The combustion chamber fluidized bed for combustion of combustible material, including non-combustible material in fluidized bed combustion


F23C11/02 -

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a combustion chamber fluidized bed, which are uniformly burned combustible material with simultaneous uniform removed from fluidized bed combustion of any combustible material without its deposits in the furnace. The combustion chamber has a first diffuser plate, the second diffuser plate, each of which is provided with many holes for filing pseudoviruses gas channel for discharging non-combustible material located between the first and second diffuser plates. To create a continuous fluidized bed at the bottom of the furnace part pseudoviruses gas is supplied from the channel to unload. The first diffuser plate has a surface inclined downwards directed to the channel to unload, and the second diffuser plate is tilted up to the surface, which gradually increases from the channel for discharging non-combustible material. The invention allows for uniform removal of non-combustible material of a large specific gravity and to ensure uniform and efficient combustion of the fuel. 2 S. and 9 C.p. f-crystals, 10 ill.

The invention relates to the combustion chamber is, the example of industrial waste, municipal waste, coal, and so on, in a furnace with a fluidized bed (fluidized) layer and, in particular, the combustion chamber fluidized bed, ensuring a smooth discharge of non-combustible material from the furnace without its deposits in the furnace and uniform combustion of the solid fuel material resistant selection from his heat.

With the development of the economy as a result of various human activities is more and more solid combustible material, including non-combustible material, such as industrial waste, municipal waste, etc. This solid combustible material contains a large amount of energy that can be used. However, there are difficulties in stable combustion of solid fuel material with the use of his energy, as there is a wide range of types and configurations of such material and it includes mingled with them a large number of non-combustible material of indeterminate forms.

In Japanese publication N 4-214110 disclosed combustor fluidized bed, which enables the burning of waste, including non-combustible material in fluidized bed combustion and smooth discharging non-combustible material from the furnace, collagen between the diffuser plate for air and furnace wall, moreover, the diffuser plate has an inclined upper surface that is angled in such a way that the discharge channel is located in the lowest position. The lower zone of the plate is served more air than the upper zone. However, since the fluid medium boils rapidly at the lower zone of the plate due to a larger amount of air supplied to the zone plate, fluidized bed has characteristics similar to characteristics of the liquid. Therefore, a material with greater than the fluid medium, the specific weight is lowered into the fluidized bed, and the material is less than the fluid environment, specific gravity, floats in the fluidized bed, thus creating the so-called gravity separation. In the non-combustible material of greater specific gravity is lowered into the fluidized bed and deposited on the bottom of the furnace reaches the discharge channel. In addition, since the channel, which is not served pseudoviruses gas, opened in the bottom of the furnace, fluidized bed above the channel for discharging combustible material unstable.

The combustion chamber disclosed in this publication has a diffuser plate for air with corresponding inclined downwards surfaces, which the ha with the corresponding inclined downwards surfaces, passing from the lateral walls of the furnace to the discharge channels for non-combustible material. Zone diffuser plate located near the discharge channels for non-combustible material, through the air chamber serves a greater quantity of air than from other areas of the plate, and a fluidized bed in which the fluidized medium intensively pseudogiants due to fed there more air, has the character of such liquid. Therefore, a material with greater than the fluid medium, the specific weight will go down in the fluidized bed, and the material is less than the fluid medium, the specific gravity will float in the fluidized bed, thus creating the so-called gravity separation. In the non-combustible material with a large proportion will fall in the fluidized bed and to Deposit on the bottom of the furnace until they unloaded channels. Thus, non-combustible material cannot here be smoothly discharged from the furnace and may not be stable fluidization medium, which leads to malfunction of the furnace. In addition, since the discharge channels for non-combustible material, which is not served pseudoviruses gas, open at the bottom of the furnace, as seen in certiorem fluid environment is not pseudogiants. Therefore, a fixed layer prevents the formation of the circulating flow in the fluidized bed, is inefficient dispersion and mixing of combustible material in the fluidized bed, and non-combustible material cannot be smoothly discharged from the furnace.

In Japanese patent publication N 5-19044 disclosed furnace with a fluidized bed for combustion of wastes containing non-flammable material, such as pieces of metal, earth and stones. This oven has a base including a surface inclined downwards, passing to the discharge channel for the non-combustible material located in the centre of the base of the furnace. Pseudoviruses air is supplied in such a way that its amount per unit area of the base of the furnace is greater near the discharge hatch and gradually decreases toward the side wall of the furnace. Therefore, forms a circulating flow of the fluidized medium, which rises in the zone near the discharge channel located in the Central part of the furnace, and falls near the side walls of the furnace, but as combustible waste is fed from the boot channel located above the discharge conduit for combustible material, they will rise with the rising of the stream and burn to boiling>/P>To eliminate these drawbacks the supply of combustible waste from a side wall of the furnace to improve the dispersion and mixing of combustible waste in a fluidized bed, so as combustible waste will be processed upward flow. However, since a greater quantity of air is supplied to the area near the discharge channel, fluidized bed located in this zone, in which the fluidized medium intensively pseudogiants, will have the characteristic features of the liquid, as in a furnace for publication N 4-214110. Therefore, a material with a greater specific gravity than the fluid medium, will be dropped in the fluidized bed, and the material is less than the fluid medium, the specific gravity will float in the layer than would be created so-called gravity separation. In the non-combustible material of greater specific gravity will fall in the fluidized bed and to Deposit on the bottom of the furnace reaches the discharge channel and therefore will not be evenly discharged from the furnace.

In the author's certificate of the USSR N 986480 from 7.01.1983 disclosed combustor fluidized bed for combustion of combustible material, including non-combustible material in fluidized bed combustion,gas, located at the bottom of the specified furnace, a conduit for discharging non-combustible material, the channel for loading combustible material specified in the oven. Naturally the device is made in the form of a distributive lattice, which is located with an inclination in the direction of the channel for discharging non-combustible material, the initial portion of which is connected to a source of steam-air mixture.

