The method of dispensing of packaged items and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of dispensing piece materials. The technical result is to improve dosing accuracy, simplification and improvement of process reliability. For this elastic body work periodically excite damped with an average of more acceleration acceleration of free fall by its deviation from the equilibrium state control pulses. When this time interval following the last equal to the period of the business cycle. In the device for implementing the method, one end of the elastic working body is rigidly connected to the bunkers, and the opposite end is equipped with a reverse camera negative communication with a metering orifice, the size of which is less critical, and kinematically connected with the drive shaft with your fingers with a certain step. When the elastic oscillation of the working body of the seeds individually held in the metering hole only during the damped oscillation of the body. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to methods for exact dosing piece of subjects and can be used in food, chemical and other industries, as well as in agriculture is namely, that the seeds affect the mechanical vibration oscillations [A. S. 719528, 1980, B. I. N 9].

This method has low productivity and does not provide uniform flow of seed due to the fact that the process of forming the main flow of seeds is carried out by a coherent summation of two streams of seeds through a complex, and therefore, the inertial mechanical automatic control system.

There is also known a method of dispensing seeds [A. S. 917747, 1982, B. I. N 13], the authors used as a prototype, consisting in the joint exposed to the air flow and vibration oscillations with frequency, the minimum value of which is equal to the number planted per unit of time seeds. The disadvantage of this method include the combination in one process vibration and wind fields, which complicates the process of dispensing and reduces its reliability.

For the implementation of dosing using a device comprising a hopper, a seed chamber with the VAS deferens, discrete automatic control system, equipped with high-frequency pneumocystitis generator mechanical vibrations of the resonator and located along behold the frequency of the oscillations, it is necessary to have pnevmaticheskie generator for generating control pulses, the source of compressed air, which complicates the design and reduces the reliability of its work. Significant disadvantages include the need for generating control pulses of the same frequency, which is the working body.

Tests of this device showed that, due to the forced delivery of seeds from the seed chamber air jet is stuck between the wall of the VAS deferens and the elastic element that disturbs the uniformity of seeding.

The task of the technical solutions to improve dosing accuracy, simplification and improvement of process reliability.

The task is solved in that the elastic working body of periodically excited ringing with an average of more acceleration acceleration of free fall by its deviation from the equilibrium state control pulses, and the time interval following the last equal to the period of the business cycle.

The device includes a hopper seeds placed at the bottom of the working body, the valve, the discharge plate and the drive mechanism, one end of the elastic working body is rigidly connected to the hopper, and the opposite end is equipped with a camera back otritsatelej shaft with your fingers, located increments

lW= R(To/n)

where is the circular frequency of the drive shaft, 1/s; R is the length of the finger, m; n is the number of fingers, PC; Tabout- the period of turnover of the shaft S.

The novelty of the claimed proposal is that in the elastic working body periodically excite high-frequency ringing, and the average acceleration of the oscillations more free-fall acceleration, and the time interval of repetition equal to the period of the working cycle, tpthe oscillations. This set of features allows you to get the socket (a few grains in the nest) or dashed (piece) the location of the seeds in the furrow.

The method is accomplished by deflection of the working body out of balance. Changing the rotational speed of the shaft, the number of fingers the size of their overlap with the working body, you can get any ratio between tnand tp.

The best performance of the dispenser is achieved if the subsequent deviation of the working body will follow immediately after the time of spontaneous fluctuations of the working body. The duration, frequency and amplitude of oscillation is chosen on the basis of agronomic requirements.

In Fig. 1 PA includes a hopper 1 seeds, in the lower part of which is the working body in the form of an elastic plate 2 with a metering hole 3 provided in the discharge hopper 1 plate 4, the valve 5, and the working body kinematically connected with the wheel of the planter (Fig. not shown) through the drive mechanism 6 in the form of a shaft with your fingers 7.

The working body 2 relative to the bottom of the hopper 1 is mounted for movement in a vertical direction and equipped with a reverse camera negative connection 8. Located in the camera metering hole 3 (one or more) is the cross-sectional area less critical, allowing you to arrange the piece after the seeds through him.

The critical area is the smallest area of the hole, which is formed in statics sustainable REDD, such as round holes

Dkr=(5...7)de,

where Dkrcritical diameter, m; de- equivalent diameter of the body, m; for example, geometric mean size (see Katalyma A. C., Lubartowicz Century A. Dispensing granular and viscous materials. - P.: Chemistry, 1990).

