The device for determination of physico-mechanical properties of the skin

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a device for non-destructive testing of physical and mechanical properties of the skin. The test sample is subjected to vibration loads and vibration transducer readings determine the physico-mechanical properties of the investigated sample. The device allows to carry out research without destroying the samples. The device for determination of physico-mechanical properties of the skin contains a vibration sensor, consisting of rolling stock and fixed power coil, permanent magnet, magnetic suspension system, the measuring coil and the metal plate. It has the power indenter mounted on the lower end of the rolling stock, and represents a permanent magnet of cylindrical shape, and supporting the indenter made of a permanent magnet of cylindrical shape, coaxially mounted with him and placed at the top of the axis. The axis has the possibility of vertical movement relative to the guide Cup and rigidly connected to a metal plate with its rear side. The metallic plate has a circular hole, the diameter of which is equal to the diameters of the holes formed in the centre of the base body vibration transducer and the direction of the materials in tension (compression) in the automatic mode. 3 Il.

The device relates to a device for non-destructive testing of physical and mechanical properties of the skin.

The invention can be used in light industry and in the business of repair and tailoring of footwear, in particular, to determine the physical and mechanical characteristics of skin and other elastic-viscous materials in a dynamic resonant mode.

There are a number of devices allowing to determine the physico-mechanical properties of the investigated material, to measure the values of such parameters of the skin, as the cut-off voltage, the conventional elastic modulus, elongation, deformation of the sample at break, etc. (Zybin Y. P. and other Materials leather goods., Meters, Light industry, 1968, S. 27-64).

These types of fractures machines (RT-250, Intron and others), allow to determine the physico-mechanical parameters of the skin with the destruction of samples. The main disadvantages of this method of control parameters of the skin is significant loss of expensive leather, the complexity and duration of the test, the impossibility of re-operations of the same samples. These disadvantages can be eliminated in the device dynamic tests skins without their destruction.

The main disadvantage of this device is the inability to determine the stiffness of the leather and other viscoelastic materials in tension (compression) in the dynamic resonant mode.

Object of the invention is the determination of physical-mechanical characteristics of skin and other viscoelastic materials in tension (compression) in the automatic mode. This task is solved in that the device consists of an electric generator of sinusoidal signals with discrete variable frequency, electromagnetic vibration transducer containing a permanent magnet and power coil mounted on a movable rod electronic thickness gauge and an associated microprocessor, the latter is also connected with the generator and a digital voltmeter, receiving the signal from the measuring part of the vibration sensor, magnetic suspension system which is made in the form of three permanent masakralna in the case of the shock sensor on the ends of the rolling stock, and the third magnet fixedly mounted in the middle part of the rolling stock and serves as the core of the measuring coil mounted in the housing of the vibration sensor and the power and the reference indenters made of a permanent magnet of cylindrical shape, additionally installed respectively on the movable rod and the axis, with the possibility of relative vertical movement.

Significant difference between the proposed device is the introduction of additional elements: power and reference indenters. Power indenter mounted on the lower end of the rolling stock. Coaxially mounted with him supporting the indenter is placed in the upper part of the axis, with the possibility of relative vertical movement. Both indenter made of a permanent magnet of cylindrical shape. In addition, the modified design of the metallic plate, on which is placed the sample of the skin, through the introduction of smart glass, rolling axis and education in it round holes, the diameter of which is equal to the diameters of the holes formed in the centre of the base body vibration transducer and the metallic plate.

This design decision allows to determine the physico-mechanical parameters of all the capabilities of the prototype.

The proposed set of features implemented in the proposed device with the new implementation of the working part of the rolling stock in the form of the power of the indenter and the introduction of reference indenter allows you to get a positive effect in the reduction of time for Express-analysis of physico-mechanical properties of skin and other viscoelastic materials without their destruction, and the introduction in the design of the metal guide plate glass, rolling axis and education in it round holes, the diameter of which is equal to the diameters of the holes formed in the centre of the base body vibration transducer and the metal plate, allows to determine the strength and stiffness of leather or other viscoelastic materials in tension (compression) in automatic mode.

The essence of the device is illustrated in Fig. 1, 2 and 3. In Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of the device for determination of physical and mechanical properties of the skin, which consists of the vibration sensor 1 associated with the generator 2 electrical sinusoidal signals with discrete variable frequency and a digital voltmeter 3. To determine the thickness of the investigated material used electronic thickness gauge with 4 remote measuring head 5. The generator is leem 7 and tsifropechatayuschee device 8. A sample of skin or other viscoelastic material 9 is placed between the power 10 and the support 11 indenture made of a permanent magnet of cylindrical shape and is rigidly fixed respectively on the hard shaft 12 and the axis 13 that is installed in the guiding Cup 14 with the possibility of vertical movement relative to it and is rigidly connected with the metallic plate 15 with its back side (see Fig. 2). The plate 15 has a hole 16, the diameter of which is equal to the diameters of the holes 17 and 31, is made in the centre of the base 18 of the housing 19 of the vibration sensor 1 and the guide Cup 14.