However, this combustion chamber also has drawbacks related to the fact that non-combustible material of a large specific gravity such as iron or similar, to a lesser extent prone to subsidence and can be moved in the horizontal direction, when such material is supported by a movable layer (transition state fluid medium between the fixed layer and fluidized bed), but it quickly falls down, deposits and cannot easily move in the fluidized bed in which the fluidized medium intensively pseudogiants. Thus, this makes it difficult to discharge non-combustible material from the furnace and does not provide uniform and efficient combustion of the fuel.

The technical result of the present invention is to provide a combustion chamber with a fluidized bed for combustion of fuel matheenthiran layer, providing uniform removal of non-combustible material of a large specific gravity from the oven and preventing deposits it in a certain place in the oven, thanks to stabilize fluidization in the furnace and provides uniform and efficient combustion of the fuel.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the combustion chamber of the fluidized bed for combustion of combustible material, including non-combustible material in a furnace with a fluidized bed containing gas diffuser device with multiple holes for filing pseudoviruses gas, located at the bottom of the furnace, a conduit for discharging non-combustible material, the channel for loading combustible material in the furnace, according to the invention, the gas diffuser device made in the form of two diffuser plates, the first of which is inclined downwards surface directed to the channel for discharging non-combustible material formed between the first and second diffuser plates this first diffuser plate installed with a possibility of pseudoviruses gas with the provision of fluidization fluid environment with relatively low speed of fluidization is using feed pseudoviruses gas with the provision of fluidization fluidized medium at a relatively high velocity fluidization and create a rising flow of the fluidized medium, the channel for loading combustible material is located above the first diffuser plate, the diffuser plate is located diffuser chamber, forming a diffuser device connected to the power supply pseudoviruses gas through the specified channel for discharging non-combustible material in the furnace.

Fluid medium forms the main circulating stream, which includes the descending and ascending flows. To save the primary fluid layer near the channel for discharging non-combustible material and to stabilize thereby the main circulating stream pseudoviruses gas is supplied from the channel for discharging non-combustible material.

While filed into the furnace through the channel for loading combustible material combustible material containing incombustible material, descends with the descending flow of the fluidized medium in the direction of the bottom of the furnace and moves horizontally along the inclined downwards surface of the first diffuser plate, a combustible material is separated by selective exposure pseudoviruses gas fed up in the upper fluidized bed having a high concentration of combustible material with a small specific gravity, and the lower pseudogenes layer flows above the channel for discharging non-combustible material and is mixed with the upward flow of a moving fluid environment for further circulation and combustion. Located in the lower fluidized bed of non-combustible material and fluid environment removed from the furnace through the channel for discharging non-combustible material.

The combustion chamber further preferably contains an auxiliary diffuser plate disposed between the first diffuser plate and a channel for discharging non-combustible material, and an auxiliary diffuser plate has many holes that serve to feed pseudoviruses gas so as to maintain fluidization fluidized medium at a relatively high velocity of fluidization, and auxiliary diffuser plate has a surface inclined downwards, passing between the lower edge of the first diffuser plate and a channel for discharging non-combustible material, and this supporting plate has a steeper slope than the first diffuser plate. The furnace has an inclined wall which is located above the second diffuser plate, for directing pseudoviruses gas and fluid medium flowing upward from the second diffuser plate, to the area above the first diffuser plate, i.e. to the Central zone of the furnace. The upper part of the furnace is located above the inclined wall. Second diffusely discharging non-combustible material and supplying pseudoviruses gas with speed, which gradually increases in a direction from the channel for discharging non-combustible material.

The combustion chamber also contains a camera for selection of thermal energy formed between the inclined wall and a side wall of the furnace, which communicates with the Central zone of the furnace above and below the inclined wall located in the specified camera collector heat intended for selection of thermal energy from a fluid medium in said chamber, and a third diffuser plate disposed between the second diffuser plate and the side wall of the furnace and passing adjacent to the outer edge of the second diffuser plate, and the third diffuser plate has many holes for filing pseudoviruses gas with a relatively low speed and tilted up to the surface, which has the same slope, the second diffuser plate and supplying pseudoviruses gas to maintain the fluidized medium at a relatively low speed of fluidization in the cell where the selection of thermal energy.

The bottom of the furnace may have a rectangular or round shape. If the bottom of the furnace is rectangular, then the first diffuser plate, the channel for discharging Negoro the s parallel to each other or channel for discharging non-combustible material and the second diffuser plate, which are rectangular in shape and may be located symmetrically with respect to the ridge of the first diffuser plate, which has the shape of a roof. If the bottom of the furnace has a round shape, then round the bottom of the furnace is composed of the first diffuser plate, which has a conical shape and a Central zone which is located above its circular edge, a channel for discharging non-combustible material, containing a number of arc sections, which are located concentrically with respect to the first diffuser plate, and the second diffuser plate, which has a ring shape and is concentrically relative to the first diffuser plate.

The above technical result is achieved by the fact that in the combustion chamber of the fluidized bed for combustion of combustible material, including non-combustible material in a furnace with a fluidized bed containing gas diffuser device with multiple holes for filing pseudoviruses gas, located at the bottom of the furnace, a conduit for discharging non-combustible material, the channel for loading combustible material in the furnace, according to the invention the gas diffuser device made in the form of three diffuser plate, the first konomu between the auxiliary diffuser plate and the second diffuser plate, the first plate is installed with a possibility of pseudoviruses gas with the provision of fluidization medium with relatively low velocity fluidization and create a downward flow of the fluidized medium, the auxiliary plate is inclined downwards surface located between the lower edge of the first plate and a channel for discharging non-combustible material and directed to the channel to unload, and this supporting plate is installed with a possibility of pseudoviruses gas with the provision of fluidization fluidized medium at a relatively high velocity of fluidization, tilted down, the supporting surface has a slope that is steeper slope inclined downward to the surface of the first diffuser plate, while the lower edge of the auxiliary plate is located, essentially, in line vertically with the adjacent edge of the second diffuser plate, while from him at a vertical distance, a channel for discharging non-combustible material is open in the vertical gap between the lower edge of the inclined downwards surface of the auxiliary plate and the adjacent edge of the second plate, the second diffuser plate installed with a possibility of p is of fluidization and create a rising flow of the fluidized medium, and the link to download the combustible material in the furnace is located above the first diffuser plate.