The metering hole 3 has a diameter D=(1,2...1,5)dethat allows you to resolve the technical contradiction, which is that if gravity is a body the size of this hole will shrink to the size of the body.

The working body is made of elastic material, such as steel plate, one end of which is rigidly connected with the hopper, and the free end relative to the finger 7 is installed with an overlap. In idle mode the metering hole smothered seeds.

The workflow is as follows. From the wheels of the drill rotation is transmitted to the drive mechanism b, performs the functions of the unit rate, the finger 7 rejects up (down) the free end of the working body 2. After the release of the finger 7 from engagement under the action of linear elastic restoring forces of the working body starts oscillation with high frequency, which fade over time tp(Fig. 2). Then the cycle repeats. The material properties of the elastic element, the angle of deviation from the equilibrium position affect the decay time of the oscillations, which are organized in accordance with the law of Hooke.

From the timeline (Fig. 2), it follows that the interval of the sequence of control pulses is equal to the period T of the operating cycle

T=tn+tp< / BR>
where tnthe time deviation of the working body, with; tpthe time of its oscillations, C.

Step lWplacement of the fingers is chosen from the condition

lW= R (the od of the shaft revolution, C.

The product of R has a circumferential speed of the fingers, and the quotient Tabout/n the time of rotation of the finger on the corner 2/n.

The process of dispensing seeds is carried out only on the length of time tpfluctuations of the working body, while the seeds change their rheological properties (coefficient of friction and other) and go to februaryjune condition and expire through the hole under the laws of pseudogiant. Such a transition is possible, if the ratio of the vibration mode G will be

< / BR>
where A is the oscillation amplitude, m; g - gravitational acceleration, m/s2.

The accumulation of seeds in the chamber 8 reverse negative correlation increases the pressure and flow of seed from the hopper decreases, this ensures a constant level of seeds over the metering hole. The flaps 4 and 5 make adjustment of dosing.

This technical solution allows to obtain high-frequency oscillations of the working body at low frequency control impulses and to use this principle, for example, metering devices for selection, suburban areas, greenhouses, etc. where the use of energy sources (compressor, battery) it is impractical, but rather a simple manual the radish, carrots, onions, and others).

1. The method of dispensing of packaged items, such as seeds of agricultural crops, by applying high-frequency vibrations on the elastic working body, characterized in that the elastic working body periodically agitate ringing with more acceleration acceleration of free fall by its deviation from the equilibrium state control pulses, and the time interval following the last equal to the period of the business cycle.

2. Device for dispensing a piece of subjects, including bunker seeds placed at the bottom of the elastic working body, the valve, the discharge plate and the drive mechanism, wherein one end of the elastic working body is rigidly connected to the hopper, and the opposite end is equipped with a reverse camera negative communication with a metering orifice, the size of which is less critical, and kinematically connected with the drive shaft with the fingers spaced increments

l = R(To/n)

where is the circular frequency of the drive shaft, 1/s;

R is the length of the finger, m;

n is the number of fingers, PCs;

Tabout- the period of turnover of the shaft S.

 

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FIELD: agricultural engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device contains bin with gate. Bin is made in form of hyperboloid of revolution. Gate is made in form of flat surface, being suspended on parallelogram hanger under bin. Flexible spacer in form of ring is placed between bin and gate, being rigidly connected with bin and gate. Spacer is provided with discharge port adjusted by shutter. Upper hinge joints of gate hangers located from side of discharge port are installed for movement and fixing in slots made over arcs of constant radius. Said radius is equal to distance between lower hinge joints of gate hangers lying in one longitudinal vertical plane with centers in upper hinge joints of hangers remote from discharge port. Central angle of slots is equal to angle of friction of seeds against gate surface, being directed downwards from horizontal plane passing through upper hinge joints of gate hangers remote from discharge port. Axle of lower hinge joints of gate remote from discharge port rests on spring-loaded fork. End of fork shank is in contact with rotary multicam pusher through roller, pusher being coupled with seed planter wheel.

EFFECT: provision of uniform delivery of seeds at possibility of changing of sowing rate and preservation of operation reliability of drilling mechanism.

2 dwg

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