 to 7.0%, and an average of 4.46%. The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of 0.99

The value of standard deviation from regression characterizing the accuracy of determination of crude fibre in the dry feed by infrared spectroscopy method, equal to 0.64%. But the scatter of the data from the regression line is not only caused by errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. When determining raw fiber standard method allows deviations from the average to 1.74%. Thus, the obtained results are acceptable and indicate the possibility of using the method of infrared spectroscopy for determination of crude fibre in the dry feed for dogs and cats at the same time.As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated at the interval of 8 nm.The content of crude fat in samples of dry feed for dogs and cats, set the standard method, ranges from 4.8 to 22.0%, averaging 10,23%.The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of P=0,99.The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of the definition of "raw" fat on spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value amounted to 0,52%, which confirms the possibility of the definition of "raw" fat-IR method.It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis of dry feed, in these conditions, the standard method allows deviations from the average to 1.12%. In this regard, the results obtained are quite Pro in dry feed for dogs and cats.The best calibration equation to determine the "raw" ash, you have the following coefficients and wavelengths (table. 4).As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated at the interval of 8 nm.The content of crude ash in samples of dry feed for dogs and cats, set the standard method, ranging from 2.4 to 11.8%, averaging 7,79%.The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of P=0,99.The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of the definition of "raw" ash on spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value was 0.53%, which confirms the possibility of the definition of "raw" ash IR method.It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis of dry feed, these osariemen and indicate the possibility of applying the method of infrared spectroscopy for determination of crude ash in dry feed for dogs and cats.The best calibration equation for the determination of calcium have the following coefficients and wavelengths (table. 5).As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated at the interval of 8 nm.The calcium content in samples of dry feed for dogs and cats, set the standard method, ranges from 0.4 to 1.86 per cent, with an average of 1.14%.The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of P=0,99.The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of the determination of calcium by spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value amounted to 0.14%, which confirms the possibility of determining calcium IR method.It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis of dry feed, in these conditions, the standard which indicates the possibility of applying the method of infrared spectroscopy for the determination of calcium in dry feed for dogs and cats.The best calibration equation for the determination of phosphorus have the following coefficients and wavelengths (table. 6).As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated at the interval of 8 nm.The phosphorus content in the studied samples of dry feed for dogs and cats, set the standard method, ranges from 0.3 to 1.74 percent, averaging 0,92%.The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of P=0,99.The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of determination of phosphorus on spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value amounted to 0.10%, which confirms the possibility of determination of phosphorus IR method.It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis of dry feed, in these conditions, the standard which indicates the possibility of applying the method of infrared spectroscopy for the determination of phosphorus in dry feed for dogs and cats.The best calibration equation to determine the salts have the following coefficients and wavelengths (table. 7).As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated at the interval of 8 nm.The salt content in the studied samples of dry feed for dogs and cats, set the standard method, ranges from 0.2 to 4.62%, averaging 0.81 per cent.The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of P=0,99.The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of salt on spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value amounted to 0.23%, which confirms the possibility of determining the salt of the IR method.It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis of dry feed, in these conditions, the standard method to stage the possibility of applying the method of infrared spectroscopy for the determination of salt in dry feed for dogs and cats.The best calibration equation to determine the moisture have the following coefficients and wavelengths (table. 8).As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated at the interval of 8 nm.The moisture content in samples of dry feed for dogs and cats, set the standard method, varies from 5.5 to 15.5%, with an average of 7.85%.The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of P=0,99.The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of determination of moisture on spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value amounted to 0.50%, which confirms the possibility of determining the salt of the IR method.It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis of dry feed, in these conditions, the standard method d is moznosti method of infrared spectroscopy for the determination of moisture in dry feed for dogs and cats.Verify the operation of a single calibration equations using the above coefficients and wavelengths for analysis of dry food designed for dogs and cats, carried out on 10 samples, including 5 samples for dogs and 5 samples for cats.The results of the analysis of control samples at a single calibration equations for dogs and cats is shown in table. 9.As can be seen from the data table. 9, when using the above optimal wavelengths and ratios obtained srednekvadraticheskaya error on the 8 quality characteristics are well matched, or slightly higher than the permissible deviations from the mean values in the analysis by standard methods, spending the definition of all of the above parameters qualities of dry food for cats and dogs at a single calibration equations 1.5-2 minutes.References