The furnace is preferably inclined wall located above the second diffuser plate for directing fluidizing gas and fluid medium flowing upward from the second plate to the area above the first diffuser plate, i.e. to the Central zone of the furnace. The upper part of the furnace is located above the inclined wall of the furnace. The second diffuser plate is tilted up to the surface, which gradually increases from the channel for discharging non-combustible material and supplying siraudeau gas at a rate that gradually increases in a direction from the channel for discharging non-combustible material. The combustion chamber also has a camera for selection of thermal energy formed between the inclined wall and a side wall of the furnace, which communicates with the Central zone of the furnace above and below the inclined wall, the heat collector located in the specified camera used for selection of thermal energy from a fluid medium in said chamber, and a third diffuser plate disposed between the second diffuser plate and the side wall of the furnace, passing adjacent to the outer edge of corotu, and tilted up to the surface, which has the same slope as the second plate, and supplying fluidizing gas to maintain the fluidized medium at a relatively low speed of fluidization in the chamber for the selection of thermal energy. The bottom of the furnace may be rectangular or round shape. If the bottom of the furnace is rectangular, then the first and second diffuser plates that are rectangular in shape, may be arranged parallel to each other or the first and second diffuser plates that are rectangular in shape and may be located symmetrically with respect to the top of the first diffuser plate, which is made rectangular and has the shape of a roof. If the bottom of the furnace has a round shape, then round the bottom of the furnace consists of a first diffuser plate, which has the shape of an inverted cone and is located concentrically with respect to the first plate, and a channel for discharging non-combustible material, which is open in the vertical gap between the outer circular edge of the first plate and the inner circular edge of the second plate.

In the combustion chamber pseudoviruses gas, such as air, originating from the first diffuser plate to maintain psev the right environment, and pseudoviruses gas, such as air, originating from the second diffuser plate to maintain the fluidized medium at a relatively high speed of fluidization to create the upward flow of the fluidized medium, thus creating the main circulating fluidized bed, including the descending and ascending flows. After lowering fluid environment downdraft she goes down tilt surface of the first diffuser plate and rises with upward flow near the second diffuser plate. Reaching the upper zone of the fluidized bed, the environment is sent to the Central zone of the furnace and then falls downdraft again, thus creating the main circulating stream that circulates in the main fluidized bed.

By submitting pseudoviruses gas so as to maintain fluidization medium at a relatively high velocity of fluidization of the diffuser device provided on the surface bounding the channel for discharging non-combustible material, provided intense fluidization medium in the zone near or over this channel. In the above channel for discharging non-combustible material will be from the first diffuser plate to the second diffuser plate, and recirculating flow with downward flow in a weakly fluidized bed zone and the upward flow in fast-fluidized bed zone is consistently solid, i.e., will not be interrupted. Inclined wall above the second diffuser plate will direct pseudoviruses gas and fluid environment in the upward direction from the second plate to the Central zone of the furnace, thereby facilitating the formation of the main circulating stream.

Below will be described the separation of non-combustible material combustible material. Combustible material, including non-combustible material, is fed to the appropriate location above the first diffuser plate of the channel load. Fluid medium above the first diffuser plate boils slowly, and is formed of a moving layer, which represents an intermediate state between the fixed layer and fluidized bed. As combustible and non-combustible materials are suspended in a fluid medium moving layer, they go together with the circulating flow in the fluidized bed and then move horizontally to the fluidized zone above the second diffuser plate, which provides a supply of pseudoviruses gas on sevdigini environment above the first diffuser plate, fluidized medium boils slowly, and the material of greater specific gravity than the bulk density of the moving layer is gradually lowered, and the material of lower specific weight than the bulk density of the moving layer, floats within the horizontal flow of fluidized medium, and creates a gravity separation. The result is a combustible material a small specific gravity is moving towards the upper zone of horizontal flow, and non-combustible material of a large specific gravity is moving towards the lower zone of horizontal flow. Therefore, from the combustible material in a horizontal flow near the channel for discharging non-combustible material is formed of the upper fluidized bed with a high concentration of combustible material a small specific gravity and a lower fluidized bed with a high concentration of non-combustible material of a large specific gravity.

The upper fluidized bed flows above the channel for discharging non-combustible material and is mixed with the upward flow of the fluidized medium, and a combustible material in the fluidized bed, is burned in an oxidizing atmosphere and with vigorous fluidization. As the upper fluidized bed has a relatively low concentration the fluid environment.

The lower fluidized bed having a high concentration of non-combustible material with a large specific gravity, directed by using tilted downward the upper surface of the first diffuser plate to the channel for discharging non-combustible material, and a part of the environment and non-combustible material in the lower fluidized bed is withdrawn from channel to upload. As the fluid medium above the first diffuser plate is in a condition moving layer, non-combustible material of a large specific gravity, such as iron or etc., is supported by a movable layer moves to the channel for discharge, and is not deposited on the bottom of the furnace.