In Fig. 2 shows a General view of the vibration sensor 1 in section to better show construction. The shock sensor 1 consists of a rolling rod 12 made of light aluminum alloy, the total mass of which does not exceed 12 g and secured on the power coil 24. The trend of decreasing mass of the rolling stock caused by the need to expand the dynamic range of the vibration transducer.

Elastic suspension of the rolling stock 12 vibration transducer is carried out using a permanent magnet of cylindrical shape 20, 21, 22, made of a ferromagnetic material. The magnet 21 is directly fixed movably on Scotti all of the magnets are parallel. Magnetic fields 20, 21 and 22 have opposite directions relative to each other.

Such arrangement of the magnets are allowed to use the magnet 21 as the core of the measuring coil 23, constructively placed, as seen in Fig. 2 so that the plane of the turns of the coil 23 coincides with the plane of the magnet 21. To create harmonic vibrations of the rolling stock 12 in its upper part is a power coil 24. The movable rod 21 is located in the center of the housing 19 has a cylindrical shape in the guide bushings 25 and 26, made of fluoroplastic. In the upper part of the shock sensor 1 is fixed ferrite magnet of cylindrical shape 27 placed between two steel plates 28 and 29 round shape. To the top plate 28 in its center attached steel core 30. The magnetic circuit is closed by the bottom plate 29 with a hole in the center through which passes the lower end of the core 30 having a cylindrical shape. Between the hole of the plate 29 and steel core 30 has an annular gap, which houses the power coil 24, is rigidly fixed in the upper part of the rolling stock 12.

The operation of the device (see Fig. 1 and 2) is carried out by the command "start". In this case, the signal Miki sample of the skin or viscoelastic material 9 is placed between the power 10 and the support 11 indenture, respectively mounted on the movable rod 12 and the axis 13 that is installed in the guiding Cup 14, the metal plate 15 having an aperture 16, the diameter of which is equal to the diameter of the hole 17 made in the centre of the base 18 of the housing 19 of the vibration sensor 1. Then put the shock sensor 1 with the measuring head 5 electronic thickness gauge 4 on the sample (the mechanism for raising and lowering the vibration transducer and the measuring head of Fig. 1, 2 is not shown).

From the microprocessor 6 receives the signal on the master oscillator 2, from which the sinusoidal signal is fed to power the coil 24, while there is a magnetic field which interacts with the magnetic field of the permanent magnet 27, resulting in the power coil 24 with the moving rod 12 does forced oscillations with a frequency equal to the frequency of the master oscillator 2 and the contact surface of the power 10 indenter, the rolling stock 12 and the base 11 of the indenter exert a periodic force on the material 9. Thus, the sample of skin or other viscoelastic material is subjected to periodic tensile strength, and in the measuring coil 23 occurs EMF, which quantitatively on the microprocessor 6, switches the oscillator 2 to the next degree of frequency. In a similar way to a given resolution is the scanning frequency to determine the distribution of the dependence of the output voltage at the measuring coil 23 from the frequency of oscillator 2. Elastic-viscous properties of the investigated skin can be determined by the nature of its deformation, recorded measuring part 23 of the vibration sensor 1 in the form of amplitude-frequency characteristics.

The amplitude-frequency characteristic (AFC), /Fig. 3 marked 0/, corresponds to the case of free resonance oscillations with the frequency of the rolling stock 12 of the shock sensor. On the same Fig. 3 shows an example of a skin reaction to the impact of the rolling stock 12, equipped with a power indenter 10, for the same initial position of the vibration sensor 1 relative to the front surface of the sample skin. When this response, marked 1, corresponds to the position of the vibration sensor, when the power indenter 10 is in contact with the skin, exerting a certain pressure.

The change of frequency of the master oscillator 2, finding the resonant frequency and half-width of the frequency response at the level of 0,707 from the maximum amplitude calculation pocessor 6 according to the developed program. The obtained values of physical and mechanical properties of the skin or other elastic-viscous materials displayed on the display screen 7 and recorded on paper tape using tsifropechatayuschee device 8.

Experimental studies have allowed us to create the most compact and reliable design of the vibration sensor, which provides high consistency of all structural elements of the device. It was also found that at the condition of the speed change position of the shock sensor relative to the sample surface of the skin, the maximum response amplitudes correspond to different frequencies; moreover, these peaks decrease with increasing values of the resonance frequency according to a certain law.

The use of the proposed device in the factories of the Russian Federation, eliminating a significant loss of natural leather and other viscoelastic materials used for carrying out physical and mechanical tests, to reduce the time complexity of tests to determine the nature of the deformity, the skin is elastic and viscous physico-mechanical properties.

The device for determination of physico-mechanical properties of the skin, containing a vibration sensor, consisting of a full coil and a metallic plate, characterized in that it has the power indenter mounted on the lower end of the rolling stock, and represents a permanent magnet of cylindrical shape, and supporting the indenter made of a permanent magnet of cylindrical shape, coaxially mounted with him and placed in the upper part of the axis, with the possibility of vertical movement relative to the guide Cup and rigidly connected with a metal plate with its back side, with the metal plate has a circular hole, the diameter of which is equal to the diameters of the holes formed in the centre of the base body of the shock sensor and smart glass.

 

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