The device of the accumulation of heat
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a two-layer systems of accumulation of thermal energy, such as Solar energy, in which the absorption of heat is accumulating layer 24 and then through the heat-release layer 22 is transmitted to the consumer through a pipe 30. Each layer (22,24) is formed by a substance capable of operating temperature range to undergo phase transformation, while the solid state layer 24 has a density less than its liquid state, and the heat transfer layer 22 is formed of a liquid metal having a density higher than both the phase accumulating layer 22. The invention improves thermal efficiency of the system. 9 C.p. f-crystals, 19 ill. The present invention relates to a device for the accumulation of heat, especially for use in a solar energy system.Energy storage in the form of heat is of considerable interest in the management of systems with many energies, but the most important for solar energy systems. More sophisticated are these systems are based on systems that are sensitive to heat, or phase transition. The advantage of systems with fatto accumulating warmth substances, based on the sensitivity to the heat, allows you to receive less than one calorie per degree centigrade scale, whereas the phase transition from solid to liquid, you can get 160 calories per gram without any temperature change. However, the use of these systems is difficult, because solids tend to be precipitated in the heat exchanger, which prevents efficient heat transfer.Many solar receivers are tubular receivers and deposition of solids on the inside of the pipes may be detrimental to the system.The technical problem solved by the present invention is to develop an improved method for the accumulation of heat is based on two layers with different substances, one of which is used for storage and the other for heat transfer from the layer accumulation of heat. For example, the substance in the phase of accumulation of heat in the system, is a substance with changing phase and it interacts with another phase, representing the liquid metal at a temperature far above the melting point and density (specific gravity), greater than the density of substances, WSU liquid metal by means of heat transfer in direct contact with the layer of accumulation and then transfer for use in another environment more of the following different ways:
1. Liquid (molten) metal can circulate in the direction of another environment in which it can transfer heat.2. The heat transfer can be executed using a pipe immersed in the liquid metal. The tube may contain a fluid that circulates inside the tubes and removes heat from the pipe wall.3. Heat transfer occurs through the walls of tubes immersed in the liquid metal, but inside the pipes is a substance with a high vapor pressure and boiling liquid inside the tubes evaporates by absorbing a large amount of heat that is typically associated with the phase transition from liquid to vapor. In practice, this system is a "heat pipe". Couples can transfer the heat to another medium, and then is condensed in the environment where the final transfer of heat. The condensed liquid then returns to the source (preferably under the force of gravity) to repeat the cycle.4. If the liquid metal is selected from metals, providing a high vapor pressure, the heat pipe can be formed by immersion of a manifold having a bell-shaped form in the liquid metal, and a pair of metal going in truename pair must be in the closed vessel, pairs can be collected in the free space above the liquid phase in the closed vessel.The advantage of this latter system is a large area of contact between the two phases, which provides a very efficient transfer of heat, and in a very large thermal conductivity of liquid metal. This system corresponding to the present invention is most effective because it includes a very effective step of heat transfer from liquid to vapor in a large area of contact.Within each of the two phases of the above mentioned systems effectively spreads the heat through convection using a large amount of substance in each phase. A small bevel on the bottom of the vessel containing the substance with the original phase, increases the free convection inside this phase in between the layers, where the heat transfer from the accumulation layer in the heat transfer layer.If the layer accumulation is a system with changing phase, the crystals will be deposited at the interface between the layers. If the accumulation layer is a substance whose density in the solid state is lower than in the liquid, it is preferred the ll will remain below the layer accumulation and solid, which is formed at the interface, will be free to float on the top of the system with heat transfer.If the accumulation layer is selected from a substance, in which the solid phase has a higher density than the liquid phase, the density of the liquid metal should be lower than the accumulation layer to the metal floated on a layer of accumulation and effectively could be the transfer of heat from the liquid metal to the external system. The crystals formed in the crystallization of substances accumulating heat will be deposited on the bottom of the vessel without interfering with heat transfer.If accumulation is part of a solar energy system, the preferred structure is a structure in which a solar receiver is a system of accumulation and solar light directly illuminates the upper surface accumulation layer. It is preferable to select this layer from a material relatively transparent to solar light, so that