On the other hand, by submitting pseudoviruses gas diffuser device provided on the surface bounding the channel for discharging so that fluidization of the environment was carried out at a relatively high velocity of fluidization, the environment will be intensively pseudogiants the zone located near or over a channel to upload. As a result, areas near or over a channel to upload is not formed a fixed layer or the moving layer, and intensely fluidized bed, the nature of which is similar to the fluid. Therefore, the material the specific gravity will float in the fluidized bed, making it easy is gravity separation. Therefore, non-combustible material of a large specific weight will quickly fall in the direction of the internal area of the channel for discharge from the subsequent easy and uniform discharge from the furnace. Since the discharging non-combustible material from the furnace is uniform and efficient combustion of combustible material and the formation of the fluidized bed is carried out without interference. Combustible and non-combustible materials are separated by selective exposure pseudoviruses gas, thus effectively displayed almost the entire non-combustible material and is also displayed only a small amount of fluid environment. Therefore, heat loss is small, and the remote non-combustible material can be easily processed, because the content of any combustible material, very little.

Auxiliary diffuser plate is inclined downwards surface slope which is steeper than the inclined downwards surface of the first diffuser plate, and supplying siraudeau gas to provide fluidization medium at a relatively high velocity of fluidization. Therefore, since the layer, moving above the first diffuser plate, excellent non-combustible material is fast and non-combustible material, such as iron, quickly falls to the auxiliary diffuser plate. However, since the auxiliary plate has raked down the surface of non-combustible material of a large specific gravity is uniformly directed to the channel to unload. The second diffuser plate is tilted up to the surface, which increases in the direction from the channel for discharging and supplying pseudoviruses gas at a rate that gradually increases in a direction from the channel for discharging, thereby facilitating the formation of the main circulating stream.

The third diffuser plate supply pseudoviruses gas so as to maintain fluidization medium in the chamber for the selection of thermal energy at a relatively low speed of fluidization and to create a moving layer, which moves down to the specified camera.

Part of the fluidized medium from the upper zone of the upward stream is introduced into the specified cell at the upper end of the inclined wall. In this camera the environment will go down as the moving layer, and cooled by heat conducted through the heat collector in the specified camera. Then pseudoinverse with upward flow and heated by the heat of combustion in an upward flow. So by using the downward flow in the chamber to heat and upward flow in the main combustion chamber is formed auxiliary circulating flow of the fluidized medium and the heat of combustion in the furnace is collected by a heat collector in the specified camera. Since the overall heat transfer coefficient largely depends on the speed pseudoviruses gas, as shown in Fig. 1, the number of selected heat can be easily regulated by changing the number pseudoviruses gas, which passes through the third diffuser plate.

In the case of the rectangular shape of the furnace, this furnace can be relatively easily designed and manufactured. However, in the case where the furnace has a circular shape in the plan, on top of the resistance of the side wall of the furnace pressure can be increased. Therefore, to prevent discharge from the furnace odors and leakage of harmful gases in the furnace can be maintained low pressure which is below atmospheric, or you can keep it high pressure to obtain gases generated by the combustion with high pressure, which can be used for gas turbines.

In accordance with another aspect of the present and the Ali in one line with the adjacent edge of the other of the diffuser plate at some distance from it vertically, as can be seen from above, and a channel for discharging opened in the vertical space between the edges of the diffuser plate. Therefore, the fluid medium can boil over at the area above the channel for unloading without the use of a diffuser device provided on the inner surface bounding a channel for discharging non-combustible material. As a result, the first diffuser plate to the second diffuser plate supported solid fluidized zone of the fluidized medium and is formed without interruption stable recirculating flow with downward flow in a weakly fluidized bed zone and the upward flow in fast-fluidized bed zone.

The above and other objectives, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description with reference to the attached drawings, which illustrate preferred variants of the embodiment of the present invention to the examples.

Fig. 1 is a schematic vertical section of the combustion chamber in accordance with the first variant embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a schematic vertical section of the combustion chamber in accordance with a second variant embodiment NAII with the third alternative embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 4 is a schematic vertical section of the combustion chamber in accordance with the fourth alternative embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 5 - rectangular isometric projection of the bottom of the combustion chamber in accordance with a fifth alternative embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 6 is a view in plan of the bottom of the combustion chamber shown in Fig. 5;

Fig. 7 - section VII-VII in Fig. 6;

Fig. 8 - rectangular dimitrieska projection of the bottom of the combustion chamber in accordance with a sixth alternative embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 9 - rectangular dimitrieska projection of the bottom of the combustion chamber in accordance with a seventh alternative embodiment of the present invention and

Fig. 10 is a graph showing the dependence of the total heat transfer coefficient of the heat collector from the speed pseudoviruses gas supplied from the third diffuser plate into the combustion chamber in accordance with the present invention.

In all the drawings, like or similar elements of the furnace denoted by like or similar reference numbers.

In Fig. 1 shows schematically a vertical section of the combustion chamber, is made to fit the tion, made in accordance with the first embodiment of the invention, contains a channel 8 for discharging non-combustible material located in the center of the bottom of the furnace 1, the first diffuser plate 2 and the second diffuser plate 3, which are located in the furnace 1 between the channel 8 for unloading and side wall 42 of the furnace 1. The combustor further includes a channel 10 for loading combustible material located above the first plate 2, the inclined wall 9 located above the second plate 3, and the upper portion 44 located above the inclined wall 9. The furnace 1 may be rectangular or circular in plan form.

The main fluidized bed is formed in the furnace 1, when the fluid medium consisting of particles of non-combustible material, such as sand, blown up in fluidized condition pseudoviruses gas, such as air, which is introduced into the furnace 1 from the bottom up through the first diffuser plate 2 and the second diffuser plate 3. The main fluidized bed is mutating the upper surface 43 that is located somewhere at the height of the inclined wall 9.

In the first diffuser chamber 4 located under the first diffuser plate 2, from the source 14 through the pipe 62 and through the connecting CI 72, provided in the first plate 2, is fed into the furnace 1 with a relatively low speed, thus forming a weakly fluidized zone 17 of the fluid medium above the first diffuser plate 2. In a weakly fluidized zone 17 fluid environment creates a downward flow 18. The first plate 2 is tilted down surface which, as seen in vertical section gradually decreases in the direction of the channel 8 for discharging non-combustible material. As shown in Fig. 1, downward flow 18 passes in a substantially horizontal stream 19, which runs along and near the slopes downward the upper surface of the first plate 2.