1. Marrow D. I., Shumilin, I. S., Gorshkova, I. and other Manual feed analysis. M.: Kolos, 1982.2. The state standard. Feed, feed, feed raw materials. Method for the determination of crude protein content, crude fiber, crude fat and moisture with the use of spectroscopy in the near infrared Obie the content of crude ash, calcium and phosphorus with the use of spectroscopy in the near infrared region. GOST R 50852-96.4. Grishenko C. P. Near-infrared spectroscopy. M., 1977, S. 333, 336-339.5. Mullard I. Analysis of feeds in the near infrared region in Proc. of Agricultural use of spectroscopy in the near infrared region, 2nd collection of scientific inst. for X, M, 1986, S. 37-42. 1. The way to determine the quality of dry feed, including sampling, preparation of medium fineness, grinding, removal of the spectrum in the near IR region and the results of the analysis on the content of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, crude ash, calcium, phosphorus, salt and moisture using specific wavelengths and ratios of calibration equations, characterized in that the analysis of dry feed for dogs and cats are single equations obtained when the ratio of the number of samples feed for these two species in the calibration 1-0,7: 0,7-1, and the content of components is determined by the calibration equations, Cup equations multiple linear regression linking the defined index values of the second derivative spectrum of the optical density of diffuse reflection

Y = In(0) +is one of the spectrum of diffuse reflection, calculated by the interval of 8 nm at the n-th wavelength;

In(n) is the regression coefficient for n-th variable in the definition of "crude" protein using wavelengths- 1402, 2204, 2176, 2270, 2140, 1670, 1682, 2110(nm) and the coefficients In(0)= 27.15, (1)= 1022.63, (2)= -2635.53, (3)= -2649.05, (4) = 1052.27, (5)= - 2567.22, (6)=-1068,58, (7)= -1569.47, (8)=3894.15 for raw fiber -1766, 2130, 2200, 2372, 1682, 2276 (nm) and the coefficients In(0)=8.26, (1)=-1338.82, B(2)=-1355.64, (3)= 1231.56, (4)= -1720.99, (5)=-720.02, (6)=436,57 for "raw" fat-1752,1882,2362, 2136, 2328, 1590 (nm) and the coefficients In(0)=6.23, (1)=-880.67, (2)= -227.28, (3)= 1003.41, (4)= -1403.00, (5)=550,51, (6)= 3181.05 for raw ash-1898,2064,1802,1948,1974,2372,1480 (nm) and the coefficients In(0)= 13.90, (1)=283.33(2)=1843.66, (3)=-8512.26, (4)=-998.84, In(5)= 636.16, (6)= -1425.73, (7)=-2162.57 for calcium- 1944, 1912, 1980, 2180, 2384, 2142 (nm) and the coefficients In(0)=1.93, (1)=-450.05, B(2)=108.11, B(3)= 229.92, (4)= -306,29, (5)=-221.66, (6)=406.84 for phosphorus: 2070, 1994, 2184, 1922, 1690, 1966, 1530 (nm) and the coefficients In(0)=1,84, B(l)= 306,79, B(2)= -156,49, B(3)= -483.89, (4)=54,62, (5)=68.96, B(6)=281,70, (7)= 979.32, salt- 2036, 1614, 2280, 1808, 2266, 2218 (nm) and the coefficients In(0)= 0.45, And(1)= 212,66, B(2)=-2164,56, (3)=-333.00, (4)=-3042.56, (5)= -424.51, (6)=-396. 12, for moisture- 1370, 2040, 2182, 2142, 2336, 1606 (nm) and the coefficients In(0)= 8,46, B(1)=1134.51, (2)=1579.61, B(3)=-1641.71, B(4)=1554.12, (5)=-296.03, B(6)=2639.85.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the preparation of samples of dog food to grinding the average sample are ve

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FIELD: fodder industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing protein-vitamin fodder that involves solid or liquid waste in production and processing the natural raw (grains, milling waste, post-alcoholic distillery grains, beer pellets, fruit pulps or whey). Enzyme lysates are prepared from solid waste and starch waste. Cobalt salt is added to liquid waste or enzyme lysates. Prepared nutrient medium is used in incubation of lactobacillus and propionibacillus microorganisms taken by the following pairs: Lactobacillus acidophilus 1660/02 with Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii 103/12; or Lactobacillus acidophilus 1660/02 with Propionibacterium acnes 1450/28; or Lactobacillus plantarum 578/25 with Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii 103/12; or Lactobacillus plantarum 578/25 with Propionibacterium acnes 1450/28. This method provides preparing fodder enriched with vitamins and proteins and containing live cells of lactobacillus and propionibacillus microorganisms. Method enriches animal intestine microflora after feeding the prepared fodder to animals. Fodder comprises protective substances (organic acids, enzyme systems) and can be stored as crude form for the prolonged time.

EFFECT: improved preparing method, valuable properties of fodder.

13 cl, 1 tbl, 12 ex