light can penetrate into the volume, providing high efficiency convection heat transfer.If the substance is not transparent, the layer of metal may be used for reflectivity and the metal layer preferably used in the lower layer. In order to achieve coverage of the upper layer in a large Central admissions system (heliothinae field based on a set of mirrors, watching the sun reflect sunlight towards the tower), you can use reflective system with a tower on which is placed the mirror down light rays. Convex mirror can be placed below the focal point (or point of guidance) heliostat, and a concave mirror above this point.In the system of reflectors auxiliary mirror is located near the focal point, preferably to reflect light toward the main axis tracking system, thus preserving the receiver at a fixed location, and collecting system will be located at this point. In this way heavy collecting system is stationary, the main mirror is the witness. On the other hand, the auxiliary mirror saves the stationary position, and is controlled by the computer, reflecting light in the direction of the pre-selected position in which the collecting system is stationary.New solar system corresponding to the present invention, includes a variety of solar panel is the Tcl Brighton), steam turbines, machines Sterling and other heat engines. Typically, gas turbine and steam turbine is typical for most systems, while the reflective system is often used for small Stirling engines. It should be noted that the vapor in the heat pipe can be used as part of a heat engine, for example, in the case of the Stirling engine in which a pair of sodium can be used as an internal element in the machine, and in this setup, the sodium is chosen as the liquid metal in the system of accumulation and transfer of heat.The system relevant to the present invention can also be used to transfer solar energy into solar chemical reactors, similar to solar inverters or solar systems gasification or for the storage of solar energy, designed for thermal processes.Molten salt can be used as substances accumulating warmth, as to accumulate on the basis of sensitivity to heat and matter with the changing phase. According to the present invention, a particular advantage lies in the choice of pairs of metals and salts of the same metals as the binary system is a low melting point, the relatively high vapor pressure and low specific weight. Thus, they are most suitable for use in such systems. Many fluorinated compounds have a high calorific value, remain relatively high stability at high temperatures and can be used in the proposed system of accumulation and transfer of heat. Magnesium can be used in combination with their salts, the magnesium has a high vapor pressure, low density and in General is safer to use than alkali metals. Aluminum has a low melting point, but a very high boiling point and can be used when safety is important and not used the hot tube. Zinc is a relatively heavy metal and can be used as the lower metal layer. The relatively high vapor pressure of zinc allows its use in applications with hot pipe. Lead and tin can be used in the preferred embodiment of the present invention and are examples of heavy liquid metals with low vapor pressure.Alkali metal salts of such as sodium chloride or sodium fluoride, chlorine is edocfile embodiment of the present invention. In molten form, they can be used in various applications of the present invention, including accumulation of heat. Afapredesa mixture or mixed salts are also used in the invention. Typical examples of these substances suggests that there is a large selection of salts and metals, which can be used for different conditions and applications of the present invention.When the system uses a heavy metal, in the lower part of the system produces high hydraulic pressure. This pressure can be balanced by internal pressure in a tubular heat exchanger, associated with high pressure systems similar to gas turbines. This effect is very important because the mechanical strength of many substances deteriorates at high temperature. Being in a state of boiling, the working gas passing through the layer of heavy fluid is another important aspect of the present invention, because the direct heat exchange occurring at the contact of the two phases, the most effective compared to the heat transfer through the walls of pipes or other vessels.In the present invention the heat transfer through freedoms is his invention. However, in some cases, as in the case in which heating is performed in the upper part of one of the layers or when there is heat transfer from the lower layer, alternatively, you can use forced convection, or as a Supplement to achieve the necessary heat transfer. Forced convection can be achieved by mechanical systems such as circulating pumps or mixers, or by boiling inert gas passing through one of the liquid layers or each individually.The invention is further explained by the specific version of it, with reference to the illustrative drawings, which presents the following:
Fig. 1a - d depict a system with two layers in which the upper layer is a layer of heat transfer and the bottom layer is a storage warmth:
Fig. 1a - layers, one of which is located above the upper part of another, in molten form;
Fig. 1b - layer circulation of heat used to heat;
Fig. 1c - pipe immersed in the layer of heat transfer, which contains the fluid that circulates inside the tubes to transfer heat to the external system; and