The second diffuser plate 3 has a series of holes 74 for flow through them pseudoviruses gas and forms located under the second diffuser chamber 5. The fluidizing gas, such as air, is fed into the chamber 5 from a source 15 of gas through the pipe 64 and through the connector 7. Gas from the second chamber 5 is fed into the furnace 1 through the openings 74 at a relatively high velocity, forming, thus, a 16 zone intensely fluidized bed of the fluidized medium on the second plate 3. In zone 16 intensely fluidized bed fluidized bed environment creates an upward flow 20. The other is m is located near the bottom of the channel 8 for discharging non-combustible material and gradually increases in the direction of the side wall 42.

Fluidized medium in the furnace 1 is moving from the upper zone of the upward flow 20 in the upper part of the weakly fluidized zone 17, i.e. in the upper zone of the descending stream 18, is lowered downdraft 18 and moves with the horizontal flow 19 in the lower zone of the upward flow 20, thereby creating the main circulating stream. Inclined wall 9 gradually increases from the side wall 42 to the center of the furnace 1 to force the direction of the upward flow 20 to the area above the first diffuser plate 2.

Through the channel 10 for loading combustible material, which is located above the first plate 2, in the area above the first plate 2 in the furnace 1 download a combustible material 38. Supplied through the channel 10 material 38 is mixed with downflow fluidized bed 18 environment and goes with the flow 18 to the bottom of the furnace 1, while also being subject to thermal destruction or partially burning. Then combustible material 38 is mixed with the horizontal flow 19 fluid medium flowing along the inclined downwards the upper surface of the first plate 2 and moves horizontally to the channel 8 for discharging non-combustible material. In a horizontal flow 19 combustible material is subjected to selective exposure supplied from the bottom of VVER is th zone of horizontal flow 19 and combustible material smaller in specific gravity, located in the upper zone of horizontal flow 19. Therefore, near the channel 8 for discharging non-combustible material in a horizontal stream 19 will be created upper fluidized bed 12 with a high concentration of combustible material with a small specific gravity and a lower fluidized bed 13 with a high concentration of non-combustible material with a large specific gravity.

The upper fluidized bed 12 is flowing above the channel 8 for discharging non-combustible material and is mixed with the upward flow of 20 fluid medium, and the combustible material in the fluidized bed is burned in an oxidizing atmosphere and under conditions of intense fluidization. Gases resulting from combustion in the fluidized bed, rise up above the upper surface 43 and then into the upper part 44 of the furnace, where they are subjected to secondary combustion, and where captured dust, and selection of thermal energy. Then the thus treated gases released into the atmosphere. Fluid environment and non-combustible material located in the lower fluidized bed 13 are removed through the channel 8 for discharging non-combustible material. If to speak more precisely, fluid environment and non-combustible material in the lower fluidized bed is asana), connected with the passage 40. Fluid environment, which together with non-combustible material removed from the furnace 1, is captured by appropriate means (not shown) and returned to the furnace 1.

The volume of air blown from the first diffuser plate 2, is regulated so that the speed pseudoviruses gas slows down to a speed in excess of approximately 1 to 2.5 times the minimum fluidizing velocity of the gas (Vmf). The volume of air blown from the second diffuser plate 3, is regulated so that the speed pseudoviruses gas increases to a speed in excess of approximately 4 to 12 times the minimum gas velocity (Vmf).

In the combustion chamber shown in Fig. 1, pseudoviruses gas is fed into the passage 40 from the source 15 through the pipe 64, a branch pipes 66 and the nozzles 21. From the passage 40 pseudoviruses gas is injected through the channel 8 for discharging non-combustible material up to the furnace 1, and the gas pseudogiant fluid environment on channel 8, forming the main fluidized bed, which is supported by a solid from zones above the first plate 2 to the zone above the second plate 3 to thereby stabilizing the main circulating flow of the fluidized medium.

In Fig. 2 shows schematically a vertical section of the combustion chamber in accordance with a second alternative embodiment of the present invention.

As shown in Fig. 2, the combustion chamber in accordance with the second variant of the embodiment includes the first diffuser plate 2, centered at the bottom of the furnace 1, the auxiliary diffuser plate 3 located on opposite sides of the first plate 2 and each having a series of holes 76 for gas channels 8 for discharging non-combustible material and the second diffuser plate 3, which changed the initial hatch 10 to combustible material, situated above the first plate 2, the inclined wall 9 located above the second plate 3, and the upper portion 44 located above the inclined wall 9.

The first plate 2 is inclined downwards the upper surface, the highest point of which, i.e. the top, as seen in vertical section, is at its center, and where this surface is gradually reduced to 8 channels for discharging non-combustible material. If the furnace in cross section has a round shape, the upper surface of the first diffuser plate 2 has a conical shape. As shown in Fig. 2, the downward flow 18 pseudoviruses environment is divided into the furnace 1 in the zone near the top 73 of the first diffuser plate 2, two essentially horizontal flow 19 flowing in opposite directions along the inclined downwards the upper surface of the first plate 2. If the furnace 1 in horizontal cross section and has a round shape, then the second plate 3 has the shape of an inverted cone, where the outer circular edge is located above the inner circular edge.

The outer edges of the first plate 2 is connected with the auxiliary plates 3', having a series of holes 76 for gas and below which are located where Italy 7' served pseudoviruses gas. There pseudoviruses gas through the holes 76 is injected at a relatively high velocity into the furnace 1, making over auxiliary diffuser plates 3' occurs fluidization medium. The volume of air blown from the auxiliary Board 3', is regulated so that the gas velocity in excess of about 4-12 times the minimum speed pseudoviruses gas (Vmf).

Fluidized medium in the furnace 1 is moving from the upper zones of ascending streams 20 in the upper zone 17 weakly fluidized bed, i.e. in the upper zone of the descending stream 18, is lowered downdraft 18 and moves with horizontal threads 19 in the lower zone of ascending streams 20, thereby creating the main circulating stream. Descending stream 18, which consists of a moving layer is divided at the top 73 of the first plate 2 by two essentially horizontal flow 19 flowing in opposite directions along the inclined downwards the upper surface of the first plate 2. If the furnace 1 has a cross-sectional rectangular shape, then in the furnace 1 there are two main circulating stream left and right.

Since the horizontal threads 19 on the first plate 2 are own the material, such as iron, which has a large specific gravity, is not deposited on the bottom of the furnace 1, and is moved in the horizontal threads 19. When the horizontal threads 19 reach areas above the auxiliary diffuser plates 3', moving the layer turns into a moving layer with high velocity fluidization dealt with pseudoviruses gas fed from the auxiliary plates 3'. Therefore, non-combustible material of a large specific weight quickly descends through selective exposure pseudoviruses gas. Since the auxiliary plate 3' is set steeper than the slope of the first plate 2, degraded non-combustible material of a large specific gravity will move under its own weight along the inclined bottom of the surfaces of the auxiliary platinum 3' to 8 channels for discharging non-combustible materials.

Other elements of the combustion chamber shown in Fig. 2, will not be described in detail below since they are the same as in the camera in accordance with Fig. 1, except that the camera of Fig. 2 has an auxiliary diffuser plate 3', the auxiliary diffuser chamber 5', the first diffuser plate 2, the channels 8 for discharging Egorychev"ptx2">

In Fig. 3 shows a schematic vertical section of the combustion chamber in accordance with a third embodiment of the present invention.

As shown in Fig. 3, the furnace 1 has an auxiliary diffuser plate 3', the slope of which is steeper than the inclination of the supporting plate shown in Fig. 2 and the lower edge 77 which is vertically in line with the bottom edge 75 adjacent the second diffuser plate 3 at some distance from it. Each of the channels 8 for discharging non-combustible material is open laterally through the vertical gap between the lower edges 77 and 75. Pseudoviruses gas is not supplied from channels 8 for discharging non-combustible material, and in the horizontal plane of the channels 8 are not open, and therefore, they do not hinder the passage of the ascending flow pseudoviruses gas. Therefore, the channels 8 does not violate the motion of the main circulating flow of the fluidized medium.

Other elements of the combustion chamber shown in Fig. 3, the following will not be described in detail, since they are essentially the same as that of the camera shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.

In Fig. 4 shows schematically a vertical section of the combustion chamber in accordance with Chet 8 discharge for non-combustible material, which open laterally through the vertical gaps between the lower edges 75, 77. Pseudoviruses gas is not supplied from the channels 8. The furnace 1 is located in the Central part of the main combustion chamber and a chamber 25 for selection of thermal energy adjacent to the main camera. The chamber 25 is formed between the inclined wall 24 located above the second diffuser plate 3, side wall 42 of the furnace 1 and thermal reservoir 27 in the protected execution. Inclined wall 24 has a vertically oriented lower segment. The third diffuser plate 28, which has essentially the same slope, and the second diffuser plate 3, passes radially outside from the outer edge of the second plate 3 to the side wall 42 in the zone where the vertical segment is inclined wall 24.

The lower edge of the vertical segment of the inclined wall 24 is located at a distance from the third plate 28, resulting in a vertical gap, which serves as the bottom of the passage 29 for communication between the main combustion chamber and a lower chamber area 25 on the selection of thermal energy. Between the upper edge of the inclined wall 24 and side wall 42 there are several vertical perforated pipes 23, the dwarf energy. The source 32 of the gas through pipe 68 and the connector 31 is connected with the third diffuser chamber 30 formed below the third plate 28. From the third chamber 30 fluidizing gas through a series of holes 78, made in the plate 28, is supplied with a relatively low speed in the chamber 25, thereby creating an auxiliary circulating streams 26, in which the fluidized medium descends. The volume of air blown from the third plate 28, is adjusted so that the air velocity is decreased to the speed component of approximately 1 to 2.5 minimum gas velocity (Vmf).

Part of the fluid environment, rising in ascending streams 20 directed towards the Central zone of the furnace 1 inclined wall 24, with reverse threads 22 passes through the channels 23' above the inclined wall 24. The reverse flow 22 is fixed in the upper zone of the chamber 25, in which they flow downstream. These descending flows pass through the lower passage 29, is mixed with ascending currents of 20 major circulating flows, rises and reaches the upper zones of ascending streams 20, thereby creating an auxiliary circulating threads 26 of the fluid medium passing through the chamber 25 for the selection of thermal energy. PI reservoir 27 in the chamber 25, and then heated with a heat of combustion in ascending streams 20. Since, as shown in Fig. 10, the overall heat transfer coefficient thermal collectors 27 varies considerably depending on the speed pseudoviruses gas, the number of selected heat can effectively be adjusted by varying the number pseudoviruses gas passing through the third diffuser plate 28.

In the combustion chambers shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, pseudoviruses gas is fed from a pipe 8 for discharging non-combustible material and mainly the fluidized bed no ruptures of this layer and thus creates a stable recirculating flow. In the combustion chambers shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, the lower edge of the auxiliary diffuser plates 3' are located vertically at a distance from the bottom edge adjacent the second diffuser plate 3, forming a vertical gap between the edges of the plates of the channel 8 for discharging non-combustible material. In the flow pseudoviruses gas fed up from the bottom of the furnace, there are no ruptures flow that enables the creation of a stable fluidized bed as well as in the combustion chamber shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.