Fig. 1d - external thermal tovah pipes, based on the evaporation of a layer of heat transfer.Fig. 1g - heat pipe, equipped with miniature tubes inside reception systems to improve heat transfer instead of the metallic radiator plates, as shown in Fig. 1, 12 and 1f.Fig. 2a, b, c, d, and e - like system, in which the metal layers are the lower layers.Fig. 2f is a system in which the vessel is made with a slope bottom to increase the free convection lower level.Fig. 3a - d solar system:
Fig. 3a - transparent system of accumulation of heat and the top layer of liquid metal.Fig. 3b is a top layer of liquid metal and the metal layer is used to absorb sunlight,
Fig. 3c is a metal layer as the lower layer and the light absorption in the top layer,
Fig. 3d, the lower metallic layer is used to absorb the light.Fig. 4 - the solar system, in which solar light is selected by means galistaticheskii field and the mirror is placed on the tower and reflects light in a system of accumulation.Fig. 5 - solar reflector system of accumulating, placed on the axis of rotation so that the light collected by the reflector, reflected spare placed on the ground, and light rays reaching the system of accumulation from the reflector, the front surface facing the sun, continuously through the secondary mirror, which moves the signal of a single control unit that continuously monitors the position of the auxiliary mirror to the light reflected in the system of accumulation.In Fig. 1d presents a system with two layers in the vessel 20. The top layer 22 is a liquid metal (bringing the heat) and the bottom layer 24 is a liquid salt (nakaplivalsya warmth). Substances are selected from those described above. Heat transfer occurs at the interface of two layers. In Fig. 1b depicts a pipe, beginning at the layer 22 and leading from the vessel 20 to drain the liquid metal to further use or heat transfer and return of liquid metal in the vessel 20. In Fig. 1c shows a pipe 28, immersed in the upper layer 22. Suitable liquid flows through the pipe 28 to the heat transfer from the upper layer 22 of molten metal. Pipes 28 extend from the vessel 22 and provide a circulation system that can be closed and opened on demand. In Fig. 1d shows an external tube 30, immersed in the upper layer 22. Liquid IU hnaa part of the radiator plates contained in the vessel 34, through which can flow a fluid to transfer heat through the radiator plate 32.Tube 30, shown in Fig. 1e, is not absorbed in the top layer 22 and located above the opening in the space 36 is filled with steam, over layer 22. In this embodiment of the present invention, the upper layer 22 of the liquid metal quite easily evaporates so that the hot steam enters the pipe 30 and transfers the heat to the fluid flowing in the vessel 34 through the radiator plate 32.Presented on Fig. 1f pipe 30 is equipped with a bell 38 with a big hole to increase the efficiency of collection of liquid metal or a pair of upper layer 22. Is depicted in Fig. 1g, the upper end of the pipe 30 is equipped with a miniature tubes 40, which opened in the pipe 30 to improve the transfer of heat from the steam or liquid.In Fig. 2a - e shows a system in which a layer of liquid metal is below the layer of liquid salt. Similar parts of the device are denoted by the same positions. Is depicted in Fig. 2c and d pipe 30 must pass through the layer 24 of liquid salt for dipping in the layer 22 of molten metal. It is shown in Fig. 2e layer 22 of the liquid metal has an extension in the lateral direction beyond the different hole 38 to its lower end immersed in the layer 22 on the lateral extension 50. In Fig. 2f depicts the vessel 20, is made with an inclined bottom 21, to improve the efficiency of convection in the lower layer 22.In Fig. 3a - d shows the new system of accumulation of heat and heat transfer, part of the solar energy system. In Fig. 3a shows a transparent system of accumulation of heat in the upper layer 22 of molten metal, separated from the lower layer liquid salt screen 60, which allows solar energy 62 directly directed to and absorbed in the unsecured part of the liquid salt. In Fig. 3b upper liquid metal is transparent. In Fig. 3c shows the absorption of solar energy 62 of the upper layer 24 of liquid salt. The vessel 20 has an inclined bottom 21 and the tube 28 is immersed in the heat transfer layer 22 of molten metal. Solar energy is supplied to the vessel 20 through the transparent node 64. In Fig. 3d shows that the vessel 20 is made with a lateral extension 50 having a transparent top with penetration of solar energy 62 and the lower absorption layer 22 of molten metal.In Fig. 4 shows a solar energy system in which sunlight 62 going galistaticheskii collector 70, consisting of mirrors 72, located on the racks 74, located on the ground or on a tower (not shown). Mirror 78 focuses the reflected solar energy into a new device 80 accumulation of heat present invention (as described above).In Fig. 5a shows a solar reflector 90, reflecting solar energy 60 in the device 80 accumulation of heat. The reflector 90 is rotated around the axis 92 and in all positions (shown in two positions) reflects solar energy to the auxiliary mirror 94, which focuses it into the device 80. Solar reflector 90, shown in Fig. 5b, rotates around the axis 92. The device 80 is located on the ground. Auxiliary mirror 94 is controlled by an appropriate motor and connected with the mirror 90, constantly reflecting light in the device 80. The sensor monitors the deviation of the solar energy from the mirror 90 and the controller in the control unit 96 controls the motor connection 98 and the auxiliary mirror to direct the solar energy reflected from the reflector 