Nna combustion chamber, made in accordance with the fifth embodiment of the implementation of the present invention. The combustion chamber, in accordance with the fifth option, similar to the chamber shown in Fig. 2, where the furnace has a round shape. In Fig. 7 shows a section VII-VII in Fig. 6. As shown in Fig. 5, 6 and 7, the first diffuser plate 2 has a conical surface with the center of the cone located above its circular peripheral edge. An annular auxiliary diffuser plate 3', four arc channel 8 for discharging non-combustible material and the second diffuser plate 3 are arranged concentrically around the first diffuser plate 2. Inclined surface of the ring plate 3 is steeper the slope of the inclined first surface of the Central plate 2. The inner peripheral edge of the second plate 3 is located below its outer peripheral edge, i.e., is formed an annular surface in the form of an inverted cone. The second diffuser chamber 5 formed under the second plate 3 has an annular shape.

As shown in Fig. 5, 6 and 7, between the four arc channels 8 for discharging radially there are four quarters of the diffuser plate 3". Each of the plates 3 has two inclined downwards surface, napravlenie plate 3 is adjusted so what speed pseudoviruses gas exceeds the minimum speed pseudoviruses gas approximately 4-12 times. Tilted down the surface of each plate 3" are used for areas of non-combustible material with a large specific gravity to the channels 8, thus preventing the deposition of non-combustible material on plate 3". Other structural elements and functions of the combustion chamber in accordance with the fifth embodiment of the invention, essentially the same as that of the combustion chamber in accordance with a second embodiment of the invention, and therefore will not be described in detail.

In Fig. 8 shows a rectangular dimitrieska projection of the bottom of the furnace combustion chamber made in accordance with the sixth embodiment of the present invention. The combustion chamber, in accordance with the sixth embodiment, similar to the combustion chamber shown in Fig. 2, where the furnace has a rectangular shape. As shown in Fig. 8, the first diffuser plate 2 has a rectangular shape and has a "roof" construction located at the center of the ridge 73'. The first diffuser plate 2, the auxiliary diffuser plate 3', 8 channels for Knogo ridge 73' and have a rectangular shape. It is shown in Fig. 8, the combustion chamber includes four diffuser plate 3 located perpendicular to the ridge 73' and along the edges of the channels 8 and having a surface inclined downwards towards the channels 8. Tilted down the surface of the wafer 3" are used for areas of non-combustible material with a large specific gravity to the channels 8, thus preventing the deposition of non-combustible material on these plates. Other structural elements and functions of the combustion chamber in accordance with a sixth alternative embodiment is essentially the same as that of the combustion chamber made in accordance with the second embodiment, shown in Fig. 2, and therefore will not be described in detail.

In Fig. 9 shows a rectangular dimitrieska projection of the bottom of the furnace combustion chamber made in accordance with the seventh embodiment of the present invention. The combustion chamber, in accordance with the seventh option, similar to the combustion chamber shown in Fig. 2, where the furnace has a rectangular shape and is essentially similar to the combustion chamber in accordance with the sixth embodiment shown in Fig. 8. In the combustion chamber, in accordance with the seventh embodiment, the x continuations of the inclined surfaces of the first diffuser plate 2, and also have an edge located adjacent to the side wall of the furnace and lying above continuations of the inclined surfaces of the first plate 2. Other structural elements and functions of the combustion chamber, in accordance with the seventh embodiment, essentially the same as that of the combustion chamber made in accordance with the second or the sixth variant embodiment, shown in Fig. 2 and 8, and therefore will not be described in detail.

Because the combustion chamber is carried out in accordance with the sixth and seventh variant of the implementation shown in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9, has a lower curved surfaces than the combustion chamber, in accordance with the other options in the embodiment, they can be relatively easily designed and processed and can be relatively inexpensive to manufacture.

In Fig. 10 shows a graph illustrating the relationship between the overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat collector and the speed pseudoviruses gas supplied from the third diffuser plate 28 into the combustion chamber in accordance with the present invention. As shown in Fig. 10, the overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat collector varies greatly depending on the phase in the cell for the selection of thermal energy is regulated within a specified range, full heat transfer coefficient of the heat collector may change and thereby be regulated the number of selected heat in a wide range.

The present invention provides the following advantages.

(1) In the combustion chamber creates the main circulating stream, including top-down and bottom-up flows of fluidized medium, and a combustible material loaded in the upper zone of the descending stream, is mixed with the main circulating stream and burns. In the combustion chamber can evenly be combusted combustible material, such as waste, even if their sizes, the content of non-combustible materials, and the proportion is different.

(2) Combustible material moves in the downward and upward flows, simultaneously burning and collapsing, and non-combustible material of a large specific gravity as a gradual separation from combustible material of the small specific weight through the selective action of pseudoviruses gas is directed along the inclined downwards surface of the first diffuser plate to the channel for discharge. In the channel for discharging non-combustible material decreases rapidly and is separated intensive selective exposure pseudoviruses gas and then ravnovesie non-combustible material defects in the supply pseudoviruses gas, combustion of combustible material and selection of thermal energy. Since the content of any combustible material in the remote non-combustible material is small, the latter can be easily processed.

(3) as part pseudoviruses gas is supplied from the channel for discharging or as a channel for discharging is open on the side, but not on top, so that the gas came from the entire surface of the furnace bottom to create thereby a stable circulating flow of the fluidized medium, it is possible to perform uniform combustion of combustible material and uniform operation of the combustion chamber and it is also possible to completely burn the combustible material or efficient to convert it into gas by regulating the amount of air to burn it.

(4) Because the camera on the selection of thermal energy is formed between the inclined wall and a side wall of the furnace, and the third diffuser plate having essentially the same slope, and the second diffuser plate, and also having a surface inclined downwards directed to the channel for discharging non-combustible material is located below the camera on the selection of thermal energy, non-combustible material in the camera smoothly and evenly sent to the channel for loading, and the selection tazmaniacs by regulating the rate of gas supply from a third diffuser plate, it is possible to easily regulate the amount of extracted heat energy.

Though there have been shown and described in detail certain preferred embodiments of the present invention, it is clear that it can be made various changes and made various modifications without deviating from the essence of the claims appended claims.

1. The combustion chamber fluidized bed for combustion of combustible material, including non-combustible material in a furnace with a fluidized bed containing gas diffuser device with multiple holes for filing pseudoviruses gas, located at the bottom of the furnace, a conduit for discharging non-combustible material, the channel for loading fuel into the furnace, wherein the gas diffuser device made in the form of two diffuser plates, the first of which is inclined downwards surface directed to the channel for discharging non-combustible material formed between the first and second diffuser plates this first diffuser plate installed with a possibility of pseudoviruses gas with the provision of fluidization of pseudoo the th environment, and the second diffuser plate installed with a possibility of pseudoviruses gas with the provision of fluidization fluidized medium at a relatively high velocity fluidization and create a rising flow of the fluidized medium, the channel for loading combustible material is located above the first diffuser plate, the diffuser plate is located diffuser chamber, forming a diffuser device connected to the power supply pseudoviruses gas through the specified channel for discharging non-combustible material in the furnace.

2. The combustion chamber under item 1, characterized in that it further comprises an auxiliary diffuser plate disposed between the first diffuser plate and a channel for discharging non-combustible material and having a number of holes for filing pseudoviruses gas with the provision of fluidization fluidized medium at a relatively high velocity of fluidization, while supporting the diffuser plate has a surface inclined downwards, passing between the lower edge of the first diffuser plate and a channel for discharging non-combustible material and having a steeper slope than the first diffuser plate.

4. The combustion chamber under item 3, characterized in that it contains the advanced camera for selection of thermal energy formed between the inclined wall and the side wall of the furnace and in communication with the Central area of the furnace above and below the inclined wall, the heat collector located in said camera, for selection of thermal energy from a fluid medium in the chamber and the third diffuser plate disposed between the second diffuser plate and the side wall of the furnace, passing adjacent to the outer edge of the second diffuser plate having multiple holes for filing pseudoviruses gas with a relatively low speed and tilted up to the surface, have the same slope, and the second diffuser plate, and mounted with a possibility of pseudoviruses gas with ensuring pseudoo is ergie.

5. The combustion chamber under item 1, characterized in that the bottom of the furnace and the first diffuser plate have a plan, essentially round shape, wherein the first diffuser plate has a conical shape and its Central part is located above its circular peripheral edge, and a multitude of curved channels for discharging non-combustible material located concentrically with respect to the first diffuser plate and the second diffuser plate having an annular shape that is concentric with respect to the first diffuser plate.

6. The combustion chamber under item 5, characterized in that it further comprises a fourth diffuser plate formed between adjacent channels for discharging non-combustible material and having two inclined downwards surface directed to the adjacent channels for discharging non-combustible material, respectively.

7. The combustion chamber fluidized bed for combustion of combustible material, including non-combustible material in a furnace with a fluidized bed containing gas diffuser device with multiple holes for filing pseudoviruses gas, located at the bottom of the furnace, a conduit for discharging non-combustible material, the channel for the network in the form of three diffuser plates the first of which is inclined downwards surface directed to the channel for discharging non-combustible material formed between the auxiliary diffuser plate and the second diffuser plate, the first plate is installed with a possibility of pseudoviruses gas with the provision of fluidization medium with relatively low velocity fluidization and create a downward flow of the fluidized medium, the auxiliary plate is inclined downwards surface located between the lower edge of the first plate and a channel for discharging non-combustible material and directed to the channel to unload, and this supporting plate is installed with a possibility of pseudoviruses gas with the provision of fluidization fluidized medium at a relatively high velocity of fluidization, tilted down the surface of the auxiliary plate has a slope that is steeper slope inclined downward to the surface of the first diffuser plate, while the lower edge of the auxiliary plate is essentially in line vertically with the adjacent edge of the second diffuser plate, while from him at a vertical distance, a channel for discharging non-combustible material and the adjacent edge of the second plate, the second diffuser plate installed with a possibility of pseudoviruses gas with the provision of fluidization fluidized medium at a relatively high velocity fluidization and create a rising flow of the fluidized medium and channel for loading combustible material in the furnace is located above the first diffuser plate.

8. The combustion chamber under item 7, characterized in that it further comprises an inclined wall which is located above the second diffuser plate, which serves for guiding pseudoviruses gas and fluid environment, moving up from the second plate to the Central zone of the furnace, and the second diffuser plate is tilted up to the surface, which gradually increases in the direction from the channel for discharging non-combustible material and supplies pseudoviruses gas in the direction from the channel for discharging non-combustible material with gradually increasing speed.

9. The combustion chamber under item 7 or 8, characterized in that it further comprises a camera for selection of thermal energy formed between the inclined wall and the side wall of the furnace and in communication with the Central area of the furnace above and below the inclined wall, the heat collector located in the part of the diffuser plate, located between the second diffuser plate and the side wall of the furnace, passing adjacent to the outer edge of the second diffuser plate having multiple holes for filing pseudoviruses gas with a relatively low speed and tilted up to the surface having the same inclination, and the second diffuser plate, and mounted with a possibility of pseudoviruses gas with the provision of fluidization fluid environment with relatively low speed of fluidization in the chamber for the selection of thermal energy.

10. The combustion chamber under item 7, characterized in that the bottom of the furnace and the first diffuser plate have a plan, essentially round shape, wherein the first diffuser plate has a conical shape and its Central part is located above its circular peripheral edge, a lot of arcuate channels for discharging non-combustible material located concentrically with respect to the first diffuser plate and the second diffuser plate of annular shape is located concentrically with respect to the first diffuser plate.

11. The combustion chamber under item 10, characterized in that it further comprises a fourth diffuser plate installed between the e to the adjacent channels for discharging non-combustible material, respectively.

 

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