90 in the device 80.Although for purposes of illustration, the invention has been disclosed preferred embodiments of the present invention, specialists in the art it should be clear that various modifications, additions and changes are possible without changing sushnost is the accumulation of heat contains two layers that are in contact with each other, in which one layer is a layer accumulating warmth, and another layer is a layer with an intermediate phase that is used for heat transfer, in which the layer accumulation of heat is the layer with the changing phase, while the solid state layer with changing phase has a density less than that of the layer with the changing phase is in a liquid state, and the layer with the intermediate phase is a layer of liquid metal having a density higher than both phase layer with changing phase.2. The system under item 1, characterized in that the heat transfer to the external system is achieved through the circulation of a fluid-carrying heat.3. The system under item 1, characterized in that the heat transfer to the external system is achieved by using the fluid circulating in the tubes, which are immersed in the fluid-carrying heat.4. The system under item 1, characterized in that the heat transfer to the external system is achieved by using external heat pipe immersed in the liquid, transferring the heat.5. The system under item 1, characterized in that the layer with the intermediate phase is evaporated liquid metal, and the case is the exact phase, and returning the condensed liquid metal in the layer with an intermediate phase by gravity or pumping.6. The system under item 1, characterized in that the system of accumulation of heat is an element in the solar energy system.7. The system under item 6, characterized in that the solar energy system includes a system of concentration based at least on the uniaxial sliianie the movement of the sun.8. The system under item 1, characterized in that the solar energy is directly accepted by the accumulation layer of warmth, which is the upper layer.9. The system under item 1, characterized in that the layer of liquid metal layer is separated from the accumulation of heat by the screen, whereby the solar energy is directly accepted and absorbed by the accumulation layer of warmth.10. The system under item 1, characterized in that the layer of liquid metal has a transparent top to ensure penetration of solar energy in the layer of liquid metal.
FIELD: heat engineering, namely accumulator of gas heaters, possibly used for constructing Cowper and ohmic gas heaters for aerodynamic tubes.
SUBSTANCE: heater includes heat accumulating adapter arranged in housing with gas-tight cylindrical outer surface and electric current supply leads of resistive heating member. Heat accumulating member of adapter is zigzag-shaped and it is made of thin strip of sheet material; said member has vertically arranged lamellae mutually spaced by the same distance and placed along axis of heater. Ends of said strip are connected to electric current leads. Annular mutually joined flanges are arranged on ends of adapter. The last has rods arranged between flanges on cylindrical surface; said rods are electrically isolated from flanges and they serve as supports for lamellae of heat accumulating member. Each flange of adapter has three parts (upper ring-half and two lower ring quadrants). There are gaps between parts of rings and casing for providing displacement of ring parts one relative to other and relative to casing by value of length change of lamellae of heat accumulating member at heating and cooling them.
EFFECT: enlarged using range of hot-blast heater due to its simplified design and lowered hydraulic resistance.
FIELD: heat engineering, namely accumulator type gas heaters, possibly used at developing hot blast gas heaters for aerodynamic tubes.
SUBSTANCE: gas heater includes cylindrical heat accumulating adapter sealed in housing near end of gas outlet. Novelty is that heater includes rod arranged along axis of heat accumulating adapter, supporting grid and cylindrical gas-tight casing. Heat accumulating member of adapter is made of thin corrugated strip whose one end is secured to rod. Corrugated strip is twisted around rod in the form of compact coil arranged together with supporting grid in casing. Height of strip corrugation is equal to thickness of strip.
EFFECT: improved design of heater due to its lowered hydraulic resistance.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat exchange devices used for heat or cold transfer in the processes using liquid or gas flows, and can be used in heating and ventilation systems, in chemical, food and other industries. Heat exchange method in gaseous and liquid media consists in transfer of heat or warm liquid (gas) from upper layers of medium to lower ones by means of capsules consisting of cover with heat insulation in which there is tank filled with heat-absorbing material or liquid (gas) and flotation chambers with movable partition brought into operation with temperature drive in the form of bi-material. Capsules are retained on bottom till heat transfer is completed owing to magnet or thermomagnetic material installed in capsule, and electric magnet installed in lower layers; at that, current for electric magnet is generated when capsule with magnet passes along current-conducting spiral located along capsule movement.
EFFECT: proposed invention will allow, by using internal heat, performing heat exchange between upper and lower layers of liquid (gas), as well as producing electric power.
5 cl, 8 dwg